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Cornell  University 
Library 


The  original  of  this  book  is  in 
the  Cornell  University  Library. 

There  are  no  known  copyright  restrictions  in 
the  United  States  on  the  use  of  the  text. 


http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924091890669 


3   1924  091    890  669 


THE 


CENTURY  DICTIONARY 


AND 


CYCLOPEDIA 


A  WORK  OF  UNIVERSAL  REFERENCE 
IN  ALL  DEPARTMENTS  OF  KNOWLEDGE 
WITH  A  NEW  ATLAS  OF  THE  WORLD 


IN  TEN  VOLUMES 
VOLUME  IX 


PUBLISHED  BY 

^Ift  Ccnturg  Co. 


•V  T  T-'^  1  r     \//-\  r\  1 7" 


Copyright,  1889, 1890,  1891,  1894,  1895,  1896,  1897,  1898,  1899,  1900,  1901,  1902,  1903,  1904, 

By  The  Century  Co. 


All  Rights  Besemed. 


PUBLISHERS'   NOTE   ON   THE   COMPLETED   WORK 

With  the  publication  of  the  Atlas  which  is  incorporated  in  the  present  edition  The  Century  Diction- 
ary and  Cyclopedia  was  brought  to  completion.  As  the  Cyclopedia  of  Names  grew  out  of  the  Dictionary 
and  supplemented  it  on  its  encyclopedic  side,  so  the  Atlas  grew  out  of  the  Cyclopedia,  and  serves  as  an 
extension  of  its  geographical  material.  Each  of  these  works  deals  with  a  different  part  of  the  great  field 
of  words, —  common  words  and  names, — while  the  three,  in  their  unity,  constitute  a  work  of  reference 
which  practically  covers  the  whole  of  that  field.  The  total  number  of  words  and  names  defined  or  other- 
wise described  in  the  completed  work  is  about  450,000. 

The  special  features  of  each  of  these  several  parts  of  the  book  are  described  in  the  Prefaces  which  will 
be  found  in  the  first,  ninth,  and  tenth  volumes.  It  need  only  be  said  that  the  definitions  of  the  common 
words  of  the  language  are  for  the  most  part  stated  encyclopedically,  with  a  vast  amount  of  technical, 
historical,  and  practical  information  in  addition  to  an  unrivaled  wealth  of  purely  philological  material; 
that  the  same  encyclopedic  method  is  applied  to  proper  names  —  names  of  persons,  places,  characters  in 
fiction,  books  — in  short,  of  everything  to  which  a  name  is  given;  and  that  in  the  Atlas  geographical 
names,  and  much  besides,  are  exhibited  with  a  completeness  and  serviceableness  seldom  equaled.  Of 
The,  Century  Dictionary  and  Cyclopedia  as  a  whole,  therefore,  it  may  be  said  that  it  is  in  its  own  field 
the  most  complete  presentation  of  human  knowledge  —  scientific,  historical,  and  practical  —  that  exists. 

Moreover,  the  method  of  distributing  this  encyclopedic  material  under  a  large  number  of  headings, 
which  has  been  followed  throughout,  makes  each  item  of  this  great  store  of  information  far  more  acces- 
sible than  in  works  in  which  a  different  system  is  adopted. 

The  first  edition  of  The  Century  Dictionary  was  completed  in  1891,  that  of  The  Century  Cyclopedia  of 
Names  in  1894,  and  that  of  the  Atlas  in  1897.  During  the  years  that  have  elapsed  since  those  dates  each 
of  these  works  has  been  subjected  to  repeated  careful  revisions,  in  order  to  include  the  latest  information, 
and  the  results  of  this  scrutiny  are  comprised  in  this  edition. 


THE  CENTURY 
CYCLOPEDIA  OF  NAMES 


A  PRONOUNCING  AND  ETYMOLOGICAL  DICTIONARY 
OF  NAMES  IN  GEOGRAPHY,  BIOGRAPHY 
MYTHOLOGY,  HISTORY,  ETHNOLOGY,  ART 
ARCHAEOLOGY,  FICTION,  ETC.,  ETC.,  ETC. 


EDITED   BY 

BENJAMIN  E.  SMITH,  A.M.,  L.  H.  D. 

MANAGING  EDITOR  OF  THE  CENTURY  DICTIONARY 
ASSISTED   BY   A   NUMBER  OF   EMINENT  SPECIALISTS 


PUBLISHED  BY 

CJe  Century  €o. 

NEW  YORK 


&.'}9erhO 


Copyright,  1889,  1890,  1891,  1895,  1896,  1897,  1899,  1900,  1901,  1902,  1903,  1904,  by  The  Century  Co. 

All  Rights  Reserved. 


The  DeVinne  Press. 


PREFACE. 


HIS  Cyclopedia  of  Names  is  an  ontgrowth  of  The  Centwry  Dictionary.  It  was  part  of  the 
plan  of  that  work  to  include  in  its  final  volume  a  somewhat  fuller  appendix  of  names 
of  persons  and  places  than  had  before  been  given  in  general  dictionaries ;  but  as  the  size 
of  the  book. increased,  it  became  9bvious  that  this  could  not  be  done  in  the  available  space, 
and  it  was  decided  to  place  the  appendix  in  a  separate  volume.  The  result,  with  many- 
modifications  of  the  original  scheme,  is  the  present  work.  It  is  entirely  independent  in  subject  and  use, 
yet  serves  as  a  supplement  to  the  dictionary  by  extending  the  name-list  into  regions  which  the  dictionary 
could  not  occupy,  and  by  enlarging  its  encyclopedic  field.  In  character  it  is  primarily  a  dictionary  of 
proper  names,  giving  their  orthography  and  pronunciation  and  such  explanation  of  them  as  is  necessary 
for  their  identification;  and,  secondarily,  a  condensed  encyclopedia  in  its  somewhat  fuller  treatment  of 
several  thousands  of  the  more  important  articles. 

The  range  of  names  to  be  included  was  practically  unrestricted,  since  the  object  sought  was  not  the 
presentation  of  any  special  class,  as  in  a  gazetteer  or  biographical  dictionary,  but  a  general  account  of  all  the 
names  excluded,  by  their  nature,  from  the  larger  work,  so  far  as  this  was  possible  within  j;he  prescribed  lim- 
its.    The  entries  thus  comprise  not  only  names  in  biography  and  geography,  but  also  names  of  races  and 
tribes,  mythological  and  legendary  persons  and  places,  characters  and  objects  in  fiction,  stars  and  constella- 
tions, notable  buildings  and  archseological  monuments,  works  of  art,  institutions  (academies,  universities, 
societies,  legislative  bodies,  orders,  clubs,  etc.),  historical  events  (wars,  battles,  treaties,  conventions,  etc.), 
sects,  parties,  noted  streets  and  squares,  books,  plays,  operas,  and  even  celebrated  gems,  vessels  (war-ships, 
yachts,  etc.),  and  horses.     Pseudonyms,  also,  which  have  literary  importance  are  included.     The  only  condi- 
tion of  insertion  has  been  that  the  name  should  be  one  about  which  information  would  be  likely  to  be  sought. 
All  these  various  groups  could  not,  of  course,  be  presented  with  equal  fuUness.     The  space  given  to 
persons  and  places  is  relatively  much  greater  than  that  devoted  to  any  other  class,  and  the  others  follow  in 
what  appeared  to  be  the  order  of  their  usefulness  to  the  general  reader,  whose  needs  have  everywhere  been 
considered  in  the  selection  of  the  names  to  be  defined.    Thus,  both  ancient  geography  and  modern  are  repre- 
sented, and  the  information  given  in  the  brief  space  allowed  to  the  separate  articles  is  historical  rather  than 
statistical.     The  list  of  geographical  names,  also,  includes,  besides  towns  which  are  notable  from  their  size, 
smaller  places  and  localities  which  are  important  historically,  or  as  visited  by  tourists,  or  for  other  reasons ; 
the  various  physical  and  political  divisions  of  the  earth ;  rivers,  lakes,  seas,  etc. ;  natural  curiosities ;  and 
various  imaginary  places  of  legend  and  fiction.    The  list  of  personal  names,  for  the  same  reason,  is  selected 
from  all  times,  and  not  only  from  actual  biography,  but  also  from  mythology,  legend,  and  fiction  (the  last 
chiefly  English).    In  the  matter  of  dates  the  usual  difi&culties,  due  to  different  styles  of  reckoning  and  to 
the  actual  diffQrences  (which  are  very  numerous)  among  the  best  authorities,  have  been  met  and,  it  is  hoped, 
to  a  considerable  degree  overcome.     In  English  biography  the  dates  given  in  the  "Dictionary  of  National 
Biography "  have,  as  a  rule,  been  adopted  so  far  as  its  volumes  were  available  (A  to  N) ;  and  full  acknow- 
ledgment is  "here  given  of  the  aid  received  in  this  and  in  other  ways  from  that  great  work.     In  the  brief 
bibliographies,  with  few  exceptions,  only  the  most  important  works  are  given,  and  these  often,  for  economy 
of  space,  with  abbreviated  titles. 


VI  PEEFACE, 

The  orthography  has,  in  general,  been  determined  by  the  established  usage  in  the  language  from  which 
the  name  is  taken.  The  correct  and,  as  a  rule,  the  only  current  spelling  of  a  place-name  is  the  local  one, 
and,  within  certain  limits,  of  a  personal  name  that  which  its  bearer  gives  it.  There  are,  however,  large 
groups  to  which  these  considerations  do  not  apply.  English  usage,  in  many  cases  of  foreign  names  which 
were  introduced  before  the  present  period  of  greater  exactness,  has  established  forms  which  differ  more  or 
less  from  the  present  or  original  native  form.  Familiar  instances  of  this,  in  place-names,  are  Munich  for  the 
German  Miinchen,  Flushing  for  the  Dutch  Vlissingen,  Hanover  for  the  Grerman  Hannover,  and  in  personal  names 
Horace,  Livy,  Pliny,  Augustine,  for  the  Latin  Horatius,  Livius,  Plinius,  Augustinus,  and  the  commonly  accepted 
Latinized  forms  of  Grreek  names,  as  Hercules  for  Heracles,  Plato  for  Platon,  etc.  In  these  cases  the  desire 
has  been  to  return  to  the  native  form  when  its  difference  from  the  Anglicized  spelling  is  comparatively  slight 
(as  in  Hannover) ;  but  in  other  cases  the  conventional  English  spelling  has,  as  a  rule,  been  accepted.  In  the 
case  of  Greek  names,  in  particular,  both  geographical  and  personal,  it  has  seemed  best  to  retain  the^  famil- 
iar forms  which  have  come  to  us  through  the  Latin,  and  to  transliterate  other  Greek  names,  not  recorded 
in  classical  Latin,  according  to  the  same  system.  No  transliteration  of  the  Greek  can  be  acceptable  which 
is  not  complete  and  consistent :  such  consistency,  however,  would  produce  many  forms  which  are  not  only 
without  support  in  English  usage,  but  are  also  open  to  the  charge  of  pedantry.  There  are  also  many  names 
in  regard  to  which  usage  differs  (there  being  in  fact,  as  a  rule,  no  proper  local  usage),  or  where  accepted  use 
may  properly  be  corrected  in  accordance  with  a  general  rule :  as,  for  example,  Hudson  Bay  for  Hudson's 
Bay.  Here  choice  has  been  made  of  the  simpler  or  the  corrected  spelling.  Lastly,  there  is  the  large  group 
of  names  taken  from  languages  which  do  not  employ  the  Eoman  alphabet,  or  are  without  any,  and  whose 
sounds  have  to  be  represented  by  some  method  of  transliteration.  Here  established  and  familiar  translit- 
erations have,  as  a  rule,  been  adopted ;  and  in  other  eases  the  simplest  available  forms,  according  to  the 
system,  for  the  languages  concerned,  used  in  I%e  Century  Dictionary.  So  far  as  was  possible  the  use  of 
"accented"  letters  in  transliteration  has  been  avoided,  the  employment  of  such  marks,  in  the  absence  of 
a  generally  accepted  scientific  system,  appearing  to  be  distinctly  undesirable,  especially  from  a  practical 
point  of  view. 

In  the  pronunciation  the  system  of  notation  employed  by  Professor  Whitney  in  The  Centwry  Dictionary 
has,  with  slight  modifications,  been  adopted.  The  marking  of  the  sounds  of  foreign  names  might  in  some 
cases  have  been  simplified  by  the  use  of  a  notation  based  upon  a  different  principle ;  but,  since  this  work 
was  designed  to  be  a  companion  to  the  dictionary,  it  was  desirable  to  avoid,  especially  in  this  particular,  dif- 
ference of  method.  Moreover,  the  "English"  notation  is  that  to  which  most  are  accustomed,  and  which  best 
enables  the  English  consulter  of  a  dictionary  to  reproduce  with  a  fair  degree  of  accuracy  the  sounds  indi- 
cated. In  any  case,  only  by  the  ear  can  one  know  the  exact  sounds  of  a  foreign  speech,  and  only  the  trained 
tongue  can  utter  them  with  precision.  This  is  particularly  true  of  personal  and  place  names,  which  often 
have  a  special  character  that  can  not  exactly  be  inferred  from  the  general  rules  or  usages  of  the  languages 
•concerned.  The  values  of  the  signs  used  are  given  in  the  key:  it  is  necessary  only  to  remark  that  the  natural 
tendency  of  an  English-speaker  to  shorten  or  slar  the  long  vowels  of  many  foreign  names  has  led  to  the  use 
of  the  long-vowel  signs,  to  insure  the  right  vowel  quality,  even  in  cases  where  the  actual  sound  is  shorter 
than  that  indicated  by  the  notation. 

No  attempt  has  been  made  systematically  to  etymologize  all  the  names  in  the  list :  but  etymological 
notes  have  been  inserted  under  many  of  the  historical  names  of  prime  interest,  especially  those  of  ancient 
English  origin,  and  in  many  other  cases  where  they  seemed  to  be  useful.  These  have  been  contributed  by 
Dr.  Charles  P.  G.  Scott,  with  additions  by  some .  of  the  other  specialists  in  their  several  departments  — 
Sanskrit,  Semitic,  American  Indian,  etc.  Dr.  Scott  has  also  aided  in  the  work  on  the  pronunciation,  and  has 
criticized  the  proofs. 

The  geographical  articles  have  been  prepared  by  Professor  Edmund  K.  Alden,  whose  work  has  been 
supplemented  in  Mexican  and  Central  and  South  American  geography  by  Mr.  Herbert  H.  Smith,  in  African 
geography  by  Mr.  Heli  Chatelain,  and  in  ancient  Oriental  geography  by  Dr.  Cyrus  Adler.  Professor  W.  R. 
Martin  has  contributed  the  articles  on  Indian  and  Persian  biography,  mythology,  and  literature ;  Colonel 
Garrick  Mallery,  those  on  North  American  Indian  tribes ;  Professor  Charles  A.  Young,  those  on  the  stars  • 


PREFACE. 


vu 


Professor  William  H.  Carpenter,  those  on  Teutonic  mythology,  ethnology,  and  legend ;  and  Miss  Katharine 
B.  Wood,  those  on  English  literature  and  characters  in  fiction.  Professor  Carpenter  has  also  written  bio- 
graphical articles  on  the  best-known  names  in  Grerman  and  Scandinavian  literature.  The  accounts  of  works 
of  art,  noted  buildings  (generally  under  place-names),  and  the  articles  on  classical  archaeology  were  written 
by  the  late  Mr.  Thomas  W.  Ludlow.  Biographical  notices  of  the  more  important  French  writers  have  been 
contributed  by  Dr.  B.  D.  Woodward.  Dr.  Adler  has  also  written  numerous  articles  on  Semitic  history  and 
antiquities ;  Mr.  H.  H.  Smith  has  had  charge  of  the  Mexican  and  South  American  biography  and  ethnology; 
and  Mr.  Ohatelain  has  written  on  African  ethnology,  and  has  read  the  proofs  especially  for  the  correction 
of  the  pronunciation.  Many  valuable  notes  on  the  ethnology  and  geography  of  the  southwestern  States 
and  northern  Mexico  were  received  from  Mr.  Adolph  Bandelier.  General  assistance  in  the  biographical 
and  historical  work  has  been  given  by  Dr.  M.  A.  Mikkelsen,  and  valuable  aid  in  the  criticism  of  manuscript 
and  proofs  by  Rev.  Q-eorge  M'Arthur.  Whatever  degree  of  typographical  accuracy  and  consistency  has 
been  attained  is  largely  due  to  the  proof-readers  of  The  De  Vinne  Press. 


BENJAMIN  E.  SMITH. 


September  1st,  1894. 


Advantage  was  taken  of  the  opportunity  offered  in  the  second  (1895)  edition  of  the  Cyclopedia  of 
Names  to  revise  with  care  all  its  more  important  details,  including  pronunciation,  dates,  historical  and 
geographical  statements,  etc.,  and  to  bring  its  statistical  material  down  to  date.  Assistance  in  this  labor 
was  received  from  most  of  the  contributors  mentioned  in  the  preface  to  the  first  edition,  and  from 
Mr.  Louis  Heilprin,  Professor  Angelo  Heilprin  of  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  at  Philadelphia,  Dr. 
Samuel  A.  Binion,  Mr.  F.  W.  Hodge  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology,  and  many  others.  In  its 
plan  and  the  selection  of  its  material  this  edition  was  practically  identical  with  the  first,  no  good  reason 
having  been  found  for  modifying  either  in  any  essential  particular:  room  was,  however,  made  for  the 
addition  of  a  number  of  contemporary  names,  the  peculiar  utility  of  this  part  of  the  work  having  been 
amply  demonstrated.    This  second  edition  has  been  followed  by  many  others,  each  of  which  has  embodied 

the  results  of  repeated  careful  revision. 

BENJAMIN  E.   SMITH. 


KEY  TO  PRONUNCIATION. 


as  in  fat,  man,  pang. 

as  in  fate,  mane,  dale. 

as  in  far,  father,  guard. 

as  in  tall,  talk. 

as  in  afik,  fast,  ant. 

as  in  fare. 

as  in  met,  pen,  bless. 

as  in  mete,  meet. 

as  in  her,  fern. 

as  in  pin,  it. 

as  in  pine,  fight,  file. 

as  in  not,  on,  frog. 

as  in  note,  poke,  floor. 

as  in  move,  spoon. 

as  in  nor,  song,  ofl. 

as  in  tub. 

as  in  mute,  acute. 

as  in  pull. 


ii    Qerman  ii,  French  u. 
oi  as  in  oil,  joint,  boy. 
ou  as  in  pound,  proud. 

A  single  dot  under  a  vowel  in  an  un- 
accented syllable  indicates  its  abbre- 
viation and  lightening,  without  abso- 
lute loss  of  its  distinctive  quality. 
Thus: 

^    as  in  prelate,  courage, 
f    as  in  ablegate,  episcopal. 
9    as  in  abrogate,  eulogy,  democrat, 
ij    as  in  singular,  education. 

A  double  dot  under  a  vowel  in  an 
unaccented  syllable  indicates  that, 
even  in  the  mouths  of  the  best  speak- 
ers, its  sound  is  variable  to,  and  in  or- 
dinary utterance  actually   becomes. 


the  short  «-sound  (of  but,  pun,  etc.). 

Thus: 

A    as  in  errant,  republican. 

g    as  in  prudent,  difference. 

i    as  in  charity,  density. 

o    as  in  valor,  actor,  idiot. 

^    as  in  Persia,  peninsula. 

g    as  in  t?ie  book. 

g    as  in  nature,  feature. 

A  mark  M  under  the  consonants 
t,  d,  »,  z  indicates  that  they  In  like 
manner  are  variable  to  cA,  .?',  sA,  zh. 
Thus: 

%     as  in  nature,  adventure. 
4    as  in  arduous,  education. 
g     as  in  pressure, 
z     as  in  seizure. 


y    as  in  yet. 

B    Spanish  b  (medial). 

th  as  in  German  ach,  Scotch  loch. 

O  afl  in  German  Abensberg,  Ham- 
burg. 

H  Spanish  g  before  e  and  i ;  Spanish 
j;  etc.  (a  guttural  h). 

fi    French  nasalizing  n,  as  in  ton,  en, 

S    final  B  in  Portuguese  (soft). 

th  as  in  thin. 

TH  as  in  then. 

D  =  TH. 

'  denotes  a  primary,  "  a  secondary 
accent.  (A  secondary  accent  is  not 
marked  if  at  its  regular  interval  of 
two  syllables  from  the  primary,  or 
from  another  secondary.) 


CENTURY 

ICYCLOPEDIA  OF 


NAMES 


[Lit.  '(the)  water,' 


'the  river 'j  one  of 


a  (9,). 
i.  e. 

the   forms,  siirviving  in 
river-names,   of   a   com- 
mon  Teut.  word,   Goth. 
ahwa,  OHG.  aha,  AS.  ed, 
etc.,  =  L.  aqua,  water: 
see  agua  and  ewe^,  C.  D.] 
A     river     in     northern 
France  which  flows  into 
the  North  Sea  between  Calais  and  Dunkirk. 
Aa.    A  river  in  the  province  of  North  Brabant, 
Netherlands,  which  unites  with  the  Dommel 
near  Herzogenbusch. 
Aa.    A  river  in  the   province  of  Grroningen, 

Netherlands,  which  flows  into  the  DoUart. 
Aa.    A  river  in  the  cantons  of  Lucerne  and 
Aargau,  Switzerland,  a  tributary  of  the  Aare. 
Aa.    A  river  in  the  canton  of  Unterwalden, 
Switzerland,  which  forms  the  outlet  of  Lake 
Sarnen  into  the  Lake  of  Lucerne. 
Aa.    A  river  in  the  canton  of  Unterwalden, 
Switzerland,  which  flows  into  the  Lake  of  Lu- 
cerne near  Buochs. 
Aa.    A  river  in  Courland,  emptying  by  one 
mouth  into  the  Grulf  of  Kiga,  and  by  another 
into  the  Diina. 
Aa.    A  river  in  Livonia,  about  175  miles  long, 

which  flows  into  the  Grulf  of  Biga. 

Aa  (a),  Peter  van  der.    A  Dutch  publisher 

and  engraver  who,  with  his  brothers,  formed  a 

publishing-house  at  Leyden  about  1682.    They 

edited  several  collections  of  travels  in  Dutch  and  French. 

Aach  (aoh).    A  small  town  in  Baden,  about  20 

miles  northwest  of  Constance,  the  scene  of  an 

engagement  between  the  French  and  the  Aus- 

trians,  March  25,  1799. 

Aachen  (a'ohen).     The  German  name  of  Aix- 

la-Chapelle. 
Aageson  (a'ge-son),  or  Aagesen  (-sen),  Svend. 
A  Scandinavian  writer  of  the  12th  century. 
His  "Compendiosa  historia  regum  Danise,"  from  King 
Skjold  to  Knud  VI.,  is  the  first  connected  history  of  Den- 
mark.   Little  is  known  of  his  life. 

Aah-hotep  (a-ho'tep).  [Egypt.,  'delight  of 
the  moon'  (Brugsch).]  An  Egyptian  queen, 
wife  of  Karnes,  last  king  of  the  17th  dynasty, 
and  mother  of  Aahmes,  first  king  of  the  18th 
dynasty.  Her  coffin  was  found  at  Thebes  in  1860,  in 
the  ancient  necropolis  of  No,  and  was  placed  in  the  Bulak 
Museum  (now  at  &izeh). 

Aahmes  (a'mes)  I.,  L.  Amasis  (a-ma'sis). 
[Egypt.,  'child  of  the  moon'  (Binigsch).]  An 
Egyptian  king,  the  founder  of  the  18th  dynasty 
and  the  conqueror  of  the  Hyksos.  He  lived  about 
1700  B.  0.  An  inscription  on  two  rook- tablets  at  Ttoah 
and  Massaarah,  commemorating  the  22d  year  of  his  reign, 
has  been  deciphered. 

Aahmes  II.,  L.  Amasis.  An  Egyptian  king 
(572-528  B.  c.  [Brugsch],  570-526  [Sayce]),  the 
fifth  of  the  26th  dynasty.  He  maintained  friendly 
relations  with  the  Greek  states,  sending  gifts  (548  B.  0.) 
lor  the  rebuilding  of  the  burnt  temple  at  Delphi,  and  es- 
tablishing at  Naacratis  Greek  commerce  and  settlement. 

Mr.  Petrie's  excavations  show  them  [Greeks]  to  have 
l>een  in  possession  of  the  city  [Naucratis]  from  a  much 
earlier  period— earlier,  perhaps,  than  the  dynasty  to 
■which  Amasis  belonged.  What  Amasis  actually  did  for 
the  Greeks  of  Naucratis  must,  therefore,  have  been  to  oon- 
flrm  them  in  their  occupation  of  that  site,  and  to  grant 
them  an  exclusive  charter  whereby  they  should  be  en- 
titled to  hold  it  in  perpetuity. 

A.  B.  Edwards,  Pharaohs,  Fellahs,  etc.,  p.  180. 

Aahmes,  An  Egyptian  captain  who  fought 
against  the  Hyksos  about  1700  b.  c.  An  impor- 
ta,nt  inscription  in  his  tomb  at  El-Kab,  near 
ancient  Thebes,  has  been  deciphered. 


Aahmes -Nefertari.    See  Nefertari. 

Aalborg  (S,l'b6rG).  A  seaport  in  the  amt  of 
Aalborg,  Denmark,  situated  on  the  Lijmfjord 
about  lat.  57°  3'  N.,  long.  9°  55'  E.  It  has  an 
important  foreign  commerce  and  fisheries. 
Population  (1890),  19,503. 

Aalborg.  A  stlf t  and  amt  of  Jutland,  Denmark. 

Aalen  (a'len).  A  town  in  the  Jagst  circle, 
Wtirtemberg,  situated  on  the  Kocher  about 
42  miles  east  of  Stuttgart :  an  ancient  free  im- 
perial city.     Population  (1890),  7,155. 

Aalesund  (ft'le-sbnd).  A  seaport  in  the  prov- 
ince of  Romsdal,  Norway,  on  islands  of  the 
western  coast,  about  lat.  62°  28'  N.  Popula- 
tion (1891),  8,383. 

Aali.    See  AM. 

Aalst.    See  Alost. 

Aalten  (al'ten).  A  small  town  in  the  province 
of  Gelderland,  Netherlands,  about  30  miles 
east  of  Amhem. 

Aar.    See  Aare. 

Aarau  (ar'ou).  The  capital  of  the  canton  of 
Aargau,  Switzerland,  situated  on  the  Aare  24 
miles  southeast  of  Basel  It  has  manufactures 
of  silk,  cotton,  instruments,  etc.  Population 
(1888),  6,809. 

Aarburg  (ar'bSro).  A  small  manufacturing 
town  in  the  canton  of  Aargau,  Switzerland, 
situated  on  the  Aare  about  22  miles  southeast 
of  Basel. 

Aare  (a're),  or  Aar  (ar).  A  river  in.  Switzer- 
land, rising  in  the  Bernese  Oberland  near  the 
Grimsel  Pass,  it  traverses  the  Hasli  Thai  and  forms 
the  Handeck  Fall,  traverses  the  lakes  of  Brienz  and  Thun, 
flows  through  Bern,  Solothurn,  and  Aargau,  and  joins  the 
Hhine  opposite  Waldshut.  Upon  it  are  Bern,  Solothurn, 
Aarau,  and  Brugg.  Its  length  is  about  170  miles,  and  it 
is  navigable  from  TTnterseen  for  small  craft. 

Aared  (a'red).  A  group  of  mountains  in  Nejd, 
central  Arabia.    Also  Ared,  Arid,  Aroudh. 

Aarestrup  (&' re -strop),  Oarl  Ludwig  Emil. 
Born  at  Copenhagen,  Dec.  4,  1800 ;  died  1856. 
A  Danish  lyric  poet,  author  of  "Digte"  (1838) 
and  "Efterladte  Digte"  (1863). 

Aargau  (ar'gou),  F.  Argovie  (ar-go-ve').  A 
canton  of  Switzerland,  capital  Aarau,  bounded 
by  Baden  on  the  north  (separated  by  the  Ehine), 
Ziirioh  and  Zug  on  the  east.  Lucerne  on  the 
south,  and  Basel,  Solothurn,  and  Bern  on  the 
west.  The  language  Is  German,  and  about  half  the 
population  is  Roman  Catholic.  It  is  one  of  the  most  fer- 
tile of  the  cantons,  has  an  important  trade  and  large 
manufactures,  especially  of  cotton,  and  sends  ten  mem- 
bers to  the  National  Council.  Its  area  is  542  square  miles, 
and  Its  population  (1888)  193,680.  In  the  13th  century  it 
came  under  the  influence  of  the  Hapsburgs,  was  annexed 
in  part  by  the  Swiss  confederates  in  1415,  became  a  canton 
in  1798,  and  assumed  its  present  form  in  1803. 

Aarhus,  or  Aarhuus  (ar'hSs).  The  capital  of 
the  amt  of  Aarhus,  Jutland,  Denmark,  on  the 
Cattegat.  it  is  the  largest  town  in  Jutland,  and  has 
important  commerce,  manufactures,  and  a  cathedral. 
The  bishopric  was  founded  by  Otto  I.  in  the  10th  century. 
Population  (1890),  33,306. 

Aarhus.    An  amt  and  stitt  in  Jutland,  Den- 

Aaro  (&r'e).  A  small  island  of  Schleswig, 
Prussia,  in  the  Little  Belt. 

Aaron  (ar'on  or  ar'on).  [Gr.  'Aap6v,  Heb. 
'Aharon.']  The  first  high  priest  of  the  Israel- 
ites, eldest  son  of  Amram  and  Jochebed,  of  the 
tribe  of  Levi,  and  brother  of  Moses  and  Mir- 
iam. He  died  on  Mount  Hor  at  the  age  of  123 
years. 

Aaron,  Saint.  A  British  martyr  who  was  put 
to  death  at  Newport,  Wales,  in  the  reign  of 
Diocletian. 


Aaron.  A  character  in  Shakspere's  (f)  "  Titus 
Andronious,"  a  Moor  of  unnatural  wickedness. 
Aaron's  confessions  of  his  villanies  (in  "  Titus  Androni- 
ous," v.  1)  will  recall  to  every  reader  the  conversation  be- 
tween Barabas  and  Ithamore  in  the  third  scene  of  the 
second  act  of  the  "Jew  of  Malta"  [of  Marlowe].  The 
character  of  Aaron  was  either  drawn  by  Marlowe  or  in 
close  imitation  of  him ;  and  it  seems  to  me  more  reasona- 
ble to  suppose  that  "  Titus  Andronicus  "  is  in  the  main  a 
crude  early  work  of  Marlowe's  than  that  any  imitator 
could  have  written  with  such  marked  power. 

BvMen,  Introd.  to  Marlowe's  Works,  p.  Ixxvii. 

Aaron  ben  Asher  (ar'on  ben  ash'fer).  Lived 
at  Tiberias  in  the  first  quarter  of  the  10th  cen- 
tury. A  Jewish  scholar,  probably  belonging 
to  the  Karaite  sect.  He  completed  the  Massorah,  i.  e. 
the  vowels  and  accents  which  make  up  the  traditional 
text  of  the  Hebrew  Bible.  His  contemporary  and  oppo- 
nent was  a  certain  Ben  Naftali.  When  these  authorities 
differ,  both  readings  are  given  in  the  rabbinical  Bibles. 

Aarssens  (ar'sens),  Frans  van.  Bom  1572 : 
died  1641.  A  Dutch  diplomatist,  one  of  the 
foremost  politicians  of  his  age,  guilty  of  pro- 
moting the  condemnation  of  Bameveldt  in 
1619.    His  memoirs  are  important. 

Aasen  (^'sen),  Ivar  Andreas.  Bom  at  Orsten, 
in  Norway,  Aug.  5, 1813 :  died  Sept.  23, 1896.  A 
Norwegian  philologist,  botanist,  and  poet:  au- 
thor of  "  Det  norske  Polkesprogs  Grammatik  " 
(1848),  "Ordbog  over  det  norske  Folkesprog  " 
(1850),  later  enlarged  andissued  under  the  title 
"  Norsk  Ordbog"  (1873),  and  other  works. 

Aasvaer  (S,s'var).  A  group  of  small  islands  on 
the  coast  of  Norway,  nearly  on  the  arctic  cir- 
cle, the  seat  of  important  herring-fisheries. 

Ab  (ab).  The  fifth  month  of  the  Hebrew  eccle- 
siastical and  the  eleventh  of  the  civil  year ;  July- 
August.  It  was  a  Babylonian  name,  adopted  by  the 
Jews  with  the  names  of  the  rest  of  the  months  after  the 
Babylonian  exile.    Its  etymology  is  uncertain. 

Ababdeh,  or  Ababde  _(a-bab'de).  An  African 
tribe,  of  Hamitic  (Beja)  race,  living  in  Upper 
Egypt  and  northern  Nubia,  east  of  the  Nile, 
about  lat.  20°-22°  N.  Their  number  is  estimated 
to  be  about  100,000. 

Ababde  (a-bab'de).  A  village  in  Egypt,  on  the 
Nile,  about  lat.  27°  50'  N.  It  is  near  the  site 
of  the  Eoman  city  Antinoe. 

Abaco  (a'ba-ko).  Great,  or  Lncaya  (lo-ka'ya). 
One  of  the  principal  islands  of  the  Bahama 
group,  West  Indies,  east  of  Great  Bahama. 
It  is  about  80  miles  long  and  20  wide. 

Abaco,  Little.  An  island  of  the  Bahamas, 
northwest  of  Great  Abaco. 

Abaddon  (a-bad'on).  [Heb.,  'destruction'; 
synonym  of  Sheol'  in  the  Old  Testament  (Job 
xxvi.  6  and  xxviii.  22,  Ps.  Ixxxviii.  12).]  1.  The 
destroyer  or  angel  of  the  bottomless  pit ;  Apol- 
lyon. Eev.  ix.  11. —  2.  The  place  of  destruction; 
the  depth  of  hell.  Talmud;  Milton,  P.  K.,  iv. 
624. 

Abadites.    See  AVbadides. 

Abad  y  Queypeo  (a'baTH  e  ka-pa'6),  Man'uel. 
Bom  in  the  Asturias  about  1770 :  died  in  1824. 
A  Spanish  ecclesiastic.  Most  of  his  life  was  spent 
in  Mexico,  and  in  1809  be  was  made  bishop  of  Micboacan. 
Driven  out  soon  after  by  the  revolutionists,  he  returned 
in  1813.  In  1820  he  was  deposed  and  sent  a  prisoner  to 
Spain  for  opposition  to  the  Inquisition.  Released  soon 
after,  he  became  a  member  of  the  government  junta  and 
bishop  of  Tortosa.  In  1823  he  was  again  imprisoned  by 
the  Inquisition,  and  died  in  confinement. 

Abse  (a'be),  or  Abai  (a'bi).  [Gr.  'a/3a(.]  In 
ancient  geography,  a  city  of  Phocis,  Greece, 
noted  for  its  temple  and  oracle  of  Apollo. 

Abafi  (o'bo-fe),  or  Apafi,  Michael.  Bom 
Sept.  25,  1632:  died  April  15,  1690.  A  prince 
of  Transylvania,  under  the  protection  of  the 


Abaffy 

Porte  until  1686  when  he  made  a  treaty  with 

the  emperor.  He  was  succeeded  by  his  son 
Michael  (born  Aug.  14,  1682 :  died  Feb.  11, 
1713). 

Abailard.    See  Abelard. 

Abakansk  (ab-a-kansk').  A  small  town  in 
the  government  of  Yeniseisk,  Siberia,  near 
the  Yenisei,  north  of  Minusinsk,  noted  for  the 
tumuli  and  hieroglyphic  statues  in  its  neigh- 
borhood. 

Abaliget  (ob'o-le-get).  A  village  near  Fiinf- 
kirohen,  county  of  Baranya,  Hungary,  noted 
for  its  large  stalactite  cave  (about  3,000  feet  in 
length). 

Abalus  (ab'a-lus).  An  island  abounding  with 
amber,  said'(b5rPytheas)  to  be  in  the  Northern 
Ocean,  and  variously  identified :  probably  a 
part  of  the  Prussian  Baltic  coast.  , 

Abamonti  (a-ba-mon'te),  or  Albamonte  (al- 
ba-mon'te),  Giuseppe.  Born  about  1759 :  died 
Aug.  8,  1818.  A  Neapolitan  statesman,  sec- 
retary-general under  the  Cisalpine  Republic, 
1798,  and  member  of  the  executive  committee 
at  Naples.  On  the  restoration  of  the  monarchy  in 
1799  he  was  arrested  and  condemned  to  be  hung,  but 
was  amnestied  and  returned  to  Milan,  where  he  again 
acted  as  secretary-general  until  1805  wlien  he  returned  to 
Naples, 

Abana  (ab'a-na).  In  ancient  geography,  a 
small  river,  the  modem  Barada,  which  flows 
through  the  plain  and  city  of  Damascus  and  is 
lost  in  the  desert.    Also  Amana. 

Abancay  (a-san-M').  A  town  in  the  depart- 
ment of  Apiirimac,  Peru,  about  110  miles  south- 
west of  Cuzco,  noted  for  its  sugar-refineries. 
Population,  3,000. 

Abancay  Biver.  A  small  river  of  Peru,  an 
affluent  of  the  Apurimac,  west  of  Cuzco,  and 
crossed  by  the  road  to  Lima,  it  was  a  military 
point  of  great  importance  in  the  civil  wars  of  the  16th 
century.  Here  Alonso  de  Alvarado  was  defeated  by  the 
elder  Almagro,  and  with  his  whole  army  captured,  July 
12,  1537.  Near  the  same  place  Giron  defeated  Alonso  de 
Alvarado,  May  21,  1654. 

Abano  (a'ba-no).  A  town  in  the  province  of 
Padua,  Italy,  about  6  miles  southwest  of  Padua, 
noted  for  its  hot  springs  (the  ancient  Aqase 
Patavinse  or  Aponus  (Aponi)  fons).  It  is  the  re- 
puted birthplace  of  the  historian  Livy.  Popu- 
lation, about  3,000. 

Abano,  Pietro  d'  (Petrus  Aponus  or  de  Apo- 
no).  Born  at  Abano,  Italy,  1250  (1246  ?) :  died 
at  Padua,  1316  (1820?).  An  Italian  physician 
and  philosopher,  denounced  by  the  Inquisition 
as  a  magician.  He  wrote  "  Conciliator  diflerentiarum 
quae  inter  philosophos  et  medicos  versantur"  (printed 
1472),  *'  De  venenis  eorumque  remediis  "  (printed  1472),  etc. 

Abarbanel.    See  Abrabanel. 

Abarim  (ab'a-rim).  A  mountainous  region  or 
lofty  table-land  in  Palestine,  east  of  the  Dead 
Sea,  containing  Pisgah  and  Nebo. 

AbariS  (ab'a-ris).  [Gr.  "Apapic.'i  A  mythical 
Greek  sage,  surnamed  "  The  Hyperborean,"  as- 
signed to  the  6th  or  7th  century  B.  c. 

[Abaris]  was  said  to  have  received  from  Apollo,  whose 
priest  he  had  been  in  his  own  country,  a  magic  arrow, 
upon  which  he  could  cross  streams,  lakes,  swamps,  and 
mountains.  This  arrow  he  gave  to  Pythagoras,  who  in 
return  taught  him  his  philosophy.  Oracles  and  charms 
under  his  name  appear  to  have  passed  current  among  the 
Greeks.  According  to  Pindar  he  came  into  Greece  in  the 
reign  of  CJrcesuB.  Eusebius  places  him  a  little  earlier. 
Probably  he  was,  like  Anacharsis,  a  Scythian  who  wished 
to  make  himself  acquainted  with  Greek  customs.  [It  has 
been  conjectured  that  the  arrow  of  Abaris  is  a  mythical 
tradition  of  the  magnet,  but  it  is  hardly  possible  that  if 
the  polarity  of  the  needle  had  been  known  it  should  not 
have  been  more  distinctly  noticed. — H.  C.  K.] 

Sawlinson,  Herod.,  III.  29,  note. 

Abasalo  (a-ba-sa'lo),  Mariano.  Born  in  Do- 
lores, Mexico,  1783 :  died  at  Cadiz,  Spain,  1819. 
A  soldier  in  the  Spanish  army  who  joined  the 
revolutionary  movement  of  Hidalgo  in  1810, 
and  was  named  lieutenant-general  of  the  in- 
surgents. He  was  captured  and  sent  a  pris- 
oner to  Spain,  where  he  died  in  confinement. 

Abascal  y  Sousa  (a-Bas-kar  e  so'sa),  Jos6 
Fernando.  Born  in  Oviedo,  Asturias,  June 
3, 1743 :  died  in  Madrid,  June  30, 1821.  A  Span- 
ish general  and  statesman,  viceroy  of  Peru 
1806-16.  He  was  created  Marquis  de  la  Concordia 
Espanola  del  Peru  (decree  of  May  20, 1812),  and  on  his  re- 
turn to  Spain  was  made  captain-general. 

Abasgi  (a-bas'ji),  or  Abasci  (a-bas'i),  or 
Abasges  (a-bas'jez).  [Gr.  'A^axryol,  'A^aaKol.'] 
A  Scythian  people  anciently  inhabiting  a  small 
region  in  the  Caucasus,-  on  the  shore  of  the 
Black  Sea,  north  of  Colchis. 

Abasgia  (a-bas'ji-a).  The  region  occupied  by 
the  Abasgi ;  the  modern  Abkhasia. 

Abassides.    See  Abbassides. 

Abate.    See  Abbate. 


Abauzit  (a-bo-ze'),  Firmin.  Born  at  TJzhs, 
Gard,  France,  Nov.  11,  1679 :  died  at  Geneva, 
March  20,  1767.  A  French  philosopher  and 
mathematician,  a  friend  of  Newton,  Eousseau, 
and  Voltaire.  His  name  was  used  as  a  pseudo- 
nym by  Voltaire. 

Abayi  (a-ba-ye').  [Heb., 'my  father.']  Bom 
about  280  A.  D.:  died  338.  A  distinguished 
Hebrew  scholar,  surnamed ' '  Naehmani."  He  was 
director  of  a  celebrated  Jewish  academy  at  Pumbeditha 
in  Babylonia,  333-338,  and  was  held  in  high  esteem  for 
Mb  learning  and  upright  character. 
Abb  (ab).  A  town  80  miles  east  of  Mocha. 
Abbadides(ab'a-didz),orAbadites(ab'a-dits). 
A  Moorish  dynasty  of  Seville.  It  was  founded 
in  1023  by  Abul-Kasim,  cadi  of  Seville,  and 
lasted  till  the  capture  of  the  city  by  the  Almo- 
ravides  in  1091. 

Abbadie  (a-ba-de'),  Antoine  Thomson  d*. 
Born  at  Dublin,  Ireland,  Jan.  3, 1810 :  died  at 
Paris,  March  20,  1897.  A  French  traveler  (in 
company  with  his  brother)  in  Abyssinia  and 
the  GaUa  country  (1837-48).  He  published  "G^o- 
d^sie  d'une  partie  de  la  Haute-ilthiopie  "  (1860-73),  "  Dio- 
tionnaire  de  la  laugue  amarinna  "  (1881),  etc. 

Abbadie,  Arnaud  Michel  d".  Bom  at  Dub- 
lin, July  24, 1815 :  died  1893.  A  French  traveler 
in  Abyssinia  and  the  Galla  country,  brother  and 
companion  of  A.  T .  Abbadie ;  author  of  "  Douze 
ans  dans  la  Haute-fithiopie"  (1868),  etc. 

Abbadie,  James  (Jacques).  Bom  at  Nay, 
Basses-Pyr6n6es,  probably  in  1654  (1657  and 
1658  are  also  given) :  died  at  London,  Sept.  25, 
1727.  A  noted  French  Protestant  theologian. 
He  went  to  Berlin  about  1680  as  minister  of  the  French 
church  there,  and  thence  to  England  and  Ireland ;  was 
for  a  time  minister  of  the  French  church  in  the  Savoy ; 
and  settled  in  Ireland  as  dean  of  KiUaloe  in  1699.  His 
chief  work  Is  the  "Traits  de  la  v^rit^  de  la  religion 
chrrtienne  "  (1684),  with  its  continuation, ' '  Traits  de  la  di- 
vinity de  notre  Seigneur  J6sus-Christ "  (1689). 

Abba  Jared  (ab'ba  ya'red).  A  mountain  in 
northern  Abyssinia,  northeast  of  Gondar,  14,714 
feet  in  height. 

Abbas  (ab'bas).  Bora  about  566:  died  652. 
Abul  Fadl  al  Hasimi,  uncle  of  Mohammed, 
and  founder  of  the  famUy  of  the  Abbassides. 

Abbas  I.,  "The.  Great."  Born  1557:  died  at 
Kaswin,  Persia,  Jan.  27, 1628.  A  famous  shah 
of  Persia,  who  reigned  1586-1628.  He  defeated 
the  Turks  at  Basra  in  1606,  conquered  Khorasan,  Kan- 
dahar, etc.,  and  consolidated  the  Persian  monarchy. 

Abbas  II.  Hilmi.  Born  July  14,  1874. .  Khe- 
dive of  Egypt,  eldest  son  of  Tewfik  Pasha.  He 
succeeded  his  father  Jan.  7,  1892. 

Abbas  Pasha.  Born  at  Jiddah,  Arabia,  1813: 
died  July  13,  1854.  A  grandson  of  Mehemet 
Ali,  viceroy  of  Egypt  1848-54. 

Abbas  Mirza  (ab'bas  mer'za).  Bom  about 
1783:  died  at  Mashhad,  Persia,  Dec,  1833. 
A  prince  of  Persia,  younger  son  of  the  shah 
Feth-Ali  (Fath-'Ali),  noted  as  a  commander 
in  the  wars  against  Russia,  1811-13  and  1826-28. 
By  the  first  war  Persia  lost  its  remaining  possessions 
in  the  Caucasus,  and  was  compelled  to  acknowledge  the 
flag  of  Eussia  on  the  Caspian,  and  by  the  second  it  lost 
Armenia.  The  succession  of  Abbas  to  the  throne  was 
guaranteed  in  the  treaty  of  1828. 

Abbassides  (a-bas'idz  or  ab'a-sidz).  The  califs 
of  Bagdad,  750-1258.  They  claimed  descent  from 
Abbas,  the  uncle  of  Mohammed,  and  succeeded  the  Om- 
miad  califs  of  Damascus  upon  the  defeat  of  the  calif  Mar- 
wan  by  Abul  Abbas  near  the  Zab  in  750.  Almansur  suc- 
ceeded Abul  Abbas  and  made  Bagdad  the  capital  of  the 
calif  ate.  The  most  famous  calif  of  this  family  was  Harun- 
al-Bashid,  786-809.  Prom  1268  to  1517  the  Abbassides 
were  nominal  califs  of  Egypt.  The  last  Abbasside,  Muta- 
wakkal  III.,  died  in  Cairo  in  1638.    Also  Abbaseids. 

Abbate,  or  Abate  (a-ba'te),  Niccolo  dell'. 

Born  at  Modena,  Italy,  1512:  died  in  Prance, 
1571.  An  Italian  painter.  He  assisted  in  dec- 
orating the  palace  at  Pontainebleau.  His  best 
works  are  at  Modena  and  Bologna. 

AbbatUCCi  (a-ba-tii'se  ;  It.  a-ba-to'che), 
Oharles.  Bom  1771:  killed  in  battle,  Dec.  2, 
1796.  A  French  general,  son  of  J.  P.  Abbatueci, 
distinguished  in  the  campaigns  of  the  Army  of 
the  Rhine_,  1794^96. 

Abbatucci,  Jacques  Pierre.  Bom  1726:  died 
1812.  A  Corsican  partizan  commander,  an  an- 
tagonist of  Paoli  and  later  a  division  general 
in  the  French  service  in  Italy. 

Abbatucci,  Jacques  Pierre  Charles.  Bom 
1791:  died  1857.  A  French  jurist  and  politi- 
cian, grandson  of  J.  P.  Abbatucci,  and  minis- 
ter of  justice  under  Napoleon  III. 

Abbaye  (a-ba'),  1'.  A  French  military  prison 
at  St.-Germain-des-Pr6s,  Paris,  built  in  1522 
and  destroyed  in  1854.  it  was  the  scene  of  the  mur- 
der of  164  prisoners  by  the  revolutionists  under  Maillard 
in  September,  1792.    See  September  moKaere. 

Abbe  (ab'i),  Cleveland.  Born  at  New  York, 
Dec.  3,  1838.    An  American  astronomer  and 


Abbot,  Robert 

meteorologist,  appointed  director  of  the  Cincin- 
nati Observatory  in  1868,  and  meteorologist  of 
the  Weather  Bureau  in  1871. 

Abbeokuta.    See  Abeokuta. 

Abberville  (ab'6r-vil).  Lord.  The  principal 
character  in  Cumberland's  play  "The  Fash 
ionable  Lover." 

Abbeville  (ab-vel')-  A  town  in  the  depart- 
ment of  Somme,  France,  situated  on  the 
Somme  25  miles  northwest  of  Amiens:  the 
ancient  capital  of  Ponthieu,  and  a  place  of 

fathering  in  the  first  and  second  Crusades,  it 
as  important  manufactures  of  cloth,  etc.,  and  a  consid- 
erable trade.  Its  most  interesting  building  is  the  church 
of  St.  Wulfrara,  begun  in  1488,  one  of  the  richest  existing 
examples  of  the  flamboyant  stjrle.  The  gravels  of  Abbe, 
ville  have  yielded  fossil  remains  of  the  mammoth  and 
rhinoceros  associated  with  implements  of  prehistoric  man 
dating  from  a  time  when  the  Somme  flowed  300  feet  above 
its  present  level.    Population  (1891),  19,851. 

Abbeville,  Claude  d'.    See  Claude  d'Abbeville. 

Abbeville,  Treaty  of.  A  treaty  concluded 
in  1259  by  which  Henry  IH.  of  England  re- 
nounced his  claims  to  Anjou,  Poitou,  Nor- 
mandy, Touraine,  and  Maine,  in  favor  of 
Louis  IX.  of  France,  and  held  Guienne  as  a 
fief  of  France. 

Abbey  (ab'i),  Edwin  Austin.  Bom  at  Phila- 
delphia, April  1,  1852.  An  American  painter 
and  illustrator.  He  executed  a  series  of  mural  paint- 
ings (the  Holy  Grail)  for  the  Boston  Public  Library. 

Abbiategrasso  (ab-be-a-te-gras's6).  A  town 
in  the  province  of  Milan,  15  miles  southwest 
of  Milan.     Population  (1881),  5,258. 

Abbitibbe  (ab-i-tib'e).  Lake.  A  lake  in  Can- 
ada, south  of  James  Bay,  about  lat.  49°  N. 
Also  Abbitibbi. 

Abbitibbe  River.  The  outlet  of  Lake  Abbi- 
tibbe, flowing  into  James  Bay,  in  Hudson  Bay. 

Abbon  (a-b6n'),  L-  Abbo  (ab'o),  surnamed 
Oernuus  ('The  Crooked').  Died  923.  A  monk 
of  St.-Germain-des-Pr6s,  author  of  a  Latin 
poem  upon  the  siege  of  Paris  by  the  Normans. 

Abbon  of  Fleury,  L.  Abbo  Floriacensis. 
Bom  near  Orleans,  France,  945 :  died  Nov.  13, 
1004.  A  French  theologian  and  diplomatist, 
author  of  an  "Epitome  de  vitis  Romanorum 
Pontificum,  desinens  in  Gregorio  I."  (printed 
1602),  and  other  works. 

Abbot  (ab'ot),  Charles.  Bom  at  Abingdon, 
Berkshire,  Oct.  14,  1757 :  died  May  7,  1829.  An 
English  politician,  speaker  of  the  House  of 
Commons  1802-16,  created  Baron  Colchester 
in  1816.  He  was  chief  secretarjr  and  privy  seal 
for  Ireland  in  the  Addington  ministry  (1801). 

Abbot,  Ezra.  Born  at  Jackson,  Maine,  April 
28,  1819:  died  at  Cambridge,  Mass.,  March  21, 
1884.  An  American  biblical  scholar.  He  was 
professor  of  New  Testament  criticism  and  interpretation 
at  Harvard  University,  1872-84,  one  of  the  editors  of  the 
American  edition  of  Smith's  "Bible  Dictionary,"  and  a 
member  of  the  American  committee  for  New  Testament 
revision.  He  published  "  Literature  of  the  Doctrine  of  a 
Future  Life"  (1864),  "The  Authorship  of  the  Fourth 
Gospel "  (1880),  and  other  works. 

Abbot,  Francis  EUingwood.  Bom  at  Boston, 
Mass.,  1836.  An  American  philosophical  writer, 
editor  of  "The  Index"  (a  journal  of  free 
thought)  1870-80,  and  author  of  "Scientific 
Theism"  (1886),  "  The  "Way  out  of  Agnosti- 
cism" (1890),  etc. 

Abbot,  George.  Bom  at  Guildford,  Surrey, 
Oct.  29,  1562:  died  at  Croydon,  Aug.  4,  1633. 
An  English  prelate,  appointed  archbishop  of 
Canterbury  in  Feb.,  1611.  He  was  graduated  at 
Oxford  (Balliol  College),  where  he  was  tutor  until  1598, 
and  became  master  of  University  College  in  1597,  dean  of 
Winchester  in  1600,  vice-chancellor  of  Oxford  University 
in  1600  (and  again  in  1603  and  1605),  bishop  of  Coventry 
and  Lichfleld  in  May,  1609,  and  bishop  of  London  in  Feb., 
1610.  He  was  a  firm  Protestant,  and  was  influential  in 
state  affairs  during  the  reign  of  James  I.  He  was  one  of 
the  translators  of  the  New  Testament  in  tlie  King  James 
version. 

Abbot,  George.  Born  at  Easington,  York- 
shire, England,  1604-  died  Feb.  2,  1648.  An 
English  religious  writer  and  member  of  the 
Long  Parliament,  surnamed  "The  Puritan": 
author  of  the  "Whole  Book  of  Job  Para- 
phrased" (1640),  and  "  Vindiciro  Sabbathi" 
(1641). 

Abbot,  Sir  Maurice  or  Morris.  Bom  at 
Guildford,  Surrey,  1565:  died  at  London,  Jan. 
10,  1642.  A  merchant  and  lord  mayor  of  Lon- 
don, knighted  on  the  accession  of  Charles  I., 
1625.  He  was  one  of  the  original  directors  of  the  East 
India  Company  and  its  governor  (1624),  rendering  It  most 
important  services.  He  was  elected  to  Parliament  in  1621, 
and  in  1624  became  a  member  of  the  council  for  establish- 
ing the  colony  of  Virginia. 

Abbot,  Robert.  Bom  at  Guildford,  Surrey, 
about  1560:  died  March  2,  1618.  An  Eng- 
lish prelate,  bishop  of  Salisbury  (1615)^  elder 


Abbot,  Bobert 

brother  of  George  Abbot,  archbishop  of  Can- 
terbury: author  of  "Mirror  of  Popish  Subtle- 
ties" (1594),  and  other  -works. 

Abbot,  Robert.  Bom  about  1588 :  died  about 
1660.  An  English  Puritan  divine,  author  of 
"  Triall  of  our  Chureh-Porsakers  "  (1639),  and 
other  works. 

Abbot,  Samuel.  Bom  at  Andover,  Mass., 
Feb.  25,  1732:  died  April  12,  1812.  A  Boston 
merchant  and  philanthropist ;  one  of  the  foun- 
ders of  the  Andover  Theological  Seminary. 

Abbot,  The.  A  novel  by  Sir  Walter  Scott, 
published  in  1820,  founded  upon  incidents  in 
the  history  of  Mary  Queen  of  Scots,  from  her 
imprisonment  in  Loohleven  to  her  flight  into 
England  after  the  battle  of  Langside :  sequel 
to  "  The  Monastery." 

Abbotsford  (ab'ots-ford).  The  residence  of 
Sir  Walter  Scott,  on  the  Tweed  about  3  miles 
above  Melrose.  The  place  was  acquired  by  him  in 
1811,  and  he  removed  there  in  1812.  It  was  originally  a 
farm  in  front  of  which  was  a  pond  from  which  the  place 
had  received  the  name  of  Clarty  ('filthy')  Hole.  Scott 
renamed  it  from  the  adjoining  ford.  The  land  had  be- 
longed to  the  Abbey  of  Melrose.  Upon  it  Scott  built  a 
small  villa,  to  which  in  1817  he  began  to  add,  producing 
in  the  end  a  large  castellated  and  gabled  mansion  of 
which  the  interior  is  finished  in  late  medieval  style. 

Abbott  (ab'ot),  Austin.  Bom  at  Boston,  Deo. 
18,  1881:  died  April  19,  1896.  An  American 
lawyer  and  legal  writer,  son  of  Jacob  Abbott. 
He  was  appointed  dean  of  the  faculty  of  law  of  the  tTni- 
versity  of  Uie  City  of  New  Yorlf  in  1891,  and  Is  the  author 
of  "New  Cases,  Kainly  New  York  Decisions  "  (1877-86), 
"Legal  Semembrancer"  (1887),  a  series  of  digests  of  New 
York  statutes  and  reports  of  United  States  courts,  etc. 

Abbott,  Benjamin  Vaughan.  Bom  at  Bos- 
ton, June  4,  1830 :  died  in  Brooklyn,  Feb.  17, 
1890.  An  American  lawyer  and  legal  writer, 
eldest  son  of  Jacob  Abbott.  He  was  the  author  of 
a  digest  of  New  York  statutes  and  reports  (1863),  a  digest 
of  United  States  court  reports  and  acts  of  Congress  (1867- 
1875),  "A  Treatise  on  the  Courts  of  the  United  States  and 
their  Practice  "  (1877),  "  A  Dictionary  of  Terms  in  Amer- 
ican and  English  Jurisprudence  "  (1879),  etc. 

Abbott,  Charles.  Bom  at  Canterbury,  Eng- 
land, Oct.  7, 1762:  died  Nov.  4,  1832.  A  noted 
English  jurist,  the  son  of  a  Canterbury  barber, 
appointed  chief  justice  Nov.  4, 1818,  and  created 
Baron  Tenterden  of  Heudon,  April,  1827.  He 
was  the  author  of  a  treatise  on  the  *'  Law  Relative  to 
Merchant  Ships  and  Seamen  "  (1802),  still  an  authority  on 
mercantile  law. 

Abbott,  Edwin  Abbott.  Born  at  London, 
1838.  An  English  clergyman  and  educator,  a 
graduate  and  fellow  of  St.  John's  College,  Cam- 
bridge, appointed  head-master  of  the  (5ity  of 
London  School  in  1865.  Heistheauthorof"  A  Shake- 
spearean Grammar"  (1869),  "Francis  Bacon"  (1885),  and 
various  educational  and  religious  works. 

Abbott,  Emma.  Bom  at  Chicago  about  1850 : 
died  at  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah,  Jan.  5,  1891.  An 
American  soprano,  successful  both  in  Europe 
and  America  as  an  operatic  singer.  She  mar- 
ried Eugene  Wetherell. 

Abbott,  Evelyn.  Bom  1843 :  died  1901.  Am 
English  scholar,  a  graduate  and  fellow  of  Bal- 
liol  College,  Oxford,  and  classical  tutor  and 
librarian,  the  author  of  various  works  on  clas- 
sical philology  and  of  a  history  of  (Jreece. 

Abbott,  Jacob.  Born  at  HaUowell,  Maine, 
Nov.  14, 1803:  died  at  Parmington,  Maine,  Oct. 
31, 1879.  An  American  Congregational  clergy- 
man, and  a  voluminous  writer  of  juvenile 
works.  He  was  graduated  at  Bowdoin  College  in  1820, 
studied  at  Andover  Theological  Seminary,  and  was  pro- 
fessor of  mathematics  and  natural  philosophy  at  Amherst 
College  1825-29.  His  best-known  works  are  "  The  KoUo 
Books,"  "Young  Christian"  series,  "Lucy  Books,"  "Sci- 
ence for  the  Young,"  etc. 

Abbott,  John  Stevens  Oabot.  Born  at  Bruns- 
wick, Maine,  Sept.  18, 1805 :  died  at  Fair  Haven, 
Conn.,  June  17,  1877.  An  American  Congrega- 
tional clergyman  (pastor  successively  at  Wor- 
cester, Eoxbury,  and  Nantucket,  Mass.)  and 
historical  writer,  brother  of  Jacob  Abbott.  He 
was  the  author  of  a  "History  of  Napoleon  Bonaparte,"  a 
"History  of  the  Civil  War  in  America,"  a  "History  of 
Frederick  the  Second,"  "  The  Mother  at  Home,"  "  The 
Child  at  Home,"  etc. 

Abbott,  Josiah  Gardner.  Bom  at  Chelmsford, 
Mass.,  Nov.  1,  1815 :  died  at  WeUesley  Hills, 
Mass.,  June  2,  1891.  A  jurist  and  politician. 
He  was  judge  of  the  Superior  Court  of  Massachusetts  for 
Suffolk  County  1865-69,  Democratic  member  of  Congress 
from  that  State  1876-77,  and  member  of  the  Electoral  Com- 
mission in  1877.  He  was  twice  (1876, 1877)  the  unsuccess- 
ful Democratic  candidate  for  U.  S.  senator,  and  once  (1878) 
for  governor. 

Abbott,  Lyman.  Born  at  Eoxbury,  Mass.,  Dec. 
18, 1835.  A  Congregational  clergyman,  author, 
and  journalist,  a  son  of  Jacob  Abbott.  He  has 
been  the  editor-in-chief  of  the  "  Christian  Union  "  (changed 
to  "The  Outlook"  in  1893)  since  1881,  and  was  pastor  of 
Plymouth  Church,  Brooklyn,  from  1888  to  1899.    He  ori- 


ginally studied  law,  but  abandoned  that  profession  for 
the  ministry  in  1860. 

A.  B.  C,  An.  A  poem  by  Chaucer,  a  prayer 
to  the  Virgin  Mary,  it  is  a  loose  translation  from  a 
work  of  Guillaume  de  Deguileville,  a  Cistercian  monk  who 
died  about  1860.  Each  stanza  begins  with  a  different  let- 
ter of  the  alphabet,  arranged  in  order  from  A  to  Z. 

Abda  (ab'da),  or  Abdas  (ab-das').  Said  by 
Theophanes  (Chronogr.  sub  an.  405)  to  have 
been  bishop  of  Susa,  and  called  by  Socrates 
bishop  of  Persia.  He  is  said  to  have  aided  Maruthas 
in  driving  a  demon  out  of  Yezdigerd,  king  of  Persia. 
Theodoret  relates  that  his  zeal  led  him  to  destroy  a  flre- 
temple,  which  roused  a  persecution  against  the  Chris- 
tians to  which  he  fell  a  victim. 

Abdalla  (ab-dal'a).  The  Mufti,  a  character  in 
Dryden's  tragedy  "Don  Sebastian." 

Abaallah  (abd-al'ah),  or  Abdullah  (ab-d61' 
lah).  [.Ar., 'servant  of  (jrod.']  Born  at  Mecca 
about  545 :  died  at  Medina,  570.  The  father  of 
Mohammed. 

Abdallah  ben  (or  ibn)  Yasim  (ab-dal'ah  ben 
(or'b'n)ya-sem').  Died  1058.  Aleamed  Ara- 
bian Mussulman,  appointed  by  a  sheik  ot  Lam- 
touna  to  instruct  a  tribe  of  Berbers  in  the  Atlas 
mountains  in  the  faith  of  Islam.  His  enthusiasm 
gave  rise  to  the  sect  of  Al-Morabethun  ("  dedicated  to  the 
service  of  God")  or  Almoravides,  which  under  his  leader- 
ship conquered  the  country  lying  between  the  Sahara 
and  the  ancient  Gsetulia  for  the  new  religion.  He  died  in 
battle ;  but  his  conquests  were  continued  in  Africa  by  his 
successors,  and  in  1086  Yussuf  ibn  Tashfyn  extended  his 
victories  to  Spain. 

Abdallatif  (abd-al-la-tef')i  or  Abd-ul-Lateef 

(abd-ol-la-tef ').  Born  at  Bagdad,  1162 :  died 
at  Bagdad,  Nov.  8, 1231.  An  Arabian  physician, 
philosopher,  and  traveler.  He  was  the  author  of  a 
historical  work  on  Egypt  published  in  Latin  by  Professor 
Joseph  White  of  Oxford  as  "  Abdallatiphi  historicC  jEgypti 
compendium, "in  1800.  A  manuscript  of  it,  brought  from 
the  East  by  f  ococke,  is  in  the  Bodleian  Library. 

Abdalmalek,  or  Abd-el-Malek,  or  -Malik 
(abd-al-  (or  -el-)  ma'lek,  -Uk).  The  fifth  calif 
of  the  Ommiads,  685-705. 

Abdalmalek.  Bom  at  Basra  about  740.  A 
Mohammedan  doctor,  instructor  of  Harun-al- 
Rashid,  noted  for  his  extraordinary  memory. 
He  is  the  reputed  author  of  the  romance  of 
Antar. 

Abdalmalek.  Born  at  Cordova,  801:  died  853. 
A  Mohammedan  historian  and  theologian. 

Abd-al-Bahman,  or  Abdalrahman.  See  Abd^ 
er-Bahmcm. 

Abdara.    See  Aldera. 

Abdelazar  (ab-del-a'zar).  A  tragedy  made  by 
Mrs.  Aphra  Behn  from  the  play  "  Lust's  Do- 
minion," acted  in  1676  and  published  the  next 
year.  It  contains  the  song  "  Love  in  fantastic 
triumph  sat." 

Abd-el-Kader,  or-Kadir  (abd-el-ka'der).  Bom 
near  Mascara,  Algeria,  1807:  died  at  Damas- 
cus, May  26,  1883.  A  celebrated  Arab  chief, 
the  heroic  leader  of  the  Arabs  in  the  wars  in 
Algiers  against  the  French  1832-47,  and  pris- 
oner of  the  French  1847-52.  He  lived  in  later 
years  principally  at  Damascus  as  a  pensioner 
of  the  French  government. 

Abd-el-Malek,  or  -Malik.    See  Abdalmalek. 

Abd-el-Mottalib.    See  Abdul-Muttalib. 

Abdemon  (ab'df-mon).    See  the  extract. 

The  "wisdom  "  of  Solomon  is  said  to  have  provoked  the 
Tyrians  to  match  their  wits  against  his.  Solomon  had 
sent  Hiram  certain  riddles  to  test  his  sagacity,  and  had 
asked  for  a  return  in  kind,  wagering  a  good  round  sum 
upon  the  result.  The  contest  terminated  in  Solomon's 
favour,  and  Hiram  had  to  make  a  heavy  payment  in  con- 
sequence. Hereupon,  a  Tyrian  named  Abdemon  (Abdes- 
mun?)  came  to  the  rescue,  and  vindicated  the  honour  of 
his  country  by  correctly  solving  all  King  Solomon's  rid- 
dles, and  proposing  to  him  others,  of  which  the  Israelitish 
monarch,  with  all  his  intelligence,  was  quite  unable  to 
discover  the  solution.  He  was  thus  compelled  to  refund 
all  the  money  that  Hiram  had  paid  him,  and  to  forfeit  a 
considerable  amount  in  addition. 

Rawli-nson,  Phoenicia,  p.  103. 

Abdera  (ab-de'ra) .  [Gr.  to,  'ixpdijpa,  or  "A^dripov.'] 
In  ancient  geography,  a  maritime  city  of  Thrace, 
founded  by  the  Teians,  belonging  to  the  Athe- 
nian Confederation.  Its  inhabitants  were  no- 
torious among  the  Greeks  for  dullness.  The 
exact  ancient  site  has  not  been  identified. 

Abdera  (ab-de'ra).  [Gr.  to  'ikpSr/pa,  Avdj/pa, 
"A^Sapa,  "A^dtipov.]  In  ancient  geography,  a 
town,  the  modem  Adra  (or  Almeria  ?),  on  the 
southem  coast  of  Spain,  about  45  miles  south- 
east of  Granada.    Also  Abdara. 

Abd-er-Rahman  (abd-er-rah'man)  I.  [Ar., 
'  servant  of  the  merciful  one,'  i.  e.  God.]  Born  at 
Damascus,  731 :  died  788.  The  founder  (756)  of 
the  independent  Ommiad  power  in  Spain,  with 
Cordova  as  capital.  He  survived  the  massacre  of  the 
Ommiads  by  the  Abbassides,  took  refuge  in  Mauretania, 
and  was  invited  by  a  party  of  the  Arabs  in  Spain  to  come 
to  them  as  their  sovereign.  He  quickly  established  his 
power,  overcame  his  chief  antagonist  in  battle  (755),  sup- 


A  Eecket,  Gilbert  Abbott 

pressed  formidable  rebellions  (768-763),  and  repelled  the 
invasion  of  Charlemagne  (778).  The  famous  mosque  at  Cor- 
dova was  constructed  by  him.  Also  Abdal-Rahman,  Ab- 
durrahman, Abdarrahman. 

Abd-er-Kahman  III.  Bom  891:  died  961. 
Calif  of  Cordova  from  912  to  961.  During  his 
reign  the  Saracen  power  in  Spain  rose  to  its 
greatest  height. 

Abd-er-Rahman.  Died  732.  A  Saracen  chief- 
tain, governor  of  Narbonne.  He  invaded 
France  with  a  large  army,  and  was  defeated 
by  Charles  Martel,  and  slain,  near  Tours  in  732. 

Abd-er-Rahman.  Born  Nov.  28,  1778:  died 
Aug.,  1859.  Sultan  of  Fez  and  Morocco  1823- 
1859.  The  piratical  habits  of  his  subjects  involved  him 
in  several  confiicts  with  European  powers,  and  in  1844  he 
supported  Abd-el-Eader  against  France. 

Abdiel  (ab'di-el).  [Heb.,  'servant  of  God.'] 
A  seraph  in  Milton's  "  Paradise  Lost"  (v.  896), 
the  only  seraph  who  remained  loyal  when 
Satan  stirred  up  the  angels  to  revolt.  He  is 
mentioned  by  the  Jewish  cabalists. 

Abdi-Milkut  (ab'de-mil-kof).  A  king  of 
Sidon,  a  contemporary  of  Esarhaddon,  king  of 
Assyria  (680-668  B.  C).  He  made  an  aUiance  with 
King  Sanduarri,  and  revolted  from  his  allegiance  to  As- 
syria; was  attacked,  and,  after  a  prolonged  resistance,.fled, 
probably  to  Cyprus ;  and  was  caught  and  decapitated  in  676. 

Abdol-Motalleb.    See  Abdul-Muttalib. 

Abdool-.    See  Abdul-. 

Abdul-Aziz  (ab'dol-a-zez').  Born  Feb.  9, 1830: 
assassinated  (?)  June  4, 1876.  Sultan  of  Turkey 
1861-76,  second  son  of  Mahmud  H.  and  brother 
of  Abdul-Medjid  whom  he  succeeded.  Aided  by 
his  grand  vizirs,  Ali  Pasha  and  Fuad  Pasha,  he  attempted 
to  introduce  Western  civilization  into  Turkey.  In  1867  he 
visited  the  Paris  Exhibition,  and  journeyed  through  Eng- 
land, Austria,  and  Germany,  Dissatisfaction  with  his  re- 
form policy  and  the  depletion  of  his  treasury  brought  about 
his  deposition.  May  30, 1876. 

Abdul-Hamid  (ab'dol-ha-med')  I.  Bora  May 
30,  1725 :  died  April  7,  1789.  Sultan  of  Turkey 
from  Jan.  21, 1774,  till  April  7, 1789.  He  inherited 
a  disastrous  war  with  Uussia,  which  was  ended  in  July, 
1774,  by  the  treaty  of  Kainardji,  and  which  resulted  in  the 
loss  of  Crimea  and  adjacent  regions.  He  was  also  engaged 
in  war  with  Kussia  and  Austria  from  1787. 

Abdul-Hamid  II.  Bom  Sept.  22, 1842.  Sultan 
of  Turkey  since  Aug.  31,  1876,  second  son  of 
Abdul-Medjid  and  brother  of  the  insane  Murad 
V.  whom  he  succeeded.  He  carried  on  a  war  with 
Russia  from  April  24, 1877,  to  1878.  By  the  treaty  of  San 
Stefano,  which  followed  (March  3,  1878),  modified  by  the 
Berlin  Treaty  of  July  13,  1878,  Turkey  lost  large  posses- 
sions in  Europe  and  Asia.  See  San  Stifo/no,  Treaty  of,  and 
B&rlin,  Congress  of. 

Abdul-Kerim  (ab'dol-ke-rem')  Pasha.  Bom 
1811:  died  1885.  A  Turkish  general,  distin- 
guished by  his  services  in  the  Crimean  war, 
and  against  the  Servians  in  1876,  but  banished 
for  failure  in  the  Russian  war  of  1877. 

Abdul-Latif.    See  Abdallatif. 

Abdul-Medjid,  or  Mejid  (ab'dSl-me-jed'). 
Bom  April  23,  1823 :  died  June  25,  1861.  The 
eldest  son  of  Mahmud  II.  whom  he  succeeded, 
July  1,  1839.  He  was  conquered  by  Mehemet  Ali,  the 
rebellious  viceroy  of  Egypt,  at  Nisib,  June  24, 1839,  but 
was  protected  by  the  intervention  of  the  Great  Powers  in 
1840.  November  3, 1839,  he  promulgated  the  Hatti-sherif 
of  Giilhan^  (the  imperial  palace  where  it  was  first  pro- 
claimed), an  organic  statute  for  the  government  of  the 
empire,  guaranteeing  the  security  of  life  and  property  to 
subjects  and  introducing  fiscal  and  military  j-eforms.  He 
was  engaged  in  the  Crimean  war  from  1853  to  1856.  In 
1856  was  promulgated  the  Hatti-y-humayun,  which  pro- 
fessed to  secure  the  rights  of  the  Hatti-sherif  of  Giilhan^ 
to  all  classes,  without  distinction  of  rank  or  religion. 

Abdul-Mumen  (ab'dol-mo'men).  Bom  in 
northwestem  Africa,  1101:  died  1163.  The 
founder  of  the  dynasty  of  the  Almohades, 
calif  from  1130  till  1163. 

Abdul-Muttalib  (ab'dol-met-ta'lib).  Died  578. 
The  grandfather  of  Mohammed  and  his  guar- 
dian for  two  years. 

Abdurrahman.    See  Abd-er-Bahman. 

Abdurrahman  Khan  (ab-dor-rah'man  khan). 
Bom  about  1830 :  died  Oct.  3, 1901.  The  ameer 
of  Afghanistan,  proclaimed  such  in  1880. 

Abecedarians  (a''''be-se-da'ri-anz).  A  German 
Anabaptist  sect  of  the  16th"  century,  led  by 
Nicholas  Stork,  a  weaver  of  Zwickau,  which 
rejected  all  learning  (even  the  learning  of 
"A-B-(3")  as  a  hindrance  to  religion,  professed 
a  special  inspiration  superseding  the  Bible,  and 
predicted  (and  was  disposed  to  promote)  the 
overthrow  of  existing  governments. 

A  Becket  (a-bek'et),  Gilbert  Arthur.  Born 
at  London,"  1837 :  died  at  London,  Oct.  15, 
1891.  An  English  journalist,  dramatist,  and 
miscellaneous  writer,  son  of  G.A.  A  Becket. 

A  Becket,  Gilbert  Abbott.  Bom  at  London, 
Jan.  9,  1811:  died  at  Boulogne,  France,  Aug. 
30,  1856.  An  English  lawyer,  journalist,  and 
writer,  noted  chiefly  for  his  contributions  to 


A  Becket,  Gilbert  Abbott 

"Punch"':  author  of  the  "Comic  History  of 
England,"  the  "Comic  History  of  Eome,"  the 
"Comic  Blackstone,"  etc. 

A  Becket,  Thomas.    See  Thomas  of  London. 

Abed-nego  (a-bed'ne-go).  [Probably  an  error 
in  the  text  for  Abed  Nebo,  servant  of  the  god 
Nebo.]  One  of  the  three  Hebrews  cast  by 
Nebuchadnezzar  into  the  fiery  furnace.  His 
Hebrew  name  was  Azariah,  Abed-nego  being  substituted 
lor  it  by  the  prince  of  the  eunuchs  of  the  king  of  Baby- 
Ion.    Dan.  1.  7. 

Abegg  (a'beg),  Julius  Friedrich  Heinrich. 
Born  at  Erlangen,  Bavaria,  March  27,  1796: 
died  at  Breslau,  Prussia,  May  29, 1868.  A  Ger- 
man jurist, author  of ' '  Versuch  einer  Gresehi chte 
der  preussischen  CivUprozessgesetzeebung " 
(1848),  etc. 

Abel  (a'bel).  [Heb.  Mebel,  formerly  derived 
from  Heb.  Jieiel,  transitoriness;  more  prob- 
ably to  be  connected  -with  Assyro-Babylonian 
ablu,  son.]  The  second  son  of  Adam,  slain 
by  his  brother  Cain,  according  to  the  account 
in  Genesis. 

Abel  (a'bel),  Carl.  Bom  at  Berlin,  Nov.  25, 
1837.  A  German  comparative  philologist,  au- 
thor of  "Linguistic  Essays"  (1880),  etc.  He 
has  acted  as  Ilchester  lecturer  on  comparative  lexicog- 
raphy at  Oxford,  and  as  Berlin  correspondent  of  the 
"Times"  and  "Standard." 

Abel  (a'bel),  Sir  Frederick  Augustus.  Born  at 
London,  July  17, 1827 :  died  there,  Sept.  6, 1902. 
An  English  chemist,  president  of  the  Institute 
of  Chemistry  and  other  learned  societies,  and 
author  of  "Guncotton,"  "Modem  History  of 
Gunpowder,"  "OnExplosive  Agents," etc.,  and 
with  Bloxam  of  a  "Handbook  of  Chemistry." 

Abel  (a'bel),  Heinrich  Friedrich  Otto.  Bom 
at  Eeiehenbach,  Wurtemberg,  Jan.  22,  1824: 
died  at  Leonberg,  Wiirtemberg,  Oct.  28,  1854. 
A  German  historian,collaborator  on  the  "  Monu- 
menta  Germanise  historica,"  and  author  of 
"  Konig  Philipp  der  Hohenstaufe"  (1852),  etc. 

Abel  (a'bel),  Joseph.  Bom  at  Aschach,  in 
Austria,  1768:  died  at  Vienna,  Oct.  4,  1818.  An 
Austrian  historical  and  portrait  painter. 

Abel  (a'bel),  Karl  Friedrich.  Bom  at  Kothen, 
Germany,  1725 :  died  at  London,  June  20, 1787. 
A  German  composer,  and  noted  performer  on 
the  viol  da  gamba. 

Abel  (a'bel),  Niels  Henrik.  Bom  at  Pindoe, 
Norway,  August  5,  1802:  died  near  Arendal, 
Norway,  April  6,  1829.  A  distinguished  Nor- 
wegian mathematician,  noted  especially  for 
his  researches  on  elliptic  functions.  His  com- 
plete works  were  published  in  1839. 

Abelard  (ab'e-lard),  Peter,  P.  Ab§lard 
(a-ba-lar'),  ML.  Abelardus  (ab-e-lar'dus). 
Born  at  Pallet  (Palais),  near  Nantes,  France, 
in  1079 :  died  April  21, 1142.  A  Prench  scholar, 
one  of  the  most  notable  of  the  founders  of 
scholastic  theology,  a  pupil  of  Roseellin  of 
CompiSgne  and  of  William  of  Champeaux. 
He  taught  with  great  success  at  Melun,  at  Corbeil,  and  at 
Paris.  In  1121  he  was  cited  before  the  Synod  of  Soissons, 
on  the  charge  of  disseminating  Sabellianism,  and  was 
compelled  to  burn  his  "Introductio  ad  Theologiam."  He 
soon  after  retired  to  a  solitary  place  near  Nogent-sur- 
Seine,  but  was  sought  out  by  students,  who  built  for  him 
the  Oratory  of  the  Paraclete,  i^om  1125  till  about  1134 
he  was  abbot  of  St  Gildas  in  Bretagne.  In  1140,  at  the 
Council  of  Sens,  he  was  accused  of  heresy  by  Bernard  of 
Claiiraux  and  was  condemned  by  the  council  and  the 
Pope,  but  was  afterward  reconciled  to  Bernard.  He  repre- 
sented the  spirit  of  free  inquiry  in  theology,  and  contrib- 
uted largely  to  fix  the  scholastic  manner  of  philosophizing. 
Tor  his  relation  to  mioise,  see  Hiloise. 

Abel  de  Pujol  (a-bel'  de  pii-zhol' ),  Alexandre 
Denis  Bom  at  Valenciennes,  Praiice,  Jan. 
30, 1785:  died  at  Paris,  Sept.  28, 1861.  APrench 
historical  painter. 

Abelin  (a'be-len),Johann  Philipp :  pseudonym 
Johann  Ludwig  Gottfried  (Gotnofredus). 
Died  about  1635.  A  German  historian,  founder 
of  the  "Theatmm  Europseum,"  a  serial  work 
on  contemporaneous  history,  carried  forward 
by  Schieder,  Oraus,  and  others  into  the  18th  cen- 
tury, and  author  of  a  history  of  the  West  Indies, 
"Historia  Antipodum,"  and  other  works, 


sibus")  as  coining  to  an  end  in  his  day,  which 
observed  the  custom  of  marrying  without  pro- 
creating, in  order  not  to  perpetuate  inherited 
sin  and  in  imitation  of  the  traditional  example 
of  Abel,  the  son  of  Adam.  They  adopted  the 
children  of  others.  . 

Abell  (a'bel),  Thomas.  Executed  at  Smith- 
field,  London,  July  30, 1540.  A  Eoman  Catho- 
lic clergyman,  rector  of  Bradwell  in  Essex,  and 
ohaplam  to  Queen  Catherine,  wife  of  Henry 


Vni.  of  England,  unjustly  condemned  on  the 

charge  of  concealing  the  treasonable  practices 

of  Elizabeth  Barton,  the  "Nun  of  Kent."   He 

was  an  active  supporter  of  the  queen  in  her  endeavor  to 

prevent  tile  divorce  sought  by  Henry. 

Abencerrages  (a-ben'se-raj-ez ;  Sp.  pron.  a-Ben- 

/  tha-ra'Hes) .    A  Moorish  family  in  Granada,  f  a- 

'  mous  in  Spanish  romance.    Then-  struggle  with  the 

family  of  the  Zegris  and  tragical  destruction  in  the  Al- 

hambra  by  King  Abu  Hassan,  near  the  end  of  the  Moorish 

dominion  in  Granada,  are  told  in  Perez  de  Hita's  (unhis- 

torical) "  Historia  de  las  guerras  civiles  de  Granada  "  (1695), 

the  groundworlc  of  a  romance  by  Chateaubriand  (1826), 

and  of  an  opera  by  Cherubini  (1813). 

Abenezra  (a-ben-ez'ra),  or  Ibn  Ezra  ('b'n-ez'- 
ra).    See  Abraham  ben  Meir  ibn  Mzra. 

Abensberg  (a'bens-bera).  A  small  town  in 
Lower  Bavaria,  on  the  Abens  18  miles  south- 
west of  Batisbon,  the  scene  of  a  victory  by  Na- 
poleon over  the  Austrian  army  of  Archduke 
Charles,  April  20,  1809.  The  attaolt  was  on  the 
center  of  the  Austrian  line,  which  was  cut  In  halves :  the 
left  was  driven  across  the  Isar  at  Landshut,  which  was 
captured,  and  the  right  was  overcome  at  Ecltmiihl  on 
April  22.  In  this  series  of  operations  the  Austrians  lost 
60,000  men. 

Abeokuta  (ab-e-o-ko'ta).  The  principal  town  of 
Yoruba  or  Yariba,  a  British  protectorate  in 
western  Africa.  It  was  founded  in  1830  by  fugitive 
slaves,  who  were  subsequently  joined  by  numerous  free- 
men, mostly  of  the  Egba  tribe.  Excepting  a  few  native 
Christian  churches,  the  mass  of  the  people  is  still  heathen. 
Population  (esthnated),  150,000.    Also  Abbeokuta. 

Aber  (ab'fer).  [Gael,  abar  =  W.  aber,  a  con- 
fluence of  waters,  the  mouth  of  a  river.  Cf. 
Gael,  inbhir,  with  same  senses,  =  W.  ynfer,  in- 
flux, =  So.  inver-.^  An  element  appearing  in 
many  place-names  in  Great  Britain,  and  sig- 
nifying 'a  confluence  of  waters,'  either  of 
two  rivers  or  of  a  river  with  the  sea:  as,  Aber- 
deen, Aberdour,  Abergavenny,  Aberystwith. 

Aberavon  (ab-6r-a'von).  A  seaport  in  Glamor- 
ganshire, South  Wales,  situated  on  Bristol 
Channel  7  miles  east  of  Swansea.  It  has  large 
manufacturing  worlds,  and  there  are  mines  of  coal  and 
iron  in  its  vicinity.    Population  (1891),  6,281. 

Aberbrothock.     See  Arbroath. 

Aberconway.    See  Conway. 

Abercorn  (ab'6r-k6m).  A  hamlet  in  Linlith- 
gowshire, Scotland,  about  10  miles  west  of 
Edinburgh.  It  was  the  seat  of  a  bishopric  from 
681  to  685. 

Abercrombie  (ab'fer-krum-bi),  James.  Bom  at 
Glasshaugh,  in  Scotland,  1706:  died  at  Stirling, 
Scotland,  April  28,  1781.  A  British  general, 
commander  of  an  expedition  against  Canada 
in  1758.  He  was  defeated  by  Montcalm  at 
Tieonderoga,  July  8,  1758. 

Abercrombie,  John.  Born  at  Aberdeen,  Scot- 
land, Oct.  10,  1780:  died  at  Edinburgh,  Nov. 
14,  1844.  A  Scottish  physician  and  philo- 
sophical writer.  He  wrote  "Pathological  and  Prac- 
tical Kesearches  on  Diseases  of  the  Brain  and  Spinal 
Cord  "  (1828),  "  Pathological  and  Practical  Kesearches  on 
Diseases  of  the  Stomach,  the  Intestinal  Canal,  etc."  (1828), 
"  Enquiries  Concerning  the  Intellectual  Powers  and  the 
Investigation  of  Truth  "  (1830), ' '  Philosophy  of  the  Moral 
Feelings  "  (1833),  etc. 

Abercrombie,  John  Joseph.  Bom  in  Tennes- 
see in  1802:  died  at  Eoslyn,  N.  Y.,  Jan.  3, 
1877.  An  American  soldier.  He  was  graduated  at 
West  Point  in  1822,  and  served  in  the  Florida  war  (bre- 
vetted  major),  in  the  Mexican  war  (brevetted  lieutenant- 
colonel),  and  in  the  Union  army  in  the  Civil  War  (brevetted 
brigadier-general). 

Abercromby  (ab'6r-krum-bi),  David,  Died 
about  1702.  A  Scottish  physician  and  philo- 
sophi  cal  writer.  His  chief  work  is  entitled  "A  Discourse 
of  Wit" (London,  1686).  "It  antedates  the  (so-called) 
'  Scottish  School  of  Philosophy '  a  century  nearly :  for  in 
it  Dr.  Thomas  Reid's  philosophy  of  common  sense  .  .  . 
is  distinctly  taught."    A.  B.  Grosart,  in  Diet.  Nat,  Biog, 

Abercromby,  James.  Bom  Nov.  7, 1776 :  died 
at  Colinton  House,  Midlothian,  April  17,  1858. 
An  English  politician,  third  son  of  Sir  Ealph 
Abercromby,  created  Baron  Dunfermline  in 
1839.  He  became  a  member  of  Parliament  in  1807, 
judge-advocate-general  in  1827,  chief  baron  of  the  ex- 
chequer of  Scotland  in  1830,  master  of  the  mint  in  1834, 
and  speaker  in  1836. 

Abercromby,  Sir  John.  Bom  1772:  died  at 
Marseilles,  Feb.  14,  1817.  An  English  soldier, 
second  son  of  Sir  Ealph  Abercromby.  He 
served  in  Flanders  1793-94,  was  arrested  by  Napoleon  and 
imprisoned  at  Verdun  in  1803,  was  exchanged  in  1808, 
and  was  appointed  commander-in-chief  at  Bombay  in 
1809.    He  captured  Mauritius  in  1810. 

Abercromby,  Patrick.  Bom  at  Forfar,  Scot- 
land, 1656:  died  1716  (various  dates  are  as- 
signed). A  Scottish  physician,  antiquary,  and 
historian,  author  of  "  Martial  Achievements  of 
the  Soots  Nation"  (1711-16). 

Abercromby,  Sir  Balph.  Bom  at  Menstry, 
Clackmannan,  Scotland,  Oct.,  1734:  died  near 
Alexandria,  Egypt,  March  28,  1801.    A  distin- 


Abersychan 

guished  British  general,  commander-in-chief  in 
the  West  Indies  1795-97  ([where  he  took  Grena- 
da, Demerara,  and  Trinidad,  and  relieved  St. 
Vincent),  in  Ireland  in  1798,  and  in  the  Nether- 
lands in  1799.  He  was  mortally  wounded  near  Alex- 
andria, Egypt,  March  21, 1801.  He  "  shares  with  Sir  .lohii 
Moore  the  credit  of  renewing  the  ancient  discipline  and 
military  reputation  of  the  British  soldier"  (H.  M.  Ste- 
phem,  in  Diet  Nat  Biog.). 

Abercromby,  Sir  Bobert.  Bom  at  Tullibody, 
Clackmannan,  Scotland,  1740:  died  at  Air- 
threy,  near  Stirling,  Scotland,  Nov.,  1827.  A 
British  general,  younger  brother  of  Sir  Ealph 
Abercromby.  He  served  in  the  French  and  Indian  and 
Eevolutionary  wars  (at  the  battles  of  Brooklyn,  Brandy- 
wine,  and  Germautown,  and  at  Charleston  and  Yorktown), 
and  later  commanded  in  India. 

Aberdare  (ab-6r-dar').  A  mining  and  manufac- 
turing town  in  Glamorganshire,  South  Wales, 
about  5  miles  southwest  of  Merthyr-Tydvil. 
There  are  coal-  and  iron-mines  in  its  vicinity. 
Population  (1891),  38,513. 

Aberdare,  Baron.    See  Bruce  Pryce,    Henry 


Aberdeen  (ab-6r-den'),  or  New  Aberdeen.  A 

seaport,  capital  of  the  county  of  Aberdeen, 
Scotland,  on  the  North  Sea  between  the  mouths 
of  the  Don  and  Dee,  in  lat.  57°  8'  33*  N. ,  long.  2° 
4'  6"  W.  (lighthouse),  it  Is  the  principal  city  of 
northern  Scotland,  and  has  an  important  foreign  and 
coasting  commerce  and  a  variety  of  manufactures.  It 
received  a  charter  from  William  the  Lion  in  1178.  Popu- 
lation (1901),  143,722. 

Aberdeen,  Old.  A  town  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Don,  one  mile  north  of  Aberdeen,  Scotland. 
It  contains  the  Cathedral  of  St.  Machar,  and  King's  Col- 
lege in  the  University  of  Aberdeen.  The  old  cathedral  is 
now  a  parish  church,  consisting  of  the  spacious  nave  only 
of  the  original  building.  It  was  begun  in  1366.  There 
are  two  castle-like  towers  at  the  west  end,  surmounted  by 
heavy  pyramidal  spires,  and  a  fine  projecting  porch  on  the 
south  side.  The  material  is  granite  throughout  Popu- 
lation (1891),  1,951. 

Aberdeen.  A  city  in  Brown  County,  South 
Dakota,  about  120  miles  northeast  of  Pierre :  a 
railroad  and  trading  center.  Population  (1900), 
4,087. 

Aberdeen.  A  city,  capital  of  Monroe  County, 
Mississippi,  on  the  Tombigbee,  in  lat.  33°  51' 
N.,  long.  88°  35'  W.     Population  (1900),  3,434. 

Aberdeen,  Earl  of.    See  Gordon. 

Aberdeen,  University  of.  An  institution  of 
learning  at  Aberdeen,  incorporated  1860,  by 
the  union  of  King's  College  and  university 
(founded  by  Bishop  Elphinstone,  1494)  at  Old 
Aberdeen  and  the  Marisehal  College  and  uni- 
versity (founded  by  the  Earl  Marisehal,  1593) 
at  New  Aberdeen,  it  has  about  70  teachers  and 
800  students.  It  sends  with  Glasgow  University  one 
member  to  Pailiament. 

Aberdeenshire  (ab-6r-den'shir).  A  county  of 
Scotland,  capital  Aberdeen,  bounded  by  the 
North  Sea  on  the  north  and  east,  by  Kincar- 
dine, Forfar,  and  Perth  on  the  south,  and  by 
Inverness  and  Banff  on  the  west.  Its  ancient  di- 
visions were  Mar,  Formartin,  Buchan,  Garioch,  and  Strath- 
bogie.  Its  leading  industries  are  agriculture,  stock-rais- 
ing, granite-cutting,  and  fishing.  Area,  1,956  square  miles. 
Population  (1891),  281,332. 

Aberdour  (ab-6r-dor').  A  small  place  in  Fife- 
shire,  Scotland,  on  the  Firth  of  Forth  about  8 
miles  north  of  Edinburgh,  resorted  to  for  sea- 
bathing. 

Aberfoyle  (ab-6r-foil').  A  small  village  in 
Perthshire,  Scotland,  near  Loch  Katrine.  It 
figures  in  Scott's  novel  "  Bob  Boy." 
Abergavenny  (ab-fer-ga'ni  or  ab^Sr-ga-ven'i). 
A  town  in  Monmouthshire,  England,  at  the 
junction  of  the  Gavenny  and  Usk,  built  on 
the  site  of  the  Eoman  Gobannio.  There  are 
coal-mines  and  iron-works  in  its  vicinity.  Pop- 
ulation (1891),  7,640. 

Abemethy  (ab'6r-ne-thi).  A  small  town  in 
Perthshire,  Scotland,  about  7  miles  southeast 
of  Perth.  It  was  anciently  a  seat  of  Culdee 
worship  and  a  Pictish  royal  residence. 
Abemethy,  John.  Bom  at  Coleraine,  Ireland, 
Oct.  19, 1680 :  died  Dec,  1740.  A  clergyman  of 
the  Irish  Presbyterian  Church,  appointed  by  the 
synod  to  the  church  in  Dublin,  1717.  His  re- 
fusal to  obey  caused  a  schism  in  the  Irish 
Church. 

Abemethy,  John.  Bom  at  London  April  3, 
1764 :  died  at  Enfield,  near  London,  April  28, 
1831.  An  English  surgeon,  lecturer  on  anat- 
omy and  physiology  in  the  College  of  Surgeons 
1814-17,  and  surgeon  to  St.  Bartholomew's  Hos- 
pital 1815-27.  His  medical  works  were  collected  in 
five  volumes  in  1880.  He  possessed  great  Influence  in  his 
profession,  due  less  to  his  learning  than  to  his  powerful, 
attractive,  and  somewhat  eccentric  personal!^. 
Abersychan  (ab-fer-suk'an).  A  mining  town 
in  Monmouthshire,  England,  about  16  miles 


Abersychan 

southwest  of  Monmouth.    Population  (1891), 

15,6«7D. 

Abert  (a'bfert),  John  James.  Bom  at  Shep- 
herdstown,  Va.,  Sept.  17,  1788:  died  at  Wash- 
ington, D.  C,  Jan.  27,  1863.  An  American 
mflitaijy  (topographical)  engineer,  brevetted 
major  in  1814,  and  made  colonel  of  engineers  in 
1838.  He  was  given  the  charge  of  the  topo- 
graphical bureau  in  1829. 

Abert  (a'bert),  Johann  Joseph.  Bom  Sept. 
21, 1832,  at  Kochowitz  in  Bohemia.  A  German 
musician,  author  of  the  operas  "Anna  von 
Landskron"  (1859),  "Konig  Enzio"  (1862), 
"Astorga"  (1866),  "Ekkehard"  (1878),  etc. 

Aberyst\ritb.  (ab-6r-ist'with).  A  seaport  and 
watering-place  in  Cardiganshire,  Wales,  at  the 
junction  of  the  Ystwith  and  Rheidol,  in  lat.  52° 
25'  N.,  long.  4°  5'  W.  it  contains  the  University  Col- 
lege of  Wales,  which  was  opened  in  1872.  Population 
(1891),  6,696. 

Abeshr  (a-besh'r).  The  capital  of  Wadai,  in 
Sudan,  about  lat.  14°  5'  N.,  long.  21°  5'  E. 

Abessa  (a-bes'a).  A  female  character  in  Spen- 
ser's "  Faerie  Queene,"  representing  the  cor- 
ruption of  the  abbeys  and  convents. 

Abgar  (ab'gar),  L.  Abgarus  (ab'ga-ms).    An 
appellation  of  the  kings  of  Edessa,  used  as 
was  'Csasar'  among  the  Romans,  'Pharaoh' 
and  'Ptolemy' in  Egypt,  and  'Antiochus'  in  Abihu  (a-bi'fiu). 
Syria.     The  dynasty  lasted  from  99  B.  0.  to  217  A.  D.     of  Him'  (Grod).i 
According  to  Eusebius,  Abgar  XV.  (Ucomo,  ' the  blaclc,'      •  -     >—■■  -''J 

18  to  50)  wrote  to  Christ  asking  him  to  take  up  his  abode 
with  him  and  relieve  him  ol  an  incurable  disease.  Clirist 
promised  to  send  him  one  ot  bis  disciples  after  his  ascen- 
sion, and  accordingly  Thomas  sent  Tliaddeus.  In  Cedre- 
nus  is  the  following  story.  Ananias,  who  carried  Abgar's 
letter  to  Christ,  was  also  a  painter  and  tried  to  take  his 
portrait,  but  was  dazzled  by  the  splendor  of  his  counte- 
nance. Washing  his  face,  Christ  dried  it  on  a  linen  cloth, 
on  which  his  features  were  miraculously  impressed.  This 
cloth  was  taken  to  Edessa  by  Ananias. 

Abhidhanachint amani  (a - bhi -dha'ns,-chin- 
ta'ma-ni).  [Skt.,  '  the  jewel  that  five's  every 
word  wished.']  A  synonymic  lexicon  in  Sanskrit 
by  Hemachandra  who  lived  in  the  12th  century. 

Abhidhanaratnamala  (a-bhi-dha'na-rat-na- 
ma'la).  [Skt.,  'the  pearl  necklace  of  words.'] 
A  Sanskrit  vocabulary  by  Halayudha,  belong- 
ing to  about  the  end  of  the  11th  century. 

Abhidharmapitaka  (a-bhi-dhar'ma-pit'a-ka). 
[Skt.,  'basket  of  metaphysics.']  That  sec- 
tion of  the  Buddhist  scriptures  which  treats  of 
Abhidharma  or  the  supreme  truth,  philosophy 
or  metaphysics.  It  includes  the  Dhammasangani,  on 
conditions  of  life  in  diSerent  worlds ;  the  Vibhanga,  eigh- 
teen treatises  of  various  contents ;  the  Kathavatthu,  on 

'  one  thousand  controverted  points ;  the  Puggalapannatti, 
explanations  of  common  personal  qualities ;  the  Dhatu- 


5 


that  dynasty  which  would  have  realised  its  unity.  These 
Abiezrites  were  very  fine  men,  heroes,  like  unto  the  sons 
of  a  king. 

Rman,  Hist,  of  the  People  of  Israel  (trans.),  I.  260. 

3.  One  of  David's  chief  warriors,  an  inhabitant 
of  Anathoth,  in  the  tribe  of  Benjamin. 
Abigail  (ab'i-gal).  [Heb.,  'father  (source)  of 
joy,'  or  'my  father  is  joy.']  1.  The  mother 
of  Amasa  and  sister  of  David. —  2.  The  wife  of 
Nabal  and,  after  his  death,  of  David.  By  has- 
tening to  meet  David  with  a  supply  of  provisions  when 
he  was  marching  to  take  vengeance  upon  Nabal  she  suc- 
ceeded in  arresting  his  anger. 

3.  A  character  in  Marlowe's  tragedy  "The 
Jew  of  Malta,"  the  daughter  of  Barabas  the 
Jew.  The  passages  between  her  and  herfather  strongly 
resemble  those  between  Shylock  and  Jessica  in  the  "  Mer- 
chant of  Venice." 

4.  A  lady's-maid  or  waiting  gentlewoman  in 
Beaumont  and  Fletcher's  "Scornful  Lady," 
and  in  other  plays :  presumably  from  Abigail 
who  called  herself  the  handmaid  of  David  in 
1  Sam.  XXV.  3.  The  name  is  now  a  popular 
synonym  for  a  lady's-maid. 

Abigor  (ab'i-g6r).  In  medieval  demonology, 
a  demon  of  high  degree,  grand  duke  in  the 
infernal  realms.  He  has  sixty  legions  at  his  com- 
mand, and  is  an  authority  on  all  subjects  pertaining  to 
war.  He  is  represented  as  a  knight  carrying  a  lance, 
standard,  or  scepter. 

' ""       [Heb.,  'father  (worshiper) 

The  second  of  the  sons  of 
Aaron  by  Elisheba.  For  neglecting  to  burn  incense 
with  fire  taken  from  the  great  altar  and  using  strange  or 
common  fire,  he  was  slain  with  his  elder  brother  Kadab 
by  fire  from  heaven. 

Abijah  (a-bi'ja).  [Heb.,  'father  (worshiper) 
of  Jehovah,'  or  'my  father  is  Jehovah.']  1. 
The  name  of  various  persons  mentioned  in  the 
Old  Testament:  a  son  of  Becher,  one  of  the 
sons  of  Benjamin  (1  Chron.  vii.  8) ;  the  wife  of 
Hezron  and  mother  of  Ashur  (1  Chron.  ii.  24) ; 
the  second  son  of  Samuel,  one  of  the  judges 
whose  injustice  led  to  the  establishment  of  the 
kingdom  (1  Sam.  viii.  2,  1  Chron.  vi.  28);  a 
priest,  a  descendant  of  Bleazar,  the  chief  of 
the  eighth  of  the  twenty-four  courses  into 
which  the  priesthood  was  divided  by  David  (1 
CJhron.  xxiv.  10) ;  a  son  of  Jeroboam  the  son  of 
Nebat  (lEa.  xiv.  1);  the  mother  of  Hezekiah 
(2  Chron.  xxix.  1) ;  a  priest  mentioned  in  Ne- 
hemiah  (x.  7). — 2.  The  second  king  of  Judah, 
son  of  Rehoboam  and  grandson  of  Solomon. 
He  reigned  932-929  B.  C.  (Duncker).  A  victory  over  .Tero- 
boam  in  which  400,000  men  are  said  to  have  fought  for 
Abijah  and  800,000  for  Jeroboam,  leaving  600,000  dead 
(obviously  erroneous  numbers),  was  the  notable  event  of 
his  reign.    Also  Abijanij  AJnah,  Abia. 

katha,  on  the  elements ;  the  Yamaka,~on  pairs!  or  apparent  Ablka.     See  Creek. 
contradictions  or  contrasts;  and  the  Patfhana,  or  "Book  of  Abila  (ab'i-la).     In  ancient  geography,  a  city 
Origins,"  on  the  causes  of  existence.  ■,      of  Syria,  capital  of  the  tetrarohy  of  Abilene, 

Abhimanyu  (a-bhi-man'yu).   In  Hmdu  legend,    northwest  of  Damascus. 

m'ryoTan°a.^^Sese^U%'S)fhe^|?e'S^^^^ 


Mahabharata,  but  on  the  thirteenth  himself  fell  fighting 
heroically. 

Abhiramamani  (a-bhi-ra'mS-man'i).  [Skt., 
'the  jewel  (book  or  drama)  relating  to  Rama.'] 
A  Sanskrit  drama  of  which  the  hero  is  Rama, 
written  by  Sundara  Mishra  in  1599  A.  d. 

Abhiras  (ab-he'raz).  A  people  inhabiting  the 
coast  east  of  the'mouth  of  the  Indus  (Lassen), 


Born  at  Copenhagen,  Denmark,  Sept.  4, 1744 
died  at  Frederieksdal,  June  4,  1809.   A  Danish 
painter    of   Norwegian   parentage,  professor 
(1786)  at  the  academy  of  Copenhagen,  and  later 
its  director. 

Abilene  (ab-i-le'ne).  In  ancient  geography,  a 
district  and  tetrarchy  of  Syria,  lying  east  of 
AntUibanus. 


Abomey 

County,  Massachusetts,  about  20  miles  south 
of  Boston.    Population  (1900),  4,489. 

Abington,  Mrs.  (Frances  or  Fanny  Barton). 
Bom  at  London,  1737 :  died  at  London,  March 
4,  1815.  An  English  actress,  daughter  of  a 
private  soldier  in  the  King's  Guards.  From  the 
position  of  a  flower-girl,  known  by  the  name  of  "  Mosegay 
Fan,"  in  St.  James's  Park,  and  street-singer,  she  rose  to 
eminence  on  the  stage,  and  enjoyed  a  successful  career 
of  forty-three  years.  "  She  was  the  original  representa- 
tive of  thirty  characters,  among  which  we  find,— Lady 
Bab,  in  'High  Life  Below  Stairs;'  Betty,  in  the  'Clan- 
destine Marriage;'  Charlotte,  in  the  'Hypocrite;'  Char- 
lotte Kusport,  in  the  'West  Indian;'  Roxalana,  in  the 
'Sultan;'  Miss  Hoyden,  in  the  'Trip  to  Scarborough;' 
and  her  crowning  triumph.  Lady  Teazle."  (Doran,  Annals 
ot  the  Eng.  Stage,  II.  211.)  She  married  her  music-mas- 
ter, one  of  the  royal  trumpeters,  from  whom  she  soon 
separated. 

Abipones  (ab-i-po'nez).  A  tribe  of  Indians  who 
in  the  16th  century  occupied  both  sides  of  the 
river  Paraguay  about  600  miles  above  the 
Parand.  Later  they  removed  to  the  Chaco  region,  and 
were  destroyed  by  wars  with  other  tribes  about  1800. 
They  were  savage  and  intractable,  wandering  in  their 
habits,  and  lived  by  hunting  and  fishing.  After  the  in- 
troduction of  horses  by  the  Spaniards,  this  tribe  acquired 
large  numbers  of  them  by  theft  or  by  taming  those  which 
had  run  wild,  and  became  skilful  equestrians. 

Abisbal,  Count.    See  O'Donnell,  Henry. 

Abishag  (a-bish'ag).  [Heb.,  '  father  (author) 
of  error.']  A  Shunammite  woman  taken  by 
David  to  comfort  him  in  his  old  age.   1  Ki.  i.  1-4. 

Abkhasia  (ab-kha'si-a).  A  region,  not  an  ad- 
ministrative division,  on  the  southern  slope  of 
the  Caucasus,  having  an  area  of  about  3,000 
square  mUes.  It  was  permanently  subjugated 
by  Russia  in  1864.    Population,  about  80,000. 

Abnaki  (ab-nak'e).  ['The  whitening  sky  at 
daybreak,'  i.  e.  eastern  people.]  A  confed- 
eracy of  North  American  Indians,  formerly  oc- 
cupying all  Maine  and  the  valley  of  the  St. 
John's  River,  and  ranging  northwest  to  the  St. 
Lawrence.  They  were  called  Tarrateens  by  the  New 
England  tribes  and  colonial  writers.  The  component 
tribes  were  the  Penobscot,  the  Fassamaquoddy,  and  the 
Amalicite — all  allies  of  the  French.  After  the  fall  of  the 
French  in  North  America,  many  of  the  Abnaki  withdrew 
to  Canada.  They  number  now  about  1,600.  Also  Ahen. 
aJci. '  See  Algonquian. 

Abner  (ab'nSr).  [Heb.,  'father  of  light.']  The 
uncle  of  Saul,  and  the  commander-in-chief  of 
his  army.  After  Saul's  death  he  maintained  the  in- 
terests of  the  royal  house,  supporting>IshboBheth  against 
David.  In  his  flight,  after  the  defeat  at  Gibeon,  he  slew 
Joab's  brother,  Asahel,  who  was  pursuing  him.  Later, 
when  he  was  about  to  effect  a  compromise  with  David 
prejudicial  to  Joab's  interest,  Joab  treacherously  slew  him. 

Abney  (ab'ni).  Sir  Thomas.  Bom  at  Willes- 
ley,  Derbyshire,  Jan.,  1640 :  died  at  Theobalds, 
Hertfordshire,  Feb.  6, 1722.  A  London  merchant 
(originally  a  fishmonger),  sherifE  of  London  and 
Middlesex  1693-94,  one  of  the  original  directors 
of  the  Bank  of  England,  and  Lord  Mayor  of 
London,  1700-01.  He  was  a  friend  and  patron  of  Dr. 
Watts,  who  for  the  last  36  years  of  his  life  made  his  home 
with  the  Abneys. 

Abnoba  (ab'no-ba).  In  ancient  geography,  a 
mountainous  region  in  Germany,  containing 
the  sources  of  the  Danube :  the  modem  Black 
Forest.  .Also  called  Silva  Marciana  and  Montes 
Bauraci. 


lb( 


the  region  identified  by  Lassen  and  Ritter  with  Abilene  (ab'i-len).    The  capital  of  Dickinson 


the  Ophir  (6phlr)  of  the  Old  Testament, 

Abhorson  (ab-h6r'sgn).  An  executioner  in 
Shakspere's  "Measure for  Measure." 

Abia  (a-bi'S).    See  Abijah. 

Abiadta'be-ad).  The  White  Nile.  See  Bahr- 
el-Abiad. 

Abiah  (a-bi'a).    See  AUjah. 

Abiathar  (a^'bi'a-thar).  [Heb.,  'father  of  ex- 
cellence' oif  'al6'imdance'  (Gesenius),  or  'my 
father  excels'  (Olshausen).]  A.high  priest  of 
Israel  in  the  11th  century  b.  c,  a  partizan  and 
companion  of  David  during  his  exile,  appointed 
for  his  services  high  pnest  conjointly  with 
Zadok,  the  appointee  of  Saul. 

Abich  (a'bieh),  Wilhelm  Hermann.  Born  at 
BerUn,  Dec.  11,  1806:  died  at  Gratz,  July  1, 
1886.    A  German  mineralogist  and  geologist. 


County,  Kansas,  situated  on  Smoky  Hill  River 
about  83  miles  west  of  Topeka.  Population 
(1900),  3,507. 

Abilene.  The  capital  of  Taylor  County,  Texas, 
about  200  miles  northwest  of  Austin.  Popula- 
tion (1900),  3,411. 

Abimelech  (a-bim'e-lek).  [Heb.;  Assyrian 
AU-milhi,  father  of  counsel.]  1.  A  name 
used  in  the  Old  Testament  apparently  as  a 
general  title  (Uke  the  Egyptian  'Pharaoh')  of 
the  Philistine  kings.  Specifically— (a)  A  king  of 
Gerar  in  the  time  of  Abraham  (Gen.  xx.).  Supposing  Sarah 
to  be  Abraham's  sister,  as  Abraham  asserted,  he  took  her 
Into  his  harem,  but  dismissed  her  when  he  found  she 
was  Abraham's  wife.  (6)  A  second  king  of  Gerar,  in  the 
time  of  Isaac  (Gen.  xxvi.),  with  whom  Isaac  found  refuge 
during  a  famine,  and  to  whom  he  made  the  same  statement 
about  £ebekah  that  Abraham  had  made  about  Sarah. 


and  traveler  in  Russia  and  eliewhere,  appointed    3    A  son  of  Gideonby  a  concubine,  a  native 

professor  of  mineralogy  in  Dorpat  ii  1842.  of  Shechem,  made  king  of  Israel  by  the  She- 

Abidharma.    See  Abhidharmapitaka.  ehemites  (Judges  ix.).    His  reign,  which  lasted 

Abiezer  (a-bi-e'z6r).    [Heb.,  'father  of  help.']  th^ee  years,  is  assigned  by  Duncker  to  the  sec- 

1    Agrindson  of  Manasseh  and  nephew'^of  °^?  ^^^^  "^^Jf.  ^^t^  century  BC 
Gileadf  founder  of   an  important  family  to  Abmgdon  (aVmg-don).    A  towyn  Berkslnre 

J^^^o,joa^'^^^elj,tul.^e..s.,,nea.  f,"/S If ^ tL^ll^e^ fo^u^^^^^^^^^ 


6,557. 

A  family  of  Manasseh,  consequently  of  Joseph,  that  of  Abingdon,  Earl  of.     See  Bertie,  Willc 

Abiezar,  which  resided  at  Ophr^  to  the  west  of  Sichen^  ^|,j^|gr,  Baron.     See  SearUtt,  James. 

near  the  lower  slopes  of  Ephraim,  assumed  in  this  san  Vt:.    Si  '     /  x,/-       i      ^       a  4-^Z,^  ;«  i: 

ffi  StflaJfa  great  impoiSance,  knd  nearly  gave  Israel  Abmgton  (ab'mg-ton).     A  town  in  I 


Willmighby. 
times. 
A  town  in  Plymouth 


bo  (a'bo;  Sw.  ft'bo).  A  seaport,  capital  of 
Abo-Bjomeborg,  Finland,  in  lat.  60°  26'  57''  N., 
long.  22°  17'  3"  E. :  the  capital  of  Finland  be- 
fore 1819.  Itwas  founded  by  Eric  the  Saint  in  the  12th 
century,  is  the  see  of  an  archbishop,  and  was  the  seat  of 
a  university  which  was  removed  to  Helsingfors  in  1827. 
Population  (1890),  31,671. 

Abo,  Peace  (Treaty)  of.  A  treaty  between 
Russia  and  Sweden,  signed  Aug.  18,  1743,  by 
which  Russia  acquired  the  southern  part  of 
Finland  as  far  as  the  river  Kymeh  and  secured 
the  election  of  an  ally  as  Prince  Royal  of 
Sweden. 

Aboab  (a-bo'ab),  Isaac.  A  Hebrew  scholar  who 
flourished  at  Toledo  about  1300.  He  was  the  author 
of  "  Shulchan  hapanim  "  (table  of  showbread),  which  is 
lost,  and  of  "  Menorath'  hamaor  "  (the  light),  a  collection 
of  legends  made  from  an  ethical  and  religious  point  of 
view,  composed  in  seven  parts  to  correspond  with  the 
seven  branches  of  the  temple  candlestick  (menorah). 
Hiis  work  became  very  popular  among  the  Jews  every- 
where, and  was  translated  into  Spanish  and  German. 

Aboan  (a-bo'an).  A  slave  in  Southern's  play 
"Orouooko":  a  fine  though  secondary  char- 
acter. 

Abo-Bjorneborg  (i'bo-byer'ne-bdrg).  A  gov- 
ernment of  Finland,  Russia,  bordering  on  the 
Gulf  of  Bothnia.  Capital,  Abo.  Area,  9,335 
square  miles.    Population  (1890),  395,474. 

Abomey  (ab-6'mi;  native  a-bo-ma').  The 
former  capital  of  Dahomey,  in  lat.  7°  5'  N., 
long.  2°  4'  E.  Itwas  captured  by  the  French  in 
November,  1892.     Population,  about  20,000. 


Abominations 

Abominations,  Tariff  of.    See  Tariff. 

Abongo.    See  Obongo. 

Abony  (ob'ouy).  A  town  in  the  county  of 
Pest,  Hungary,  50  miles  southeast  of  Budapest. 
Population  (1890),  12,012.    Also  Nagy-Abony. 

Aboo.    See  Abu. 

Aboo-Bekr.    See  Abu-Behr. 

Abookeer.    See  Abukir. 

Abou.    See  Abu. 

Abou-Bekr.    See  AbvrBekr. 

Abou  ben  Adhem  (a'bo  hen  a'dem).  The  title 
of  a  short  poem  by  Leigh  Hunt. 

Abou-Hassan.    See  Abit-Sassan. 

Abou-Klea.    See  Abv^Klea. 

About  (a-bo'),  Bdmond  Frangois  Valentin. 
Born  at  Dieuze,  France,  Feb.  14,  1828:  died 
at  Paris,  Jan.  17,  1885.  A  French  novelist, 
journalist,  and  dramatist.  He  studied  arohseology 
at  the  French  school  in  Athens,  and  after  returning  to 
France  in  1853  wrote  for  the  "Moniteur,"  "Soir,"  etc. 
Napoleon  III.  made  use  of  his  pen  in  political  work  for 
many  years.  In  1872  he  was  arrested  by  the  Germans  for 
shooting  a  German  sentry,  hut  was  released.  With  Sarcey 
he  founded  the  "  XlXmo  Sifecle."  In  1884  he  was  elected 
an  academician.  Among  his  worlss  are  "La  Grfece  con- 
temporaine,  a  satire  on  the  manners  and  morals  of  the 
Greel^s  (1856),  "La  question  romaine,"an  attack  on  the 
papacy  (I860),  "Alsace "  (1872),  "Les  manages  de  Paris" 
(1856),  "Le  roi  des  montagnes"n.866), "  Germaine  "(1857), 
"  Trente  et  guarante  "  (1868), ' '  LTiomme  k  I'oreille  cass^e  " 
("The  Man  with  the  broken  Ear"  :  1861),  "Le  nez  d'nn 
notaire"  ("The  Nose  of  a  Notary":  1862),  "Le  cas  de  M. 
GuSrin  "  (1863),  "Madelon  "  (1863),  "  Le  roman  d'un  braTe 
homme  "  (1880),  etc. 

Abra  (ab'ra).  1.  A  character  in  the  romance 
of  "  Amadi's  of  Greece,"  the  sister  of  Zario,  the 
sultan  of  Babylon,  she  succeeds  to  the  throne  of 
Babylon,  after  her  brother  has  been  killed  by  Lisuarte 
whom  she  loves  and  finally  marries. 
2.  The  favorite  concubine  of  Solomon,  a  char- 
acter (of  remarkable  doeiUty)  in  Prior's  poem 
"Solomon  on  the  Vanity  of  the  World." 

Abra  was  ready  ere  I  called  her  name ; 
And,  though  I  called  another,  Abra  came. 

ii.  364. 

Abrabanel  (a-bra-ba-uel'),  Isaac,  Bom  at 
Lisbon,  1437:  died  at  Venice,  1508.  A  Jewish 
scholar  and  statesman.  His  family  claimed  descent 
from  the  royal  house  of  David.  He  was  treasurer  of  Al- 
fonso v.,  king  of  Portugal.  On  the  death  of  this  king  he 
was  deprived  of  his  fortune,  and  being  obliged  to  quit 
Portugal  (1481),  went  to  Madrid,  where  he  remained  eight 
years  in  the  service  of  Queen  Isabella.  Forced  to  quit 
Spain  after  the  expulsion  of  the  Jews  (1492),  he  proceeded 
to  Naples  and  entered  the  service  of  King  Ferdinand,  and 
thence  to  Sicily  and  Corfu.  He  was  a  writer  of  distinction 
in  the  fields  of  philosophy  and  biblical  exegesis.  Also 
Abarhanel,  Abravenel,  Bcmtanella. 

Abradatas  (ab-ra-da'tas).  A  Mng  of  Susa, 
first  an  enemy,  then  an  ally,  of  the  Persians 
under  Cyrus.  In  the  "  Cyropsedia  "  of  Xenophon  is 
told  as  an  episode  (our  earliest  sentimental  romance)  the 
story  of  the  loves  of  Abradatas  and  his  wife  Pantheia, 
which  ends  with  the  death  of  Abradatas  in  battle  and  the 
suicide  of  Pantheia  and  her  eunuclis. 

Abraham  (a'bra-ham).  [Biblical  etymology 
'father  of  multitudes'  (Gen.  xvii.  5):  also  called 
Abram,  exalted  father;  possibly  ab4-r<!lm,  my 
father  is  the  Exalted  One.  According  to  some 
Abraham  is  an  ancient  Aramaic  dialectic  form 
for  Abram.'\  Flourished  2000  b.  c.  The  first 
of  the  patriarchs  and  the  founder  of  the  Hebrew 
race.  Many  critical  scholars  do  not  consider  Abraham 
a  historical  figure.  The  narrative  in  the  14th  chapter  of 
Genesis  is  especially  considered  historical. and  ancient. 
The  date  of  the  events  there  narrated  is  fixed  by  Hommel 
at  2160  B.  0.;  according  to  the  usual  chronology,  1918  B.  c. 
Abraham  is  equally  revered  by  Jews,  Christians,  and  Mo- 
hammedans. He  was  buried  in  the  cave  of  Machpelah 
(the  double  cave)  at  Hebron,  now  said  to  be  inclosed  by 
the  Great  Mosque  (Haram)  of  that  place. 

Alm^amu  or  Abram,  Abraham's  original  name,  occurs 
on  early  Babylonian  contract-tablets. 

Sayce,  Anc.  Monuments,  p.  63. 

Abraham,  Plains  of,  or  Heights  of.  An  ele- 
vated plain  just  beyond  Quebec  to  the  south- 
west, along  the  river,  the  scene  of  the  battle 
of  (Quebec.    See  under  Quebec. 

Abraham  a  Sancta-Olara  (a'bra-ham  a  sank'- 
ta  kla'ra).  Bom  at  Krahenheimstetten,  near 
Messkiroh,  Baden,  July  2, 1644:  died  at  Vienna, 
Dec.  1, 1709.  Hans  Ulrioh  Megerle  (or  Meger- 
lin),  an  Augustiuian  monk,  court  preacher  at 
Vienna  and  satirical  writer.  He  wrote  "Judas  the 
Arch-rascal"  ("Judas  der  Erzsohelm"),  a  aatirico-reli- 
gious  romance  (1686);  "Gack,  Gack,  Gack  a  Ga  of  a  mar- 
vellous hen  in  the  duchy  of  Bavaria,  or  a  detailed  account 
of  the  famous  pilgrimage  of  Maria  Stern  in  Taxa"  (1687), 
etc.    His  collected  works  fill  21  volumes. 

Abraham  ben  Meir  ibn  Ezra  (a'bra-ham 
ben  ma-er'  "b'n  ez'ra).  Bom  at  Toledo,  1092: 
died  1167.  A  celebrated  scholar  of  the  Jewish- 
Arabic  period  in  Spain,  a  philologist,  poet, 
mathematician,  astronomer,  and  Bible  com- 
mentator. He  had  a  good  knowledge  of  Hebrew  and 
Arabic  grammar,  and  wrote  a  treatise  on  Hebrew  gram- 
raar,  "Sef er  moznaim  "  (book  of  weights) ;  also  160  poems, 


which  are  largely  used  in  the  Jewish  liturgy.  He  com- 
mented on  the  entire  Bible  except  the  earlier  prophets  ; 
drew  the  distinction  between  faith  and  reason,  tradition 
and  criticism  ;  was  the  first  biblical  critic  ;  wrote  a  work 
on  Jewish  philosophy  and  a  metrical  treatise  on  the  game 
of  chess ;  and  traveled  extensively  in  France,  Italy,  Spain, 
Greece,  Africa,  and  England.  He  was  known  to  medieval 
scholars  as  Avmare,  said  to  be  a  corruption  of  Abraham 

JudSRUS. 

Abraham  Cupid.    See  Adam  Cupid. 

Abrahamites  (a'bra-ham-its).  1.  A  branch 
of  the  Paulioians,  named  from  Abraham  (Ibra- 
him) of  Antioch,  its  founder. —  2.  A  small 
sect  of  Bohemian  deists  living  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  Pardubitz.  They  rejected  nearly  all  the 
doctrines  of  the  church,  and  professed  to  adopt  the  reli- 
gion of  Abraliam  before  his  circumcision. 

Abraham-man  (a 'bra-ham-man).  Originally, 
a  mendicant  lunatic  from  Bethlehem  Hospital, 
London.  The  wards  in  the  ancient  Bedlam  (Bethlehem) 
bore  distinctive  names,  as  of  some  saint  or  patriarch. 
Tliat  named  after  Abraham  was  devoted  to  a  class  of 
lunatics  who  on  certain  days  were  permitted  to  go  out 
begging.  They  bore  a  badge,  and  were  known  as  Abra- 
hawr-men.  Many,  however,  assumed  the  badge  with- 
out right,  and  begged,  feigning  lunacy.  Hence  the  more 
common  meaning  came  to  be  an  impostor  who  wandered 
about  the  country  seeking  alms,  under  pretense  of  lunacy. 
From  this  came  the  phrase  to  sjumi  Abraha/mt  to  feign 
sickness. 

Abraham  Newland.    See  Newland. 

Abraham's  Oak.  Aii  ancient  oak  or  terebinth 
which  long  stood  on  the  plain  of  Mamre,  near 
Hebron  in  Syria,  and  was  believed  to  be  that 
under  which  the  patriarch  pitched  his  tent. 
Wheeler,  Familiar  Allusions. 

Abraham  the  Jew  and  the  Merchant  Theo- 
dore. A  medieval  story,  invented  in  support 
of  the  worship  of  images.  "Theodore,  mined  by  a 
shipwreck  and  repulsed  by  his  friends,  borrows  money 
from  Abraham,  invoking,  as  his  only  security,  the  great 
Christ  set  up  by  Constantino  in  the  copper-market  before 
the  palace  at  Byzantium.  Again  Theodore  loses  all,  and 
again  the  Jew  trusts  him.  Theodore  sails  westward,  and 
this  time  prospers.  Wishing  to  repay  Abraham,  but  find- 
ing no  messenger,  he  puts  the  money  in  a  box,  and  com- 
mits It,  in  the  name  of  Christ,  to  the  waves.  It  is  washed 
to  the  feet  of  the  Jew  on  the  shore  of  the  Sea  of  Marmora. 
But,  when  Theodore  returns,  Abraham,  to  try  him,  feigns 
that  he  has  not  received  it.  Theodore  requires  him  to 
make  oath  before  the  Clu-ist  And  as  Theodore,  standing 
before  the  image,  passionately  prays,  the  heart  of  his 
benefactor  is  turned  to  faith  in  the  surety  of  the  friend- 
less."   Jebb,  Greek  Lit.,  p.  156. 

Abrahen  (ab'ra-hen).  A  character  in  Chap- 
man's tragedy"  " Eevenge  for  Honour":  the 
second  son  of  the  calif. 

Abram  (a'bram).  1.  See  Abraham. — 2.  In 
Shakspere's  ''iBomeo  and  Juliet,"  a  servant  to 
Montague. 

Abrantes  (a-bran'tes).  A  town  in  the  district 
of  Santarem,  province  of  Estremadura,  Portu- 
gal, situated  on  the  Tagus  at  the  head  of  navi- 
gation, about  75  miles  northeast  of  Lisbon.  It 
was  the  starting-point  of  Junot  in  his  march  on 
Lisbon.    Population,  about  6,000. 

Abrantes  (a-bron-tas'),  Due  d'.  See  Junot, 
Andoche. 

Abrantes,  Duchesse  d'.    See  Junot,  Madame. 

Abrantes,  Viscount  and  Marquis  of.  See 
Caiman  du  Pin  e  Almeida,  Miguel. 

Abravanel.    See  Abrabanel. 

Abreu  (a-bra'6),  Joao  Capistrano  de.  Bom  in 
Ceard,  Brazil,  1852.  A  Brazilian  historian.  For 
many  years  he  has  resided  at  Bio  de  Janeiro,  where  he  has 
been  assistant  in  the  National  Library,  and  professor  in 
the  Pedro  Segundo  College,  and  has  been  connected  with 
various  journals. 

Abreu,  Jos6  de.  Born  at  Porto  Novo,  Eio 
Grande  do  Sul,  about  1775 :  killed  at  the  battle 
of  Ituzaing6,  Feb.  20, 1827.  A  Brazilian  general. 
He  was  of  obscure  parentage  and  enlisted  as  a  common 
soldier,  but  rapidly  rose  in  rank  and  was  one  of  the  most 
distinguished  Brazilian  leaders  in  the  campaigns  against 
Artigas,  1816  to  1820.  In  the  latter  year  he  became  field- 
marsh^,  and  in  1826  was  created  Baron  of  Serro  Largo, 
taking  part  in  the  Uruguayan  campaign  under  the  Mar- 
quis of  Barbacena. 

Abrocomas,   or  Habrocomas.  and  Anthia 

(a-  (or  ha-)  brok'o-mas  and  an  thi-a).  An  old 
Greek  romance  by  Xenophon  of  iSphesus.  it 
recounts  the  adventures  of  the  two  lovers  so  named  before 
and  subsequent  to  their  marriage. 

Abrolhos  (a-brol'yos).  A  group  of  islets  off 
the  coastof  "West  Australia,  about  lat.  28°-29°  S. 

Abrolhos  Rocks.  A  group  of  islets  and  reefs  off 
the  coast  of  Brazil,  about  lat.  18°  S. 

Abrudb&nya  (ob'rud-ban"yo).  A  town  in 
the  county  of  Unterweissenburg,  Transylva- 
nia, Austria-Hungary,  about  28  miles  north- 
west of  Karlsburg:  the  chief  point  ia  the 
Transylvanian  gold  region.  Population,  about 
4,000. 

Abrutum.    Abricium  in  Moepia.    See  Deems. 

Abruzzi  and  Molise  (a-br8t'se  and  mo-le'ze). 
A  compartimento  in  the  modem  kingdom  of 
Italy,  containing  the  provinces  Chieti,  Teramo, 


Abt 

Aquila,  and  Campobasso.    Area,  6,380  square 
miles.    Population  (1891),  1,365,171. 

Abruzzo  (a-br6t's6).  A  former  division  of  Italy, 
comprising  the  provinces  of  Chieti,  Teramo, 
and  Aqnila :  a  part  of  the  former  kingdom  of 
Naples.  "Within  it  are  the  highest  and  wildest 
portions  of  the  Apennines. 

Abruzzo  Oiteriore  (a-brot's6  che-ta-ri-6're). 
The  old  name  of  the  province  of  Chieti,  Italy. 

Abruzzo  Ulteriore  (a-brot'so  ol-ta-ri-o're)  I. 
An  old  name  of  the  province  of  Teramo,  Italy. 

Abruzzo  Ulteriore  II.  An  old  name  of  the 
province  of  Aquila,  Italy. 

Absalom  (ab'sa-lom).  [Heb^i  'father  of 
peace.']  1.  The  tH'ird  son  of  David,  king  of 
Israel.  He  rebelled  against  his  father,  and  was  defeated 
and  slain  in  the  forest  of  Ephraim. 
2.  A  character  in  Dryden's  satire  "Absalom 
and  Achitophel" :  an  undutiful  son,  intended 
to  represent  the  Duke  of  Monmouth. 

Absalom,  Tomb  of.  A  tomb  so  named,  in  Je- 
rusalem. It  consists  of  a  rock-cut  basement  19  feet 
square  and  20  high,  surmounted  by  a  Fhenician  concave 
cornice  of  Egyptian  type,  above  which  is  an  attic  of  ma- 
sonry supporting  a  cylinder  capped  by  a  tall  concave  cone. 
At  the  corners  of  the  basement  are  cut  pilasters  with  Ionic 
columns  as  antse,  and  there  are  two  Ionic  semi-columns  on 
every  face.  Above  the  architrave  is  a  Doric  ttiglypb- 
f  rieze  of  late  type. 

Absalom  and  Achitophel  (ab'sa-lgm  and  a- 
kit'o-fel).  A  poetical  satire  by  John  Drydeii 
(published  1681),  directed  against  the  political 
faction  led  by  the  Earl  of  Shaftesbury.  The  sec- 
ond part  was  written  by  Tate  and  revised  by  Dryden,  and 
was  intended  to  show  up  the  minor  characters  of  the  con- 
tending factions.  The  success  of  this  attack  upon  Shaftes- 
bury was  unprecedented,  and  the  satire  has  been  said  to 
be  "the  first  in  the  language  for  masculine  insight  and  for 
vigour  of  expression." 

Absalon  (ab'sa-lon).  Bom  1128 :  died  at  So- 
roe,  Zealand,  Denmark,  1201.  A  Danish  prelate, 
statesman,  and  warrior,  archbishop  of  Lund 
and  primate.     Also  Axel. 

Absaroka  (ab-sa'ro-ka).  [Named  from  a  spe- 
cies of  hawk,  but  commonly  styled  'the  Oow.'] 
A  tribe  of  the  Hidatsa  division  of  North  Ameri- 
can Indians.  They  number  2,287,  and  are  on  the 
Crow  reservation  in  Montana.     See  Hidatsa. 

Abschatz  (ap'shats),  Hans  Assmann.  Baron 
von.  Born  at  Wiirbitz,  Silesia,  Feb.  4,  1646 : 
died  April  22,  1699.  A  German  poet,  transla- 
tor of  "Pastor  Fido"  from  the  Italian  of  Gua- 
rini,  and  author  of  sacred  hymns  still  in  use  in 
Protestant  churches.  A  selection  of  his  poems  was 
given  by  W.  Miiller  in  "Bibliothekdeutscher  Dichter  des 
17.  Jahrh."  (1824). 

Absecon  (ab-se'kon).  The  name  of  a  bay  and 
an  inlet  on  the  coast  of  New  Jersey,  northeast 
of  Atlantic  City.    Also  written  Absecum. 

Absentee  (ab-sen-te'),  The.  One  of  the  tales 
in  the  series  "Tales  from  Fashionable  Life," 
by  Miss  Edgeworth,  published  in  1812. 

Absolon  (ab'so-lon).  In  Chaucer's  "Miller's 
Tale,"  an  amorous  parish  clerk  who  comes  to 
grief  in  his  wooing  of  the  carpenter's  "wife. 

Absolon,  John.  Bom  at  London,  May  6,  1815: 
died  there,  June  26, 1895.  An  English  painter, 
best  known  from  his  water-colors. 

Absolute  (ab'so-lut),  Sir  Anthony.  A  famous 
character  in  Sheridan's  comedy  "The  Rivals," 
an  obstinate,  passionate,  self-willed,  but  gen- 
erous old  man.  The  following  passage  exhibits  his 
temper:  "SirArdh.  So  you  will  fly  out!  Can'tyoubecool 
like  me?  What  the  devil  good  can  jjossiom  do  !  Pomonis 
of  no  service,  you  impudent,  insolent,  over-bearing  repro- 
bate !  There  you  sneer  again  1  don't  provoke  me  I  But  yon 
rely  upon  the  mildness  of  my  temper — you  do,  you  dog! 
you  play  upon  the  meekness  of  my  disposition !  Yet  take 
care,  the  patience  of  a  saint  may  be  overcome  at  last !  but 
mark !  I  give  you  six  hours  and  a  half  to  consider  of  this ; 
It  you  then  agree,  without  any  condition,  to  do  everything 
on  eai'th  that  I  choose,  why,  confound  you!  1  may  in  time 
forgive  you."    Sheridan,  Hivals,  IL  I. 

Absolute,  Captain.  In  Sheridan's  "Kivals," 
the  son  of  Sir  Anthony,  a  spirited  soldier  and 
persistent  lover  who  appears  as  the  impecimi- 
ous  Ensign  Beverley  (and  is  thus  his  own  rival) 
to  win  the  affections  of  the  romantic  Lydia 
Languish  who  scorns  a  match  with  one  so  suit- 
able as  the  son  of  Sir  Anthony  Absolute. 

Absyrtus  (ab-s6r'tus).  [Gr. 'ii.'(fn)pT0f .]  In  Greek 
legend,  the  brother  of  Medea,  who  out  him  in 
pieces  and  threw  the  fragments  one  by  one  into 
the  sea  to  delay  her  father  (who  stopped  to  pick 
them  up)  in  his  pursuit  of  her  and  Jason.  Ac- 
cording to  another  legend  he  was  slain  by 
Jason.    See  Jason. 

Abt  (apt),  Franz.  Bom  at  EUenbuTg,  Prussian 
Saxony,  Dec.  22, 1819 :  died  at  "Wiesbaden,  March 
31, 1885.  A  German  composer,  noted  chiefly  for 
his  popular  songs  (""When  the  Swallowts  home- 
ward fly,"  etc.). 


Abu 

Abu  (a'bB).  A  moimtaia,  5,600  feet  high,  in 
Eajputana,  India,  about  lat.  24°  45'  N.,  long. 
72°  40'  E.,  the  chief  seat  of  the  Jain  worship. 
Its  slopes  are  covered  with  temples  and  tombs. 
Also  Aboo. 

Abu-Arish  (a'bS-a'rish  or  -a'resh).  A  town  in 
southwestern  Arabia,  24  miles  from  the  Red 
Sea,  about  lat.  16°  55'  N.,  long.  42°  40'  E.  Popu- 
lation, about  8,000. 

Abu-Bekr  (a'bS-bek'r).  [Ar. ;  said  to  mean 
'father  of  the  virgin,'  i.  e.  Ayesha,  Moham- 
med's wife.]  Bom  at  Mecca,  573 :  died  at  Me- 
dina, Arabia,  Aug.  22  (?),  634.  The  father-in- 
law  and  one  of  the  first  followers  and  chief 
supporters  of  Mohammed,  and  the  first  calif  or 
successor  of  the  prophet  (632-634) .  His  original 
name  was  Aid-eUKaaba.  Also  Aboo-Bekr,  Abou- 
Bekr,  Abii-Bakr. 

Abu-Habba  (a'bij-hab'a).  An  Arab  village 
about  16  miles  southeast  of  Bagdad.  Excavations 
were  made  there  in  1881,  and  the  site  of  an  ancient  Baby- 
lonian city  discovered,  probably  Sippar,  the  biblical  Se- 
pharvaim  (which  see). 

Abudah  (a-bo'da).  A  character  in  the  Eev. 
James  Ridley's  ''  Tales  of  the  Genii" :  a  rich 
merchant  who  in  seeking,  in  a  dream,  the  talis- 
man of  Oromanes,  which  insures  perfect  hap- 
piness, fiaids  it  in  love  of  God  and  submission 
to  his  will. 

Abu-Hanifah  (a'bS-ha-ne'fa).  Bom  at  Al- 
Kufah,  700 :  died  at  Bagdad,  770.  A  noted  Mo- 
hammedan imam  and  jurisconsult,  the  founder 
of  the  Hanifl  sect. 

Abu-Hassan  (a'bS-has'an).  In  the  story  of 
"The  Sleeper  Awakened"  in  "The  Arabian 
Nights'  Entertainments,"  a  citizen  of  Bagdad 
who  while  entertaining  the  disguised  calif  ex- 
presses a  wish  to  "be  calif  for  one  day."  The 
wish  is  granted  in  such  a  way  that  Abu-Hassan  is  entirely 
deceived,  to  the  great  amusement  of  the  oalit,  who  in  the 
end  makes  him  his  companion  and  favorite,  Shakspere 
has  adopted  this  idea,  from  an  older  play,  in  the  decep- 
tion practised  on  Sly  the  tinker,  in  the  induction  to  the 
"  laming  of  the  Shrew." 

Abukir  (a-bd-ker').  A  small  village  in  north- 
ern Egypt,  on  the  bay  of  Abukir  13  miles  north- 
east of  Alexandria.  It  is  near  the  site  of  the  ancient 
Canopus,  probably  a  little  to  the  west.  Here,  July  25, 
1799,  Napoleon  with  5,000  French  defeated  15,000  Turks. 
March  8, 1801,  the  English  under  Sir  Ralph  Abercromby 
captured  the  town  from  the  French.  Also  Abookeer, 
AbouMr. 

Abukir,  Bajr  of.    A  bay  north  of  Egypt,  be- 
tween Abukir  and  the  Rosetta  mouUi  of  the 
Nile,  the  scene  of  the  battle  of  the  Nile,  Aug. 
1  and  2,  1798,  in  which  Nelson  defeated  the 
French  fleet  under  Brueys,  who  lost  13  out  of 
17  vessels  and  9,000  men. 
Abu-Klea  (a'bo-kla'a).    Wells  in  the  Nubian 
desert  in  the  bend  of  "the  Nile  on  the  route  be- 
tween Korti  and  Shendy,  where,  Jan.  17,  1885, 
the  Mahdists  attacked  the  British  under  Stew- 
art, and  were  repulsed  with  severe  loss  on  both 
sides.    Also  Abov^Klea. 
Abul  Casim.    See  Abul  Kasim. 
Abulfaraj    (a'bei-fa-raj'),   or  Abiilfaragius 
(ab'ul-fa-ra' ji-ns),  sumamed  Bar-Hebrseus 
('Son  of  the  Hebrew').    Bom  at  Malatia  (Ma- 
latiya),  Armenia,  1226 :  died  at  Maragha,  Persia, 
1286.  Gregory  Abulfaraj  ibn  al  Harun,  a  Syriac 
and  Arabic  author,  the  son  of  a  baptized  Jew. 
At  twenty  he  was  made  bishop  of  Gula  and  afterward  of 
Aleppo,  and  became  maphrian,  the  dignity  among  the 
Jacobite  Christians  next  to  that  of  patriarch.  Of  his  many 
Syriac  and  Arabic  writings  the  best-known  are  an  auto- 
biography and  a  chronicle  in  Syriac,  a  universal  history 
from  Adam  down  to  his  own  time. 
Abulfazl  (a'bSl-fa'zl).     Assassinated  1602. 
Vizir  and  historiographer  of  the  Mogul  em- 
peror Akbar,  author  of  the  "Akbar  Nameh," 
or  "Book  of  Akbar,"  comprising  a  history  of 
Akbar's  reign,  and  an  account  of  the  religious 
and  political  constitution  and  the  administra- 
tion of  the  empire. 
Abulfeda  (a-bol-fa'da  or  a-bol'fa-da),  Ismael 
ben-Ali  Emad-eddin,    Born  at  Damascus, 
1273 :  died  in  Syria,  Oct.  26, 1881.    A  noted  Ara- 
bian geographer  and  historian,  prince  of  Hamah 
in  Syria :  author  of  a  geography  and  an '  'Abridg- 
ment of  the  History  of  the  Human  Race." 
Abulghazi  Bahadur  (a-bol-gha'ze  ba-ha-dor'). 
Born  1605:  died  about  1665.  A  khan  of  Khiva, 
author  (after  his  abdication)  of  a  history  of  the 
Mongols  and  Tatars,  translated  into  various 
European  languages. 

Abul-Hassan  Ali  ebn  Bekar  (a'bSl-has'an 
a'le  eb'n  be'kar).  A  character  in  "  The  Ara- 
bian Nights'  Entertainments,"  the  lover  of  the 
calif's  favorite,  Sohemselnihar.  Fleeing  from 
Bagdad  for  fear  of  the  calif's  anger,  he  dies  at  the  same 
hour  as  Schemselnihar. 


Abul  Kasim Mansur(a'bolka-sem'man-s8r'). 
Born  at  Shadab,  near  Tus,  in  Khorasan,  about 
940:  died  1020  at  Tus.  The  great  epic  poet 
of  Persia,  called  Pirdusi  (more  correctly  Mr- 
cZaMsJ  the  Paradisiac,  from  Firdaus,  Paradise). 
He  was  the  author  of  the  "Shahnamah,"  an  epic  of  about 
60,000  distichs,  that  sings  the  deeds  of  Iranian  and  Per- 
sian sovereigns  and  heroes  from  the  oldest  time  to  the 
fall  of  the  Sas8anidse(641  A.  D.),  and  contains  many  of  the 
ancient  epic  traditions  of  the  Iranians,  He  lived  long 
at  the  couit  of  Mahmud  of  OhaznL 

Abu-Nuvas  (a'bo-no'vas).  Died  815.  An 
Arabic  lyric  poet  who  lived  at  the  court  of  the 
califs  of  Bagdad.  His  songs  of  love  and  wine  are 
among  the  most  notable  in  Arabian  poetry. 

Aburi  (a-bo're).  A  town  15  miles  back  of  Akrd, 
West  Africa.  Owing  to  its  altitude,  it  is  used  as  a 
sanatorium  by  British  ofiicials  and  residents,  as  also  by 
the  Basel  Mission,  which  has  there  an  excellent  industrial 
school.    Population,  6,000. 

Abu  Shahrein.  See  Uridu. 
Abuskehr.  See  Bushire. 
Abu-Simbel  (a'bo-sim'bel),  or  Ipsambul  (ip- 
sam'bol).  The  ancient  Abuncis  or  Abooeis, 
a  place  in  Upper  Egypt  situated  on  the  Nile 
about  lat.  22°  25'  N.,  famous  for  its  two  rock- 
temples,  one  large  and  the  other  smaller,  buUt  in 
the  steep  face  of  a  cliff  by  Rameses  II.  For  the 
great  temple  the  rock  has  been  cut  away  to  form  a  smooth 
facade  about  100  feet  wide  and  high,  with  a  cornice  of 
seated  cynocephali.  Before  the  facade  are  four  enthroned 
colossi  of  Kameses,  about  66  feet  high,  and  comparatively 
perfect  except  for  the  splitting  away  of  the  head  and  arms 
of  one.  Over  the  central  portal,  in  a  rectangular  niche, 
is  a  figure  of  Ita  the  sun-god.  The  first  chamber  of  the 
interior  is  a  large  hall  with  8  Osirlde  piers,  and  mural 
sculptures  portraying  the  military  deeds  of  Rameses. 
Beyond  is  a  smaller  pillared  hall,  then  a  vestibule  before 
the  sanctuary,  which  contains  seated  figures  of  Amen, 
Ptah,  Horus,  and  Rameses  himself.  From  the  outer  hall 
8  lateral  chambers,  irregularly  placed,  are  reached.  The 
total  depth  in  the  rock  of  this  temple  is  over  200  feet. 
The  facade  of  the  smaller  temple  displays  six  rectangular 
niches  containing  colossal  figures  in  high  relief.  Between 
the  two  central  niches  is  the  portal,  which  leads  to  a  hall 
supported  by  6  square  piers  with  Hathor  capitals.  From 
the  hall  extends  a  corridor  with  two  small  chambers  and 
a  sanctuary.  The  whole  interior  is  sculptured.  On  the 
left  leg  of  the  injured  colossus  of  the  great  temple  is  a 
Greek  inscription,  one  of  the  most  ancient  specimens  of 
Greek  writing,  recording  that  when  Psammetichus  came 
to  Elephantine,  the  writers,  whose  names  are  given,  came 
to  the  spot  by  way  of  Kerkis,  It  dates  from  592  B,  0, 
Abusir  (a-bo-ser').  A  small  town  in  the  Delta 
of  Egypt,  south-southwest  of  Cairo,  the  ancient 
Busiris,  containing  pyramids  erected  by  kings 
of  the  5th  dynasty. 
Abu-Teman  (a'bo-te-man').  Bom  in  Syria 
about  807:  died  about  845,  An  Arabian  court 
poet  at  Bagdad,  and  collector  of  Oriental  poetry. 
Abydos  (a-bi'dos).  [Gr.  ii  "A.^vSoq.']  In  ancient 
geography,  a  town  in  Upper  Egypt  on  the  west 
bank  of  the  Nile,  near  the  modern  Ar§.bat-el- 
MadfAneh,  about  lat.  26°  13'  N.,  long.  31° 
52'  E.,  famous  for  a  temple  of  Osiris  built  by 
Setil.,  andalsofor  atemple  built  by  Rameses  n. 
The  former  is  described  by  Stabo  as  the  "Memnonion," 
The  plan  is  a  square  facing  the  northeast,  with  a  large 
rectangular  projection  from  the  back  of  the  southeast 
side.  From  the  outer  court  is  entered  the  long  first  hall, 
with  two  ranges  of  columns,  and  from  it  the  second  hall, 
with  three  ranges.  Both  these  great  halls  are  ornamented 
with  reliefs.  From  the  second  hall  there  is  access  to  an 
extensive  series  of  chambers,  corridors,  and  smaller  halls, 
all  decorated  with  colored  reliefs.  In  one  of  the  corridors 
is  the  chronologically  important  Tablet  of  Abydos.  (See 
below,)  A  number  of  the  chambers  are  covered  with  false 
vaults,  cut  to  shape  from  flat  lintels.  The  temple  of 
Rameses  is  also  dedicated  to  Osiris.  It  was  a  reci^ngle, 
preceded  by  a  great  inclosed  court  surrounded  by  Osirlde 
figures,  lirom  the  court  two  spacious  central  hypostyle 
halls  are  entered  in  succession,  and  from  these  open  a 
number  of  chambers.  The  gateways  were  of  red  and 
black  granite,  and  one  chamber  was  wholly  lined  with 
alabaster.  This  temple,  which  was  considerably  smaller 
than  that  of  Seti,  is  in  a  very  ruinous  state.  See  AbydoSj 
TcMet  of. 
Abydos,  or  Abydus.  In  ancient  geography,  a 
town  in  Mysia,  Asia  Minor,  on  the  Hellespont 
about  lat.  40°  11'  N.,  long.  26°  25'  E.,  noted 
in  the  legend  of  Hero  and  Leander,  and  as  the 
location  of  the  Bridge  of  Xerxes. 
Abydos,  Bride  of.  A  poem  by  Lord  Byron, 
published  in  1818. 

Abydos,  Tablet  of.  An  inscription  ipi  a  corri- 
dor of  the  temple  of  Seti  I,  at  Abydos,  giving 
a  succession  of  65  kings  beginning  with  Menes, 
covering  a  period  of  about  2,200  years.  A  simi- 
lar tablet  containing  18  names,  found  in  the  temple  of 
Rameses  in  1818,  was  removed  by  the  French  consul-gen- 
eral, sent  to  Paris,  and  finally  purchased  for  the  British 
Museum. 
Abyla  (ab'i-la).  [Gr.  'A/JU^  or  'A.pilv.']  In  an- 
cient geography,  a  promontory  in  Africa,  the 
modem  Jebel  Musa  or  Apes'  Hill,  opposite 
Calpe  (Gibraltar):  the  two  constitute  the  fa- 
mous "Pillars  of  Hercules."  Also  Abyla  Mons 
('mountain')  and  Abyla  Colvmna  ('pillar'). 
Abyssinia  (ab-i-sin'i-a).     [Arabic  Habash, 


Academy  of  France  at  Rome        « 

'mixed':  referring  to  the  character  of  the  popu- 
lation.] A  country  of  Africa,  part  of  the  an- 
cient Ethiopia,  bounded  by  Nubia  and  Sudan 
on  the  west  and  north,  by  the  Italian  posses- 
sions, DanaMl  country,  and  Adal  on  the  east, 
and  by  the  Galla  country  on  the  south :  area 
(estimated),  462,000  square  miles ;  population 
(estimated),  5,000,000.  its  inhabitants  are  Ethio- 
pians, Falasha  (the  Abyssinian  Jews),  Gallas,  etc. ;  the  pre- 
vailing language  is  Amharic ;  the  prevailing  religion  that 
of  the  Ethiopian  (Coptic)  Church  (founded  in  the  4th  cen- 
tury by  Frumentms,  bishop  of  Axum) ;  and  the  govern- 
ment a  feudal  monarchy  under  a  Negus  or  emperor  (N  egus 
Negust,  'king  of  kings ').  The  present  (1902)  sovereign  is 
Menelek  II.,  who  succeeded  to  the  throne  in  1889.  The 
surface  of  the  country  consists  mainly  of  table-lands  with 
mountain-ranges  reaching  an  elevation  of  about  16,000 
feet.  The  climate  is  temperate  and  salubrious.  The  prin- 
cipal exports  (through  Massowah)  are  skins,  ivory,  butter, 
§ums,  and  mules.  The  empire  is  divided  into  the  king- 
oms  of  Tigr6  in  the  north,  Amhara,  Gojam  in  the  west 
and  center,  and  Shoa  in  the  south;  and  there  are  many 
outlying  territories  and  dependencies.  The  chief  cities  are 
Ankober,  Gondar,  and  Adowa.  Abyssinia  was  visited  by 
the  Portuguese  in  the  16th  and  16th  centuries  in  the 
search  for  the  kingdom  of  Prester  John.  It  was  broken 
up  into  small  monarchies  down  to  the  time  of  the  adven- 
turer Theodore  who  consolidated  the  kingdom,  but  was 
overthrown  by  the  British  expedition  under  Napier  in  1868, 
Difficulties  with  Italy  in  1887  and  1888  were  followed  by  a 
treaty  of  "mutual  protection"  in  1889,  This  protectorate 
was  abrogated  by  Menelek  in  1893.  Among  the  explorers 
of  Abyssinia  are  Bruce,  Gobat,  Beke,  Parians,  Stern,  and 
Markham. 

Acacians  (a-ka'shianz).  A  branch  of  the 
Arians,  nanied  f roni' Aoacius,  sumamed  "Mo- 
nophthalmus" ('the  one-eyed'),  bishop  of  Ceb- 
sarea  (died  363),  which  occupied  a  position 
between  that  of  the  Semi-Arians  and  the  ex- 
treme Arians  (Auomoeans). 

Academic  Legion.  An  armed  corps  of  stud  ents, 
especially  in  the  revolutionary  troubles  of  1848 ; 
specifically,  an  insurrectionary  corps  of  the 
kind  which  was  conspicuous  at  Vienna  in  1848. 

Academy  (a-kad'e-mi).  The.  [Gr.  'AmSiiiieia.^ 
A  public  pleasure-ground  on  the  Cephissus, 
about  one  mile  northwest  of  ancient  Athens,  on 
land  said  to  have  belonged,  in  the  time  of  the 
Trojan  war,  to  the  hero  Aoademus.  it  was  sur- 
rounded with  a  wall  by  Hipparchus  and  further  adorned 
by  Cimon,  the  son  of  Miltiades,  who  bequeathed  it  to  the 
citizens  of  Athens.  It  was  the  resort  of  Plato,  who  taught 
in  its  groves  for  nearly  fifty  years,  till  his  death  in  348  B,  0. 

Academy,  The.  The  Platonic  school  of  philos- 
ophy down  to  the  time  of  Cicero :  so  called  from 
the  pleasure-^ound  above  described.  It  is  com- 
monly divided  mto  the  Old,  the  Middle,  and  the  New 
Academy.  The  chief  representatives  of  the  first  were 
Speusippus,  Xenocrates  of  Ghalcedon,  Polemo,  Crates, 
and  Crantor.  The  Middle  Academy  was  founded  by  Ar- 
cesilaus  about  244  B,  0,,  and  the  New  Academy  by  Car- 
neades  about  160  E,  0,  Sometimes  the  academies  of  Philo 
and  Antiochus  are  spoken  of  as  the  fourth  Academy  and 
the  fifth  Academy,  respectively. 

Academy,  French,  [P.  Acadimie  fran^aAse.'] 
An  association  originating  about  1629  m  the 
informal  weekly  meetings  of  a  few  (8)  men  of 
letters  in  Paris,  and  formally  established  Jan. 
2,  1635,  by  Cardinal  Richelieu,  for  the  purpose 
of  controlling  the  French  language  and  regu^ 
lating  literary  taste.  It  consisted  of  forty  mem- 
hers,  the  "forty  immortals,"  the  officers  being  a  director 
and  a  chancellor,  both  chosen  by  lot,  and  a  permanent 
secretary,  chosen  by  votes.  Among  the  objects  provided 
for  in  the  constitution  was  the  preparation  of  a  diction- 
ary, a  grammar,  a  treatise  on  rhetoric  and  one  on  poetry. 
In  1694  the  first  edition  of  the  celebrated  "Dictionnaire 
del'Acad^mie"  appeared,  while  the  seventh  appeared  in 
1878,  The  Academy  was  suppressed  by  the  Convention 
in  1793,  but  was  reconstructed  in  1796,  under  the  name 
of  the  "Class  of  French  Language  and  Literature,"  as 
part  of  the  National  Institute.  Its  original  organization 
was  restored  by  Xouis  XVIII.  in  1816, 

Academy,  Royal  Spanish.  [Sp.  Beal  Aea- 
demia  Espafiola.']  An  academy  founded  at 
Madrid  in  1713  by  the  Duke  of  Esealona,  and 
established  by  royal  confirmation  in  1714.  Its 
object  is  to  cultivate  and  improve  the  national 
language. 

Academy  of  Arts  and  Sciences,  American. 
A  society  for  the  encouragement  of  art  and 
science,  founded  in  Boston  in  1780.  It  has  pub- 
lished "Memoirs"  from  1785,  and  "Proceed- 
ings" from  1846, 

Academy  of  Fine  Arts,  The.  [P,  l'Acad6mie 
des  heavx  arts.']  An  institution  originating  in 
a  private  association  of  painters  in  the  14th  cen- 
tury, recognized  byroyalanthorityin  1648  under 
the  name  of  Academy  of  Painting  and  Sculpture, 
and  definitively  constructed  in  1655  by  Cardinal 
Mazarin.  At  the  creation  of  the  National  Institute  in 
1795  it  was  united  with  the  Academy  of  Architecture, 
founded  by  Colbert  in  1671,  to  form  the  fourth  class  of  the 
institute ;  and  since  1819  this  class  has  borne  the  name  of 
Academy  of  Fine  Arts,  It  consists  of  41  members,  10  hon- 
orary academicians,  10  foreign  associates,  and  40  correspon- 
dents. It  publishes  its  memoirs  and  transactions  as  well 
as  the  "Dictionnaire  g^n^ral  des  beaux  arts," 

Academy  of  France  at  Rome.    [P.  Academe 


Academy  of  France  at  Borne 

de  France  d.  Rome.']  A  school  of  fine  arts 
founded  at  Rome  by  Louis  XIV.,  where  those 
artists  are  sent,  at  the  public  expense,  who  ob- 
tain the  great  annual  prizes  of  the  Academy 
of  Fine  Aits  at  Paris.  See  Villa  Medici. 
Academy  of  Inscriptions  and  Belles-Lettres. 
[F.  I'Academie  des  inscriptions  et  helles- 
Zettres.]  An  association  composed  originally  of 
four  members,  chosen  by  Colbert  from  among 
the  members  of  the  French  Academy  to  draw 
Tip  inscriptions  for  the  monuments  erected  by 
Louis  XIV.  and  the  medals  struck  in  his  honor. 
It  received  a  separate  organization  in  1701,  which  was  con- 
firmed by  the  letters  patent  of  Louis  XIV.  in  1712,  and  was 
suppressed  by  the  Convention  in  1793 ;  but  at  the  creation 
ot  the  National  Institute  in  1795  its  members  were  incorpo. 
rated  in  that  body.  In  1816  the  title  was  restored  by  Louis 
XVIII.  for  the  second  class  of  the  Institute.  The  pres- 
ent Academy  of  Inscriptions  and  Belles-Lettres  consists  of 
40  members,  10  honorary  academicians,  and  8  foreign  as- 
sociates, with  50  corresponding  members  at  liome  and 
abroad. 

Academy  of  Medicine.  [F.  I'AcadSmie  de 
medeoine.'\  A  French  academy  founded  in  1820 
to  preserve  vaccine  matter  and  act  as  a  bureau 
of  information  to  the  government  on  sanitation 
and  the  public  health,  it  is  divided  into  tlu-ee  sec- 
tions: medicine,  surgery,  and  pharmacy.  It  publishes 
memoir^  and  carries  on  an  extensive  correspondence. 

Academy  of  Moral  and  Political  Science, 
The.  [F.  VAcadimie  des  sciences  morales  etpo- 
Utiques.'}  The  fourth  class  of  the  French  Na- 
tional Institute,  founded  in  1795,  suppressed  by 
Napoleon  in  1803,  and  reestablished  by  Louis 
Philippe  in  1832.  It  has  40  members,  6  hon- 
orary academicians,  6  foreign  associates,  and 
48  corresponding  members. 

Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of  Philadel- 
pllia,  Tne.  A  scientific  institution  organized 
m  1812,  and  incorporated  in  1817,  possessing 
a  valuable  library  relating  chiefly  to  natural 
history,  and  an  extensive  collection  of  speci- 
mens in  natural  history.  Its  publications  consist 
ol  a  series  of  "Journals"  from  1817  to  date,  and  of  "Pro- 
ceedings" from  1841,  besides  which  it  also  published"  The 
American  Journal  of  Gonchology." 

Academy  of  Sciences,  The.  [F.  I'AcadSmie 
des  sdences."]  An  institution  founded  at  Paris 
in  1666  by  Colbert,  approved  by  Louis  XIV.  in 
1699,  suppressed  by  the  Convention  in  1793,  and 
reconstituted  in  1795  as  a  class  of  the  National 
Institute.  It  numbers  68  members,  10  honor- 
ary academicians,  8  foreign  associates,  and  100 
corresponding  members. 

Academy  of  Sciences  at  Berlin,  The  Royal. 
[G.  J)ie  konigliche  Akademie  der  Wissensehaf- 
ten.'i  An  institution  founded  in  1700  by  Fred- 
eric I.  after  plans  submitted  by  Leibnitz,  and 
opened  in  1711.  its  present  constitution  dates  from 
1812.  It  is  divided  into  four  sections :  physical,  mathe- 
matical, philosophical,  and  historical.  The  regular  mem- 
bers are  paid,  and  hold  general  meetings  every  Thursday 
and  sectional  meetings  every  Monday.  Besides,  there  are 
foreign  members,  not  to  exceed  24,  and  honorary  members 
and  correspondents.  It  publishes  "  Abhandlungen  "  (till 
1803  "M^moires"  and  "ifouveaux  Mtooires")  and  "Mo- 
natsberichte." 

Academy  of  Sciences  at  Copenhagen,  The 
Boyal.  [Dan.  Det  hongelige  danske  Videnska- 
hernes  Selskab/]  An  academy  established  as  a 
private  society  in  1742,  and  received  under  the 
royal  protection  in  1743.  since  1742  it  has  published 
a  series  of  transactions  under  the  name  of  "Skrifter," 
and  since  1823  each  of  its  two  classes  has  also  published 
independent  memoirs  under  the  name  of  "Afhandlinger." 

Academy  of  Sciences  at  St.  Petersburg,  The 
Imperial.  An  academy  projected  by  Peter 
the  Great  with  the  assistance  of  Wolf  and  Leib- 
nitz, and  established  by  Catherine  I.,  Dec.  21, 
1725.  It  is  composed  of  15  professors,  a  president,  and 
a  director,  with  four  adjuncts,  who  attend  the  meetings 
of  the  society,  and  succeed  to  vacancies.  It  has  published 
"  Commentarii  Academise  Scientiarum  Imperialis  Petro- 
politanse"  (14  volumes  from  1728  to  1747);  "Novi  Com- 
mentarii Aoademiae,"  etc.  (20  volumes  down  to  17V7); 
"Acta  Academioj,"  etc.,  of  which  two  volumes  appear  an- 
nually. 

Academy  of  Sciences  at  Stockholm,  The,  or 
The  Royal  Swedish  Academy.  A  society, 
originally  private,  founded  June  2,  1739,  and 
incorporated  March  31, 1741,  as  the  Royal  Swe- 
dish Academy.  Its  quarterly  publications  are 
issued  in  annual  volumes,  of  which  the  first  40 
(to  1779)  form  a  series  known  as  the  "Old 

^FSiIlSSiCtjioilS- 

Academy,  or  Society,  of  Arcadians.  A  society 
founded  m  1690  in  Italy  by  Giovan  Mario  Cres- 
cimbeni  and  Gian  Vincenzo  Gravina.  Its  chief 
aim  was  to  establish  in  literature  the  simf>licity  of  the 
shepherds  of  the  fabled  golden  age  of  Arcadia. 

Acadia  (a-ka'di-a),  Acadie  (a-ka-de')-  [Ori- 
ginally Larcadia:  Acadie  is  said  to  have 
been  first  used  in  1603.]  A  former  French 
colony  in  America,  bounded  by  the  Atlantic, 


8 

the  Gulf  and  Eiver  of  St.  Lawrence,  and  west- 
ward by  a  line  running  north  from  tjie  mouth 
of  the  Penobscot,  it  was  colonized  by  France  in 
1604,  on  the  Bay  of  Fundy,  and  ceded  to  Great  Britain  by 
the  treaty  of  Utrecht,  1713  (except  Cape  Breton).  The 
French  settlers  in  Nova  Scotia  were  deported  by  the  Brit- 
ish in  1756. 

Acadian  Mountains  (a-ka'di-an  moun|tanz). 
An  occasional  name  of  the  elevated  region  in- 
cluded between  the  Hudson,  the  lower  St.  Law- 
rence, and  the  Atlantic,  and  comprising  the 
mountains  of  Canada,  Maine,  and  the  White  and 
Green  Mountains. 

Acajutla  (a-ka-Hot'la).  A  small  seaport  in 
Salvador,  Central  America,  about  40  miles  west 
of  San  Salvador. 

Acampichtli,  or  Acampixtli  (a-kam-pesh'tle). 
[Aztec,  'handful  of  reeds.']  A  chief,  or  so- 
called  king,  of  the  Aztecs  of  Mexico,  who,  ac- 
cording to  the  most  probable  chronology,  was 
elected  in  1375  and  died  in  1403.  He  led  the  In- 
dians of  Tenochtitlan  in  their  wars  with  Tecpan,  and  Ca- 
lais and  stone  houses  were  first  made  in  his  time.  His 
power  was  very  limited. 

Acapulco  (a-ka-pol'ko).  A  seaport  in  Guer- 
rero, Mexico,  on  the  Pacific  in  lat.  16°  51'  N., 
long.  99°  56'  W.  It  has  one  of  the  best  harbors  in  the 
country,  and  had  a  large  commerce  during  the  17th  and 
18th  centuries.    Population,  6,000. 

Acarnania;  or  Akarnania  (ak-ar-na'ni-a). 
[Gr.  'Mapvavia.l  In  ancient  geography,  a  divi- 
sion of  Greece,  bounded  by  the  Ambracian  Gulf 
on  the  north,  by  Amphilochia  on  the  northeast, 
by  .^tolia  on  the  east  (partly  separated  by  the 
Achelous),  and  by  the  Ionian  sea  on  the  west. 
Its  ancient  inhabitants  were  the  Leleges  and  Curetes. 
They  were  rude  mountaineers,  but  were  regarded  as 
Greeks,  and  as  such  were  allowed  to  participate  in  the 
Pan-Hellenic  games. 

AcarnaniaandiiEtolia  (e-to'li-a).  Anomarchy 
of  modern  Greece,  havinganareaof  2,036  square 
miles.  Its  capital  is  Missolonghi.  Population 
(1896),  126,898. 

Acaste  (a-kasf).  A  character  in  MoliSre's 
play  "Le  Misanthrope,"  a  gay  and  brilUant 
marquis,  a  lover  of  C61im6ne. 

Acasto  (a-kas'to).  A  character  in  Otway's  play 
"  The  Orphan,"  a  nobleman,  the  father  of  Poly- 
dore  and  Castalio,  retired  from  the  court  and 
living  on  his  estates. 

AcastUS  (a-kas'tus),  or  Akastos  (-tos).  [Gr. 
"AnaaTog.']  In  Greek  legend,  a  son  of  King 
Pelias  or  loloos,  an  Argonaut,  and  one  of  the 
hunters  of  the  Calydonian  boar.  He  was  the 
father  of  Laodameia. 

Acawais.    See  Accawais. 

Acaxees  (a-kaks'ez).  A  native  tribe  (now  ex- 
tinct as  such)  in  the  state  of  Durango  in  north- 
em  Mexico.  Traces  of  their  language  may  yet  be 
detected.  They  were  described,  in  the  last  years  of  the 
16th  oentuiy  and  in  the  17th,  when  first  met  with,  as  rather 
peaceably  inclined,  of  sedentary  habits,  and  as  sorely 
pressed  by  their  ferocious  neighbors  the  Tepehuanes. 

Acca.    See  Acre. 

Acoad.    See  Akkad. 

Accademia  della  Cmsca  (ak-ka-da'me-3.deria 
krSs'ka).  [It.,  'academy  of  the  bran,'"a  fanci- 
ful name  alluding  to  its  professed  object  of  sift- 
ing or  purifying  the  Italian  language.]  An 
academy  founded  at  Florence  in  1582  by  the 
poet  Grazzini,  with  the  object  of  purifying  the 
Italian  language  and  literature.  It  published  in 
1612  the  first  edition  of  the  "Vocabolario  degli  Accade- 
mici  della  Crusca,"  long  the  standard  dictionai?  of  the 
Italian  language. 

Accadians.    See  under  Akkad. 

Acca  Larentia  (ak'a  la-ren'shi-a).  A  mythical 
female  personage  in  the  early  history  of  Rome, 
sometimes  represented  as  a  public  woman  who 
bequeathed  her  wealth  to  the  citizens  of  Rome, 
sometimes  as  the  wife  of  Paustulus  and  the  nurse 
of  Romulus  and  Remus.  She  seems  to  be  of  Etruscan 
origin  and  connected  with  the  worship  of  the  Lares.  Also, 
improperly,  Acca  Laurentia. 

Accawais  (a-ka-wa-ez').  An  Indian  tribe  of 
British  Guiana,  the  small  remnants  of  which  in- 
habit the  river-banks  near  the  coast.  They  are 
allied  in  language  to  the  Garibs,  but  are  more  savage  and 
wandering  in  their  habits,  and  are  very  treacherous.  They 
often  attack  villages  of  the  more  civilized  Indians.  Also 
written  Accaways,  Accowaioa,  Akavais, 

Accho  (ak'o).    An  old  name  of  Acre. 

Acciajuoli  (a-oha-y6-6'le),  or  Acciajoli  (S-eha- 
yo'le),  Nerio,  A  member  of  the  Florentine 
family  of  that  name,  created  Duke  of  Athens 
in  1394.  The  title  was  retained  by  his  successors  till 
1466,  when  the  Turks  put  an  end  to  the  domination  of 
the  Latins  in  Attica. 

Acciajuoli,  or  Acciajoli,  Niccolo.  Died  1365.  A 
wealthy  Florentine  banker  and  statesman.  He 
served  for  many  years  as  the  chief  adviser  of  Joanna, 
Queen  of  Naples,  and  was  invested  in  1368  with  the  barony 
and  hereditary  governorship  of  the  fortress  of  Corinth. 


Accorso,  Francesco 

Acciajuoli,  or  Acciajoli,  Donato.  Bom  at  Flor- 
ence, 1428:  died  at  Milan,  Aug.  28,  1478.  An' 
Italian  scholar  and  statesman,  gonfalonier  of 
Florence  in  1473.  He  was  the  author  of  lives  of  Han- 
nibal, Scipio,  and  Charlemagne,  of  a  translation  of  some 
of  Plutarch's  "Lives,"  and  of  commentaries  on  Aristotle's. 
"Ethics"  and  "Politics." 

Accioli  de  Oerqueira  e  Silva  (ak-se-6'le  da  ser- 
ka'ra  e  sel'va),  Ignacio.  Bom  in  Coimbra, 
Portugal,  in  1808:  died  at  Rio  de  Janeiro,  Aug. 
1,  1865.  A  Brazilian  geographer,  when  very- 
young  he  emigrated  with  his  father  to  BraziL  In  1833  he 
began  the  publication  of  a  series  of  geographical  works- 
on  the  empire,  of  which  he  was  made  oflcial  chronicler. 

Accius  (ak'shi-us),  Lucius.  Bom  about  170' 
B.  c. :  died  at  an  advanced  age.  A  Roman 
tragic  poet  and  prose  writer,  especially  notable 
for  his  imitations  from  the  Greek,  though  he 
dealt  also  with  Roman  subjects.  Fragments  of 
his  tragedies  have  been  preserved.  AlsoAttius.  ["The 
forms  Accius  and  Attius  probably  differ  dialectically.  In 
the  MSS.  that  with  cc  greatly  preponderates ;  on  the  other 
band,  in  inscriptions  the  spelling  of  this  name  with  U  is. 
far  the  more  frequent."  Teuffel  and  Schwdbe,  Hist,  of 
Hom.  Lit.  (trans.),  I.  191.] 

Acco.    See  Acre. 

Accolon  (ak'6-lon).  A  character  in  the  "  Morte 
d' Arthur,"  a  knight  of  Gaul,  celebrated  for  his. 
combat  with  King  Arthur,  in  which  the  latter 
sought  to  regain  his  enchanted  sword  and  scab- 
bard of  which  Accolon  had  gained  possession 
through  the  aid  of  Morgan  le  Fay. 

Accolti  (ak-kol'te),  Benedetto.  Bom  at  Arez- 
zo,  Italy,  1415:  died  at  Florence,  1466.  An 
Italian  jurist  and  writer,  chancellor  of  the  re- 
public of  Florence  145&-66.  He  was  the  author 
of  a  history  of  the  first  crusade,  "De  Belle  a  Christlanis. 
contra  Barbaros,"  etc.  (1632),  which  served  as  the  foun- 
dation of  Tasso's  "Gerusalemme  liberata." 

Accolti,  Benedetto.  Bom  at  Florence,  1497: 
died  1549.  An  Italian  cardinal  (and  legate  in. 
Ravenna)  and  poet,  author  of  Latin  poems  col- 
lected in  "Carmina  illustrium  Poetarum  Ital- 
Oram." 

Accolti,  Bernardo.  Bom  about  1465:  died 
about  1535.  An  Italian  poet,  son  of  Benedetto 
Accolti  the  elder.    See  the  extract. 

The  same  age  gave  the  name  of  Unico  to  Bernardo  Ac- 
colti, of  Arezzo,  bom  before  1466,  and  who  died  after  the- 
year  1534.  Whenever  this  celebrated  poet  announced  his. 
intention  of  reciting  his  verses,  the  shops  were  shut  up, 
and  the  people  fiocked  in  crowds  to  hear  him.  He  was. 
surrounded  by  prelates  of  the  first  eminence ;  a  body  of 
Swiss  troops  accompanied  him ;  and  the  court  was  lighted 
by  torches.  But,  as  Mr.  P,oscoe  has  j  ustly  remarked,  there 
wanted  one  circumstance  to  crown  his  glory — that  his 
works  had  perished  with  himself.  Their  style  is  hard  and 
poor ;  his  images  are  forced,  and  his  taste  is  perverted  by 
affectation.  He  has  left  us  a  comedy.  La  Virginia ;  some 
octaves  and  terza  rima;  some  lyric  poetry;  and  some- 
strambotti,  or  epigrams. 

Sitmondi,  Lit.  of  the  South  ot  Europe,  I.  428. 

Accolti,  Francesco,  Bom  at  Arezzo,  1418  r 
died  at  Siena,  1483.  An  Italian  jurist,  profes- 
sor of  law  at  Bologna  and  Ferrara,  and  secretary 
to  the  Duke  of  Milan :  brother  of  Benedetto 
Accolti  the  elder.  He  was  one  of  the  most 
notable  jurists  of  his  age. 

Accolti,  Pietro.  Bom  at  Florence,  1455 :  died 
at  Florence,  1532  (1549  ?) .  An  Italian  cardinal 
and  legate  in  Ancona  (commonly  called  "  Car- 
dinal of  Ancona"),  brother  of  Bernardo  Ac- 
colti. He  is  said  to  have  had  an  important 
part  in  drawing  up  the  bull  against  Luther, 
1520.  ^         .  ' 

Accomplished  Fools,  The.  See  The  Tender 
Husband. 

Accoramboni  (ak-ko-ram-bo'ne),  Virginia 
or  Vittoria.  Died  at  Padua,  Dee.  22,  1585. 
The  Duchess  of  Bracciano,  an  Italian  lady  of 

freat  beauty  and  wit.  Her  first  husband,  Francesco 
eretti,  whom  she  married  In  1573,  was  murdered  in  1681 
at  the  instigation,  it  was  said,  of  Paolo  Giordano  Orsini, 
Duke  of  Bracciano,  whom  she  married.  On  his  death,  Nov. 
13, 1685,  she  became  involved  in  litigation  with  Lodovio 
Orsini  concerning  the  inheritance,  and  was  murdered  by 
him.  These  events  were  altered  and  adapted  by  Webster 
in  his  tragedy  "  The  White  Devil,  or  Vittoria  Corombona" 
(1612).  Her  history  has  been  written  by  Gnoll  (18/10),  and 
she  was  made  the  subject  of  a  novel  by  L.  Tieck,  "Vit- 
toria Accoramboni"  (1840). 

Accorso  (ak-k6r's6),  Latinized  Accursius. 
(a-k6r'§i-us),  Buono.  Bom  at  Pisa  about  the 
middle  of  the  15th  century.  A  classical  scholar 
and  rhetorician,  commentator  on  Caesar  and 
other  Latin  authors.    Also  Buonaccorso. 

Accorso,  Latinized  Accursius,  Francesco. 
Bom  at  Florence  about  1180:  died  about  1260. 
An  Italian  jurist,  for  a  time  teacher  of  law  at 
Bologna.  His  most  celebrated  work  was  a  body  of  ex- 
planatory glosses  on  the  Soman  law,  called  "  The  Great 
Gloss." 

Accorso,  Latinized  Accursius,  Francesco, 
Bom  at  Bologjna,  1225 :  died  at  Bologna,  1293. 
An  Italian  jurist,  son  of  the  preceding,  profea* 


Accorso,  Francesco 


9 


citizens  of  all  the  towns.  The  principal  officers  were: 
two  strategi  (after  265  B.  o.  only  one),  who,  in  conjunction 
with  the  hipparchus  or  commander  of  the  cavalry,  and  an 
under-strategus,  commanded  the  federal  army,  and  were 
intrusted  with  the  conduct  of  war;  a  state  secretaiy 


sor  of  law  at  Bologna.    He  entered  the  service 
of  Edward  I.  of  England  and  lectured  on  law  at 
Oxford  about  1275. 
Accorso,  Latinized  Accursius,  Mariangelo.    ...».»=.=-  ".-u  >,^=  ^>.uv,ui;.,  wi  „«i,  «.  »i,ai,e  aecreiaiy 

Lived  in  the  first  half  of  the  16th  century.     An     ^d  an  apparently  permanent  council  of  ten  demiurgi, 

Italian  literary  critic,  author  of  "Diatribse  in     who  appear  to  have  presided  at  the  great  assemblies. 

Ausonium,  Jul.  Solin  Polyhistora,  et  in Ovidii  •^?*f*^^  ^^.%}1:     [Gr..!i;taM(.]     The  Acheeans, 

Metamorphoses"  (1524),  etc. 
Accra,  or  Acra  (ak-ra').    See  Akra,  the  better 

spelling  of  the  name. 
Accrlngton  (ak'ring-ton).    A  town  in  Lanea- 

shireTEngland,  about  34  miles  northeast  of  a!!i!!Ii„„„„„    /„  i, /=  „=_%       rn      «        i. 

Live^oolT  Its  industries  include  calico-print-  ^^f^^^^hJ^'}Tlv:^^h^y^%2rf^-^' 

ing,  dyeing,  iron-founding,  coal-mining,  etc.    OPers.  Sa»ama«,  the  friendly  (Sayce),]   The 

Population  (1891),  38,603. 
Accum  (a'kom),  Friedrich  Christian.    Bom 


one  of  the  four  principal  races  of  the  Greeks. 
Their  chief  places  of  abode  were  southern  Thessaly  and 
eastern  Peloponnesus.  The  name  is  sometimes  extended 
poetically  to  all  the  Greeks.  In  Homeric  times  they  had 
a  certain  preponderance  of  influence  over  the  other  Hel- 
lenes. 


eponymous  founder   of  the   ancient  Persian 

royal  family  of  the  AcheemenidsB :  the  name  was 
«™m  ,^\^°™^/,  *■"«'»"<=?  "°"?\1^°-^  ^?™  later  used  as  a  family  name,  as  by  one  of  the 
at  Buokeburg,  Germany,  1769 :  died  at  Berlin,     gons  of  Darius  Hystaspis._    See  Ahssmenia^. 

[  '  ~         •■  --■       ^jj   ancient 

royal  family  of  Persia,  founded  about  600  b.  c. 

The  following  are  the  names  of  its  leading  members; 


June  28, 183g'.    A  German  chemist,  long  resi-  Achaemenidje    (ak-e-men'i-de). 


dent  in  London,  known  chiefly  by  his  "Prac- 
tical Treatise  on  Gas-light"  (1815),  and  his 
efforts  to  promote  the  use  of  gas  for  purposes 
of  illumination. 

Accursius.    See  Accorso. 

Aceldama  (a-sel'da-mai).     [Aramaic,  'field  of 


Achsemenes, '  Cyrus  the  Great,  Cambyses  (Gomates,  the 
Magian  usurper),  Darius  Hystaspis,  Xerxes  I.,  Artaxerxes 
I.,  Xerxes  IL,  Sogdianos,  Darius  Ochus,  Artaxerxes  Mne- 
mon,  Ochus,  Arses,  Darius  Codomannus.  Also  Achxme7i- 
ides,  Aehemenides,  Achemenidg. 


blood.']    A  field  said  to  have  been  situated  Achseus  (a-ke'us),  or  Achaios  (a-ki'os).     [Gr, 
southof  Jerusalem,  the  potter's  field,  purchased    "       '"     '"      '         ..-,..._. 
with  the  bribe  which  Judas  took  for  betraying 
his  Master  (whence  the  name).    It  was  appro- 
priated to  the  interment  of  strangers. 
Acephali  (a-sef 'a-li).     [Gr.  aid<paXoi,  without   Achala  ra-ka'vH)   'rGr  'Ava1a^  "l     In  ancifint 
!!;.^_f.^i:J    4  name  dven  to  various  parties  of  ^^}^'l±^yi^\^^^^ 


''A.xai-og.']  A  Greek  poet  of  Eretria  in  Buboea, 
who  flourished  from  about  484  b.  c.  to  448. 
He  was  the  author  of  forty-four  dramas,  only  fragments 
of  which  remain.  The  titles  of  seventeen  are  known. 
He  contended  with  Sophocles  and  Euripides. 


geography:  (a)  A  small  region  in  southern 
Thessaly,'  containing  Phthia,  hence  called 
Aohaia  Phthiotis.  it  was  probably  the  original  home 
of  the  Achaean  race,  and  it  retained  its  name  as  late  as 
the  time  of  Herodotus.  See  the  extract. 
Achsea  Phthiotis  was  the  tract  about  Mount  Othrys.    Its 


Christians,  in  the  5th  and  6th  centuries,  who 
rebelled  against  their  bishops  or  other  heads  of 
the  church.  The  most  notable  among  them  were  cer- 
tain Honophysites  who  rejected  (on  doctrinal  grounds) 
the  authority  of  Peter  Mongus,  bishop  of  Alexandria(482). 

ACerpaS  (a-ser  bas),  or  AterbaS  (a-k6r'bas),     sea-board  reached  from  the  middle  of  the  Pagassean  gulf 

ni.  Smlio'nV.oci /i>i  %s«''k„<.\       rc!»:/i  +«  1 — to  the  mouth  o(  the  Sperohclus.    Inland  it  once  extended 

beyond  Pharsalus,  called  anciently  Phthia  (Leake,  iv.  pp. 
484,  485) ;  but  at  this  time  its  northern  boundary  seems  to 
have  been  the  line  of  hills  stretching  from  Lake  Xyn- 
ias  (TavMi)  across  to  the  gulf  of  PagasEe,  and  terminating 
In  the  promontory  of  Pyrrha  (Cape  Ariglastri),  Westward 
it  was  bounded  by  the  Dolopians  and  Enianians. 

Rawlinstm,  Herod,,  IV.  108,  note. 

(&■)  A  mountainous  district  in  the  Peloponne- 
sus, bordering  on  the  Corinthian  Gulf,  north  of 
Elis  and  Arcadia :  originally  named  .ffigialus  or 
.ffigialeia,  that  is,  "The  Coast."  (c)  The  states 
forming  the  restored  Aohtean  League,  about 
280-146  B.C.  See  ^c7i»a»,  2.  (d)  A  Roman  prov- 
ince, of  uncertain  limits,  but  nearly  correspond- 
ing to  modern  Greece,  formed  probably  in  the 
1st  century  B.  C.  Its  northern  boundary  was  proba- 
bly drawn  south  of  Thessaly  and  Epirus.  The  province 
was  abolished  by  Nero,  but  was  reestablished  by  Vespasian. 
2.  A  medieval  Prankish  principality  in  Greece, 
corresponding  generally  to  the  Peloponnesus. 
Achaia,  A  nomarchy  of  modern  Greece. 
Area,  1,252  square  miles.  Population  (1896), 
144,826. 


or  Sichafbas  (si-kar'bas).     [Said  to  be  a  cor- 
ruption of  Siehar-Baal.']    In  classical  legend, 

the  uncle  and  husband  of  Elissa,  a  wealthy 

and  powerful  Tyrian  noble,  high  priest  of  the 

Tyrian  god  Melkarth:  the  "Sichaaus"  of  Ver- 
gil.   See  EUssa. 
Acerbi  (a-cher'be),  Giuseppe.    Born  at  Castel- 

GofEredo,  near  Mantua,   Italy,  May  3,  1773: 

died  Aug.  26,  1846.    An  Italian  traveler  and 

naturalist,  author  of  "  Travels  through  Sweden, 

Finland,  and  Lapland"  (1802). 
Acemus,  Sebastian.    See  Kkmowioz. 
Acerra  (a-cher'ra).   A  town  in  the  province  of 

Caserta,  Italy,  the  Roman  Acerrse  (Gr.  'Axep/nu), 

lOmiles  northeast  of  Naples.  Population,  14,000. 
Acestes  (a-ses'tez).     [Gr.  'A/cea-nig.']     In  Greek 

legend,  a  son  of  the  Sicilian  river-god  Crimisus 

and  Egesta  (Segesta),  a  Trojan  woman.    He 

figured  in  the  Trojan  war,  and  was  introduced 

by  Vergil  in  the  "Mneid." 
Ach  (aoh).    See  Aa. 
Acll&  (a-cha'),  Job6  Maria.    Bom  about  1805: 

diedat  Cochabamba,  1868.    A  Bolivian  revolu-  Achalm  (aeh'alm).     A  summit  of  the  Rauhe 

tionist.    He  served  under  Santa  Cruz,  1829-39,  and  under    Alb,  near  ReutUngen,   in  Wiirtemberg,   2,300 

Balllvian  in  the  war  against  Peru^  1841.    In  1858  he  was     f  get  high 

made  by  President  Linares  minister  of  war,  but  revolted,   a„i,„„„j.i.  /„v/„  „„iT,\      rrT.„ ™„  ^„ i,„ 

and  in  May,  1861,  was  proclaimed  president  of  Bolivia.  Achamotll  (ak  a-moth).     The  name  given  by 

He  held  his  post  during  a  period  of  great  disorder  until    the  Gnostic  V  alentme  to  a  lower  or  imperfect 


1865,  when  he  wa£  deposed  by  another  revolution. 

Achsea.    See  Aehaia. 

Achaean  League  (a-ke'an  leg).    1.  A  religious 
confederation  in  Achaia,  consisting  at  the  time 


Wisdom,  the  weakest  seon,  the  form  under 
which  spirit  surrenders  itself  completely  to 
matter  and  becomes  the  foundation  of  the  real 
world. 


of  Herodotus  of  twelve  cities :  Pellene,  JEgeira,  Achan  (a'kan).    An  Israelite  of  the  tribe  of 

SlgsB,  Bura,  Helike,  .^gion,  Rhypes,  Patree,  Judah,  stoned  to  death,  with  his  family,  for 

Phaiw,  Olenos,  Dyme,  and  Tritaaa.    Later  Ehypes  plundering  during  the  sack  of  Jericho.    Josh, 

and^aofellintodeoay.andtheirplacesintheconfederacy  vii.     Also  called  .4cAar.     1  Chron.  ii.  7. 

were  taken  by  Leontion  and  Keryneia.    In  373  B.  0.  the  Arharii  (Soh'SvtA    Prati^  TTarl       PinTn  nt.  ■Rbt. 

number  of  cities  was  reduced  to  ten  by  the  destruction  of  ACHara  (acn  ari;,  X  ranZ  ^ari.     iiom  at  iSer- 

Helike  and  Bura  by  an  earthquake.    A  common  sacrifice  l™,  April  .iS,  l/5d :  died  at  Cunem,  bilesia,  April 

to  Poseidon  was  held  at  Helike  until  that  town  was  de-  20,  1821.    A  German  chemist,  the  founder  of 

stroyed,  when  .aigion  became  the  center  of  the  confedera-  the  beet-root  sugar  manufacture. 

l'^u"slSi^i"o3dV.^ftSn^h^L^tc'h^STv^^!A^^^^ 

ties  of  ^gion.    The  confederacy  was  dissolved  by  the  Born  at  Marseilles,  April  23, 1814:  died  at  Pans, 

policy  of  Philip  of  Macedon  and  Alexander.  March  25, 1875.     A  French  novelist  and  dram- 

2.  A  political  confederation  of  Achsean  and  atist,  author  of  "La  Belle  Rose"  (1847),  "La 

other  Greek  cities  extending  over  the  period  Chasse  Royale  "  (1849-50),  etc. 

from  281  B.  0.  to  146  b.  C.    After  the  death  of  Ly-  Acharius  (a-ka'ri-os),  Erik.     Bom  at  Gefle, 

simaohus  in  280  B.  o. ,  the  Achaean  cities  I^me,  Patr»,  Tri-  Sweden,  Oct.  10,  1757 :  died  at  Wadstena,  Swe- 

teea,  and  Pharse  formed  a  confederation  to  resist  the  den,  Aug.  14,  1819.     A  Swedish  physician  and 

Z'^S^Kct^^^ei^i^t^^^ZViZ^  t  botanistja  pupil  of  Linn^us:  authorof  "Lich- 

251 B.  0.  the  confederation  acquired  new  strength  by  the  enogra;phia  umversalis,"  etc. 

accession  of  Sikyon,  under  the  leadership  of  Aratus.    In  AchamianS  (a-kar'ni-anz),  The.     [Gr.  'Axi^pvai, 

245  B.  c.  Aratus  waa_  elected  strategus  of  the  league,  Acharnfe,  the  principal  deme  of  Attica,  60  sta- 


which  under  his  guidance  rapidly  rose  to  national  im- 
portance. In  a  short  time  it  embraced  Athens,  ^gina, 
Salamis,  and  the  whole  of  Peloponnesus,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  iSparta,  Tegea,  Orchomenos,  Mantineia,  and  Elis. 
It  was  destroyed  by  the  Romans  in  146  B.  0.,  and  with  it 
fell  the  last  stronghold  of  freedom  in  Greece.  The  Achcsan 
League  is  remarkable  as  the  most  perfect  type  of  fed- 
eral government  which  has  been  handed  down  from  an- 
tiquity. The  confederation  was  inseparable,  every  city 
having  equal  rights  with  the  others  ;  in  foreign  affairs  the  4  tiit'ota  " 
feder^  government  was  supreme.  Common  affairs  were  iiCflasta.  > 
regolatol  at  general  meetings  held  twice  a  year  by  the  Acnastlian 


dia  north  of  Athens,  near  the  foot  of  Mount 
Fames.]  A  comedy  of  Aristophanes,  brought 
out,  under  the  name  of  Callistratus,  at  the  Le- 
nsea,  or  country  Dionysia,  425  B.  C.  it  was  an 
attempt  to  support  the  aristocratic  peace  party  against 
the  intrigues  and  intimidations  of  the  democratic  war  party 
represented  by  the  chorus  of  Acbarnians.  In  form  it  is  an 
extravagant  farce  rather  than  a  comedy. 


See  Eumsen. 


Achillini 

Achates  (a-ka'tez).  The  faithful  companion, 
"  fidus  Achates,"  of  .^neas. 

Acheen.    See  AcMn. 

Achelous  (ak-e-16'us),  or  AcheloSs  (-os).  [Gr. 
Ji;t:E/luof.]  In"  ancient  geography,  a  river  in 
Greece  (the  modern  Aspropotamo),  which  rises 
in  Epirus,  forms  part  of  the  boundary  between 
ancient  .^tolia  and  Acamania,  and  flows  into 
the  Ionian  sea.    Its  length  is  about  130  miles. 

Achenbach  (adh'en-bach),  Andreas.  Bom  at 
Cassel,  Germany,  Sept.  29, 1815.  A  noted  Ger- 
man landscape  and  marine  painter. 

Achenbach,  Oswald.  Bom  at  Diisseldorf, 
Pmssia,  Feb.  2,  1827.  A  German  landscape- 
painter,  brother  of  Andreas.  The  subjects  of 
his  works  are  chiefly  Italian. 

Achenwall  (aoh'en-val),  Gottfried.  Bom  at 
Elbing,  Pmssia,  Oct.  20,  1719:  died  at  Gottin- 
gen.  May  1, 1772.  A  German  scholar,  professor 
of  philosophy  (1748)  and  of  law  (1761)  at  the 
University  of  GBttingen.  He  is  regarded  as 
the  founder  of  the  science  of  statistics. 

Achern  (adh'ern).  A  town  in  Baden,  situated 
on  the  Acher  about  31  miles  southwest  of 
Carlsruhe.    Population,  3,000. 

Achernar  (a-ker'nar).  [Ar.  Akher-nahr,  the 
latter  part.]  The  first-magnitude  star  a  Eri- 
dani,  situated  in  the  southern  hemisphere  at 
the  southern  extremity  of  the  constellation, 
about  32J  degrees  from  the  south  pole. 

Acheron  (ak'e-ron).  [Gr.  'Ax^pi^'  probably 
derived  from  Heb.  ah'rdn,  the  west,  i.  e. 
the  direction  of  the  setting  sun,  darkness ; 
hence  its  connection  with  Hades.]  1.  In  an- 
cient geography,  the  name  of  several  small 
rivers,  of  which  the  chief,  the  modem  Gurla, 
was  in  Thesprotia  in  Epirus.  it  flowed  through 
the  lake  Acherusia,  received  the  waters  of  the  Cocytus 
(the  modem  Vuvos),  and  emptied  into  the  Ionian  sea. 
2.  In  classical  mythology,  a  river  in. Hades, 
and  later  the  Lower  World  in  general. 

Acherusia  Palus  (ak-e-ro'gi-a  pa'lus).  [L., 
'  Acherusian  bog,'  Gr.  'Axepovata  TJ^vij.l  In  an- 
cient geography,  the  name  of  several  small  lakes 
supposed  to  be  connected  with  the  lower 
W.orld.  The  most  important  were  the  lake  through 
which  the  Acheron  flowed,  and  one  11  miles  west  of  Na- 
ples, the  modern  Lago  del  Fusaro.  Like  Acheron,  the  name 
was  transferred  to  the  lower  world. 

Achill,  or  Achil  (ak'il),  or  Eagle  Island.  An 

island  in  the  county  of  Mayo,  IrelancL  off  the 
western  coast  in  lat.  54°  N.,  long.  10°  W.  Area, 
80  square  miles. 

Achilleis  (ak-i-le'is),  or  Achilleid  (ak-i-le'id). 
1.  An  unfinished  epic  poem  by  P.  Papinius 
Statius. —  2.  A  part  of  the  Iliad,  comprising 
Books  I,  VHI,  XI-XXTT,  regarded  by  some  crit- 
ics as  constituting  a  poem  of  which  the  theme 
is  the  "wrath  of  Achilles,"  and  which  is  dis- 
tinct from,  and  older  than,  the  rest  of  the  Iliad. 
See  Iliad.  The  name  "Achilleis"  was  first  ap- 
plied to  these  books  by  Grote. — 3.  A  poem  by 
Goethe. 
Achilles  (a-kil'ez).  [Gr.  a.;i;''^XEtif.]  A  Greek 
legendary  warrior,  son  of  Pelens  and  Thetis 
and  grandson  of  .^acus,  and  chief  of  the  Myr- 
midons, a  Thessalian  tribe.  He  is  the  central  hero 
of  the  Iliad,  which  is  largely  occupied  with  his  quarrel 
with  Agamemnon,  leader  of  the  Greek  host,  and  his 
martial  exploits.  He  was  the  slayer  of  Hector,  and  was 
himself  slain  by  Paris. 

In  Achilles,  Homer  summed  up  and  fixed  forever  the 
ideal  of  the  Greek  character.  He  presented  an  imperish- 
able picture  of  their  national  youthtulness,  and  of  their 
ardent  genius,  to  the  Greeks.  The  "  beautiful  human  hero- 
ism "of  Achilles,  his  strong  personality,  hisflerce  passions 
controlled  and  tempered  by  divine  wisdom,  his  intense 
friendship  and  love  that  passed  the  love  of  women,  above 
all,  the  splendor  of  his  youthful  life  in  death  made  per- 
fect, hovered  like  a  dream  above  the  imagination  of  the 
Greeks,  and  insensibly  determined  their  subsequent  de- 
velopment. At  a  later  age,  this  ideal  was  destined  to  be 
realized  in  Alexander. 

Symonds,,  Studies  of  the  Greek  Poets,  L  20. 

Achilles.  An  opera  by  Gay  produced  at  Covent 
Garden  in  1733.  Colmau  the  elder  brought  out 
"Achilles  in  Petticoats,"  altered  from  Gay,  in 
the  same  year. 

Achilles  of  Germany.  A  surname  of  Albert, 
Elector  of  Brandenburg. 

Achilles  Tatius  (a-kil'ez  ta'sM-us).  Lived 
probably  about  500  A.  D.  An  Alexandrine  rhet- 
orician, author  of  a  Greek  romance,  "Leucippe 
and  Cleitophon." 

Acllilleuni(ak-i-Ie'um).  Aplace  on  the  {promon- 
tory of  Sigeum,  in  the  Troad,  containing,  ac- 
cording to  tradition,  the  tomb  of  Achilles. 

Achillini  (a-kil-le'ne),  Alessandro.  Born  at 
Bologna,  Italy,  Oct.  29, 1463 :  died  Aug.  2;  1512. 
An  Italian  physician  and  philosopher,  sumamed 
"the  second  Aristotle." 


AcMn 


10 


Achin,  or  Acheen,  or  Atcheen  (a-ehen'),  or  Ackermann,  Rudolph.    Born  at  Sohneeberg, 


Atjen.  A  former  Malay  sultanate,  no  w  a  Dutch, 
dependency,  in  northern  Sumatra,  a  war  with 
the  Dutch,  which  began  in  1873,  resulted  in  the  virtual 
subjugation  of  the  country.  Population,  about  290,000  (?). 
Achin.  The  capital  of  Achin,  on  the  river  Achin 
about  lat.  5°  40'  N.,  long.  95°  20'  E 


Saxony,  April  20, 17G4 :  died  March  30, 1834.  A 
German  art-publisher  and  bookseller  in  Lon- 
don, son  of  a  coach-builder  and  harness-ma- 
ker, whose  trade  he,  for  a  time,  followed.  The 
establishment  of  lithography  as  a  fine  art  in 
England  is  credited  to  him. 


^^;,Si^«2^==^^&  Ac^in  island  (ak'lin  i'l^d^_^AU.g  island  i^-S^CoSurS^e  2  o»c^ 


Acre 

aoter  in  the  tale  of  Aoontius  and  Cydippe,  told 
bv  Aristsenetus  and  by  Ovid.  "Aoontius  gathered 
an  orange  in  the  garden  of  Venus,  and  having  written  on 
the  rind  the  words,  '  By  Artemis,  I  will  marry  Acontius 
threw  it  in  Cydippe's  way.  She  took  it  in  her  hand  read 
out  the  inscription,  and  threw  it  from  her.  But  Artenus 
heard  the  vow,  and  brought  about  the  marriage.  Wil- 
liam Morris  has  taken  the  legend  for  the  subject  ot  one 
of  his  poems  in  "The  Earthly  Paradise. ' 


in  the  group  of  the  southern  Bahamas. 

A  town  on  the  Caribbean  side 


by  old  Spanish-American  historians  to  Eichard 
Hawkins.  .    .     (a'kla) 

AcMsh  (a'kish).     1.  A  Philistine  king  of  Gath    „f  ^j^^  Isthmus"of  Panama,  probably  near  the 
with  whom  David  sought  refuge  when  fleeing    -  .  -.       _.  ' -^  ... 

from  Saul.     1  Sam.  xxi.  10-15 ;  xxix 


-2.  An 
other  king  of  Gath  who  reigned  in  the  time  of 
Solomon.     1  Ki.  ii.  39-40. 

Achitophel.    See  Ahithophel. 

Achmed.    See  Achmet. 

Achmet  (Seh'met)  I.,  or  Ahmed  (aii'med). 
Born  1589:  died  Nov.  22,  1617.  A  sultan  of 
Turkey,  son  of  Mohammed  III.  whom  he  suc- 
ceeded in  1603.  He  concluded,  Nov.  11,  1606,  the 
peace  of  Sitvatorok  with  Austria,  when  for  the  first  time 
the  Turks  observed  the  principles  of  an  international  law 
in  their  diplomatic  relations  with  Christian  nations.  In 
1612  he  concluded  an  unsuccessful  war  with  Persia. 

Achmet  II.,  or  Ahmed.  Bom  1642:  died  Feb. 
6,  1695.  A  sultan  of  'Turkey,  brother  of  Soly- 
man  II.  whom  he  succeeded  July  13,  1691.  His 
forces  were  expelled  from  Hungary  by  the  battle  of  Salan- 
keman,  Aug.  19, 1691,  in  which  the  grand  vizir  Kiuprili 
the  Virtuous  was  defeated  and  slain  by  the  Austrians 
under  Louis  of  Baden. 

Achmet  III.,  or  Ahmed.  Bom  1673:  assassi- 
nated 1736.  A  sultan  of  Turkey  1703-30,  brother 
of  Mustapha  II.  whom  he  succeeded.  He  was  in- 
volved by  Charles  XII.  (who,  after  the  battle  of  Pultowa 
in  1709,  took  refuge  first  in  Otchakofli,  then  in  Bender)  in  a 
war  with  Hussia,  which  was  ended  by  the  Peace  of  the 
Pruth,  1711  (see  Pruth) ;  took  Morea  and  the  Ionian  Islands 
from  Venice,  1715 ;  was  defeated  at  Peterwardein  in  1716 


bay  of  San  Bias.  It  was  founded  by  Pedrarias  m 
1615,  and  was  the  place  where  Balboa  built  his  ships  to  be 
transported  across  the  isthmus  in  1517,  and  where  he  was 
executed.  The  settlement,  for  a  time  important,  was 
abandoned  before  1680.  _        .    ,  ^ 

Acland  (ak'land).  Lady  Christian  Henrietta 
Caroline  (commonly  known  as  Lady  Har- 
riet).   Born  Jan.  3, 1750 :  died  at  Tetton,  near 

Taunton,  England,  July  21,  1815.    A  daughter    

of  the  first  earl  of  Ilehester,  and  wife  of  Major  A?ores.    Same  as  Azores 

John  Dvke  Acland  whom  she  accompanied  Acosta  (a-kos'ta),  ChnstoySoae, 

through  Burgoyne's  campaign  in  1777.    Her  ad-    A  Portuguese  traveler  and  naturalist,  author 

ventures  formed  a  noteworthy  incident  of  the    of  "  Tratado  de  las  (^ogas  y  medecmas  de  las 

Revolutionary  War.  .         „     ^^^i^^  o'^i,™**!®,   y^^^rr  •  i\  j»     -d 

Acland,  Sir  Henry  Wentworth.  Bom  Aug.  23,  Acosta,  Gabriel  (later  Uriel)  de.    Born  at 
1815:  died  Oct.  16,  1900.    An  English  physi-    Oporto,  Portugal,  about  1591:  committed  sm-^ 


Acordad  (a-kdr-TnaTH').  A  court  established 
at  Quer6taro,New  Spain  (Mexico), for  the  sum- 
mary trial  of  brigands  and  other  criminals. 
It  originated  in  an  old  Spanish  institution,  the  Santa 
Hermandad,  which  was  originally  a  kind  of  vigilance 
committee,  was  subsequently  converted  into  a  regular 
police  force  and  tribunal,  and  after  1631  had  courts  in 
Spanish  America.  In  1719  the  Quer^taro  court,  or  acor- 
dad was  given  independent  powers,  and  it  was  ordered 
that  there  should  be  no  appeal  from  it;  its  officers  had 
lurisdiction  throughout  New  Spain.  The  court  was  sup- 
pressed in  1813,  but  its  methods  are  still  m  vogue  in 
Mexico. 


Died  1580. 


cian,  regius  professor  of  medicine  in  Oxford 
1857-94.    He  accompanied  the  Prince  of  Wales 
to  America  in  1860. 
Acland,  John  Dyke.    Died  at  Piston  Park, 


eiSe,  1647  (1640  ?).  A  Portuguese  philosopher 
and  Jevrish  proselyte  from  Catholicism.  He  was 
excommunicated  by  the  synagogue  at  Amsterdam  on  ac- 
count of  rationalism.  His  autobiography  was  published 
under  the  title  "Exemplar  vitJe  humana) "  (1687). 


near  Dulverton,  England,  Oct.  31,  1778.    An  ^pogtg,  Joaq.uin.    Born  in  Guaduas,  Colombia, 


English  soldier  and  politician.  As  member  of  Par- 
liament he  was  a  vigorous  opponent  of  the  demands  of 
the  American  colonies,  and,  as  major  of  the  20th  Foot, 
joined  Burgoyne's  expedition  during  the  Revolutionary 
War.  He  was  wounded  in  the  second  battle  of  Saratoga 
and  taken  prisoner.  During  the  campaign  he  was  accom- 
panied by  his  wife.    See  jdcZaJMZ,  Lady. 


andat'Beigradin  1717  by  the  Austrians  under  Prince  AcUa-huasi  (ak-lya-wa'se).  In  the  Inea  em 
Eugene ;  and  signed  the  treaty  of  Passarowitz  in  1718  (see  pijg  gf  Peru,  a  general  name  given  to  any  con 
Passarowitz).    He  was  compeUed  by  the  janizaries  to  re-  ,     .  vironTis  dedicated  to  the  sun :  in  narticu 


ventof  virgins  dedicated  to  the  sun:  in  particu-      j-->' 

lar,  the  great  convent  at  Cuzoo  where  virgins  Acosta,  JOSede. 
of  royal  lineage  were  kept  in  rigid  seclusion.  " 

Its  site  is  now  covered  by  the  Roman  Catholic  convent  of 
Santa  Catalina,  but  remains  of  the  old  wall  are  discernible. 
[L.;  Gr.  aKoijiijTai,  '  the 
sleepless  ones '  or  watchers.]  A  monastic  or- 
der founded  by  Alexander,  a  Syrian  monk, 
about  430.  The  day  was  divided  into  three  parts  during 
each  of  which  one  third  of  the  monks  carried  on  their  devo- 
tions so  that  the  worship  in  the  monastery  was  unceasing. 
Acolastus  (ak-0-las'tus).  A  Latin  comedy  com- 
posed by  Gulieimus  Fullonius  (Willem  de  Voi- 
der), a  schoolmaster  of  The  Hague,  and  trans- 
lated into  English  prose  and  published  in  1540 
by  John  Palsgrave  with  the  Latin  version :  first 

acted  in  1529.  It  was  designed  for  use  in  schools,  and  Acqua  (a'kwa),  Cesare  dell".  Bom  at  Pirano, 
there  were  forty  different  issues  of  it  during  the  lifetime  Istria,  July  22,  1821.  A  painter  of  portraits 
of  the  author.  ,      .    ,     i.t       ^'^^  historical  subjects. 

1567:    died    at  Acolhnas  (a-ko-lo'az).    A  branch  of  the  Na-  j^gq^apendente  (a'kwa-pen-den'te).    A  small 
A  German  phi-    huatl  tribe  of  central  Mexico,  reported  by  tra-    town  in  the  province  of  Rome,  Italy,  67  miles 
dition  to  have  preceded  the  Aztecas  in  the  oc-    northwest  of  Rome. 

eupation  of  the  valley  of  Mexico,  and  to  have  Acquaviva  (a-kwa-ve'va).  A  town  intheprov- 
been  the  founders  of  the  Indian  settlement  at  juce  of  Bari,  Italy,  18  miles  south  by  west  of 
Tezoueo.    Mso  Acolhuans.  ~     ■      ~       -■         -         


sign,  and  died  of  poison  in  prison. 
Achmet,  or  Ahmed,  Bey.    Died  July  16,  1822. 
A  Turkish  commander  in  the  Greek  war  of  in- 
dependence.    He  was  repulsed  by  the  Greeks,  May  27, 
1821,  in  an  attack  on  the  fortified  post  at  Valtetzi.  .  -j.      /       -      -/4.-\ 

Achmet,  or  Ahmed,  Kiuprili.  Bom  1635:  died  ■^ff^^itfi^f/''^  ^t^ 

1676.    Grand  vizir  of  the  Ottoman  empire  from    °  """  °°°  '^'"°°    "'^  "'" 

1661  to  1676.     He  added  Candia,  Neuhausel  in 

Hungary,   and  Kamieniec  in  Poland  to  the 

empire. 
Achmetha.    See  Ecbatana. 
Achomawi  (a-ch6-mS,'vn).    An  almost  extinct 

tribe  of  North  American  Indians.     See  Pa- 

laihnihan. 
Achray  (ak'ra),  Loch.    A  lake  about  2  miles 

long,  in  western  Perthshire,  Scotland,  17  mUes 

northwest  of  Stirling. 
Acidalius  (at-si-da'li-os),  Valens.    Bom  at 

Wittstock,   Prussia,  May  25, 

Neisse,  Prussia,  May  25,  1595. 

lologist  and  man  of  letters,  author  of  commen- 
taries on  Latin  classics. 
Acilia  gens  (a-sil'i-a  jenz).     In  ancient  Rome, 

a  clan  or  house  whose  family  names  were  Avi- 


about  '1795:  "died  at  Bogota,  1852.  A  Colom- 
bian soldier  and  historian.  He  entered  Bolivar's 
army  in  1819,  and  before  his  death  had  attained  the  rank 
of  general.  He  was  also  a  member  of  congi-ess  and  held 
important  diplomatic  posts.  Besides  traveling  and  con- 
ducting extensive  investigations  in  Colombia,  he  visited 
Spain  in  184B  to  search  the  archives  there,  and  spent 
several  years  in  Paris  where  he  published  his  "  Compendio 
historico  del  descubrimiento  y  colonizaoion  de  la  Nueva 
Granada  "  (1848). 

'  ■  Bom  at  Medina  del  Campo, 
Old  Castile,  1540 :  died  at  Salamanca,  Feb.  15, 
1600.  A  Spanish  Jesuit  historian  and  arohsBolo- 
gist.  He  went  to  Peru  in  1671,  was  historiographer  of 
the  council  of  bishops  at  Lima  1582-88,  in  1586  resided 
for  some  time  in  Mexico,  returned  to  Spain  in  1587,  vis- 
ited Rome  in  1590,  was  subsequently  at  the  head  of  the 
Jesuits'  College  at  Valladolid,  was  visitor  in  Aragon  and 
Andalusia,  and  finally  had  charge  of  the  College  at  Sala- 
manca. The  first^wo  books  of  his  "Natural  and  Moral 
History  of  the  Indies,"  in  Latin,  appeared  at  Salamanca 
in  1588  and  1589 ;  the  entire  work  in  Spanish  at  Seville  in 
1690.  There  are  many  editions  in  Spanish,  Latin,  Italian, 
French,  Dutch,  German,  and  English.  He  also  published 
the  "Concilium  Limense  "  (Rome,  1589),  "De  pronmlga. 
tione  evangelii  apud  barbaros  "  (1689),  and  various  theo- 
logical treatises  in  Latin. 


ola,  Balbus,  and  Glabrio.    Members  of  the  last  Acoma  (a'ko-ma).    [Properly  Ako,  but,  with 


two  families  were  frequently  tribunes  of  the 

plebs. 
Aclre^lle,  or  Aci  Reale  (a'che-re-a'le).  A  city 

in  the  province  of  Catania,  Sicily,  situated  on 

the  eastern  coast  9  miles  north-northeast  of 

Catania.    Near  it  are  the  grotto  of  Galatea,  the  cave  of 

Polyphemus,  and  the  Rocks  of  the  Cyclops.    Population, 

about  22,000. 
Acis(a'sis).  [Gr. 'a./«f.]  In  classical  mythology, 

a  beautiful  Sicilian,  son  of  Faunus  and  Symae- 

this,  beloved  by  Galatea,  and  slain  by  Polyphe- 
mus the  Cyclops,  his  unsuccessful  rival.    He  was 

crushed  under  a  rock,  and  his  blood  as  it  flowed  forth  was 

changed  into  the  river  Acis. 
Acis  and  Galatea.    A  pastoral  opera  by  Han-  _^comat(a-k6-ma').  InRacine'stragedy  "Baja- 

del  composed  m  1720  or  1^21.    The  words  are  by  ^^5?'J^*^^„^^^.^.;„„j.„.,;^  S     1  J 


the  affix  -ma,  indicative  of  tribe  or  people,  cor- 
rupted into  Aeoma  or  Alcoma.']  An  Indian  vil- 
lage of  western  New  Mexico,  situated  about 
14  miles  south  of  the  station  of  Cubero  on  the 
Atlantic  and  Pacific  Railroad  in  Valencia  Coun- 
ty. Acoma  was  first  visited  by  the  Spaniards  under  Coro- 
nado  in  Sept.,  1540,  and  appears  in  the  chronicles  of  that 
time  as  Acuco  (a  corruption  of  Ha-Icu-kia). 
Acoma.  A  tribe  of  North  American  Indians, 
about  550  in  number,  inhabiting  the  pueblo  of 


Bari.    Population,  about  8,000. 

Acqui  (a'kwe).  A  town  in  the  province  of  Ales- 
sandria, Italy,  the  ancient  AquEe  Statiellse,  sit- 
uated on  the  Bormida  29  miles  northwest  of 
Genoa,  noted  for  hot  sulphur  baths.  It  has  a 
cathedral  and  silkworm  industry.  Population, 
about  10,000. 

Acrse  (a'kre).  [Gr.  "AKpai."]  In  ancient  geog- 
raphy, a  city  of  Sicily,  a  colony  of  Syracuse, 
on  the  site  of  the  modem  Palazzolo  Acreide 
(which  see). 


5ay,"vritt"idditioTs  from  Pope,  Hughes,  and  Dryden:     zet,"  an  ambitious  vizir. 

"aoI   Galatea  e  Polifemo"  is  another  work  by  Handel  AcOncagUa   (a-kon-ka'gwa).     A   province   in 

composed  in  Italy  in  1708-09.    Grove.  _  ^        central  ChUe,  bounded  by  Coquimbo  on  the 


the  same  name  in  Western  New  Me:rico.    This  Acragas,  or  Akragas  (ak'ra-gas).     [Gr.  'AKpi- 

yag.]  The  Greek  name  of  Agngentum. 
Acrasia  (a-kra'zi-a).  [Gr.  aKpaala,  intemper- 
ance, immoderateness.]  In  Spenser's  "Faerie 
Queene,"  a  beautiful  woman,tne  personification 
of  intemperance  in  all  things,  living  in  the 
"Bower  of  Bliss,"  in  which  is  everything  to  de- 
light the  senses.    She  was  suggested  by  Circe 


and  Isleta  are  the  only  pueblos  occupying  the  same  site 
since  the  Spanish  invasion  in  the  16th  century.  It  in- 
cludes the  summer  villages  ot  Acomita  and  Pueblito.  See 
Keresan. 


AcTs'etGalatle(a-sez'aga-la-ta').Anoperaby    north,  and  by  Santiago  and  Valparaiso  on  the  K^:I^Tit^s^^}'^<  by  the  Alcina  of  Ariosto. 
T^iif/^^X,  °;.  ^<.T,,™»^:rnT,^  nrn^iced  in  1686.    =,,„+>,'   n=™/ai  s,^  VMr.^    A™^  K  nit\  =n„o™  Acratcs  (ak-ra  tez).  [Gr.  a/cpaT^f,  intemperate.] 


LuUi  (words  by  Campistron)  produced  in  1686.     south'.   Capital,  San  Felipe.  Area,  5,840  square 
Ackermann  (ak'er-man),  Johann  Christian    miles.     Population  (1891),  153,049. 
Gottlieb.    Bom  Feb.  17, 1756 :  died  at  Altorf ,  Aconcagua,  Mount.  One  of  the  highestpeaks  of 


Bavaria,  March  9,  1801.  A  German  medical 
writer,  author  of  "Institutiones  historire  medi- 
cinse"  (1792),  and  lives  of  Hippocrates,  Theo- 
phrastus,  Diosoorides,  Aretseus,  Rufus  Ephe- 
sius,  and  Galen. 

Ackermann.  Konrad  Ernst.  Bom  m  Schwe- 
rin,  Germany,  Feb.  1, 1712 :  died  at  Hamburg, 
Nov.  13,  1771.  A  noted  German  actor.  He  ap- 
peared on  the  stage  first  in  Liineburg  (Jan.,  1740),  trav- 
eled with  various  companies  for  several  years,  and  erected 
and  conducted  a  theater  in  Hamburg  (1764-67)..  He  is  re- 
garded as  the  founder  of  the  German  school  of  actmg. 


the  Andes,  situated  in  the  provinces  of  San  Juan 
and  Mendoza,  Argentina,  about  lat.  32°  31'  S., 
long. 69° 50'  W.  Height, 22,860feet(Gussfeldt). 

Aconcio  (a-kon'cho),  Giacomo.  Bom  at 
Trent,  Tyrol,  about  1500:  died  at  London,  about 
1566.  An  Italian  theologian  and  engineer,  a 
refugee  in  England  in  the  time  of  Queen  Eliza- 
beth, to  whom  he  dedicated  his  "  Stratagemata 
SatanEe "  (1565).  Also  Aconzio,  Concio,  and 
Latinized  Acontitis  (Jacobus). 

Acontius  (a-kon'shi-us).    The  principal  char- 


A  male  character  in  the  "Faerie  Queene,"  by 
Spenser,  personifying  the  intemperate  love  of 
pleasure. 

Acre  (a'k^r  or  a'kfer),  or  Saint-Jean  d'Acre. 
A  seaport  in  Palestine,  Asiatic  Turkey,  on  the 
bay  of  Acre  about  lat.  32°  56'  N.,  long.  35°  4' 
E. :  the  ancient  Acca,  Acoo  ('iim/,  'l/i.KX(o),  the 
scriptural  Aecho,  and  the  later  Ptolemais.  it  is 
one  of  the  chief  ports  for  the  Paleetine  coast  It  was  in 
the  territory  assigned  to  the  tribe  of  Asher  (Judges  i.  31), 
but  was  never  conquered  by  the  Israelites.  Its  kings 
were  reckoned  next  to  those  of  Tyre  and  Sidon.  It  was  . 
conquered  by  the  Assyrian  king  Sennacherib  and  captured 
and  ruined  by  his  grandson  Assurbanipal.  It  was  captured 
by  the  Arabs  in  638,  by  the  Crusaders  in  1104,  by  Saladin 


Acre 

in  1187,  and  by  the  Crusaders  in  1191 ;  and  was  held  by 
the  Knights  ot  St.  John  until  1291,  being  the  last  strong- 
hold in  Palestine  to  hold  out  for  the  Christians.  Sir 
Sidney  Smith  defended  it  successfully  against  Napoleon 
in  1799.  In  1832  it  was  taken  by  Ibrahim  Fasha,  and  in 
1840  by  the  Anglo- Austrian-Turkish  forces.  It  was  named 
SaM-Jean  d'Aere  by  the  Knights  of  St.  John.  Population, 
8,000. 

As  PtolemaJLB,  Akko  played  a  most  important  part  in  the 
Orseco-Roman  age;  as  Acre,  it  has  been  famous  in  his- 
tory from  the  period  of  the  Crusades  to  times  within  our 
own  memory.  It  occupied  the  north-western  extremity 
of  the  great  bay  which  indents  the  Syrian  coast  north  of 
Carmel,  a  bay  eight  miles  across  and  about  four  miles 
deep.  Its  own  haven  was  small  and  exposed ;  but  on  the 
opposite  side  of  the  bay,  under  Carmel,  was  the  sheltered 
roadstead  of  Haifa;  and  either  at  Akko  or  at  Haifa  vessels 
could  ride  securely  in  almost  all  sorts  of  weather.  The 
great  importance  of  Akko  was  that  it  commanded  the  en- 
trance to  the  broad  plain  of  Esdraelon,  conducting  to  the 
rich  valley  of  the  Jordan,  and  so  was,  in  a  certain  sense, 
as  it  was  often  called,  "the  key  of  Palestine."  Its  kings 
were  reckoned  next  in  rank  to  those  of  Tyre  and  Sidon 
during  the  Ass^an  period ;  and  we  find  them  taking  part 
in  the  wars  which  were  carried  on  by  Shalmaneser  IV. 
and  Sennacherib.  Sawlinson,  Phoenicia,  p.  53. 

Acre,  Bay  of.  An  indentation  on  the  western 
coast  of  Palestine,  north  of  Mount  Carmel. 

Acrelius  (a-kra'li-Ss),  Israel.  Bom  at  Oster- 
aker,  Sweden,  Dec.  25,  1714 :  died  at  FeUings- 
bro,  Sweden,  April  25, 1800.  A  Swedish  clergy- 
man, author  of  a  history  of  the  Swedish  colonies 
iu  America  (1759,  Eng.  trans.  1874). 

Acres  (a'kerz),  Bob.  A  character  in  Sheridan's 
comedy  "  The  Rivals,"  an  awkward  and  simple 
country  gentleman  changed  into  a  boasting 
coward  by  the  sudden  excitement  of  the  gaie- 
ties of  Bath  society.  His  brag  and  his  ludicrous  van- 
ity and  assurance  are  combined  with  a  comic  trepidation 
and  an  uneasy  gaiety.  The  part  has  been  modified  by  the 
actors. 

Acri  (a'kre).  A  small  town  in  the  province  of 
Cosenza,  southern  Italy,  situated  on  the  Mu- 
cone  about  13  miles  north-northeast  of  Co- 
senza. 

AcrisiUS  (a-kris'i-us).  [G:r.'AKptmoc.']  In  Greek 
mythology,  a  king  of  Argos,  father  of  Danae. 

Acroceraunia  (ak"ro-se-ra'ni-a),  or  Akroke- 
r aunia  (ak-ro-ke-r&'ni-a) .  [Gr.  ra  aKpa  xepaiivia, 
the  thunder-smitten  peaks.]  In  ancient  geog- 
raphy, a  promontory  which  projects  from  the 
northwestern  part  of  Epirus  into  the  Ionian 
sea,  about  lat.  40°  27'  N.,  long.  19°  20'  E. :  the 
modern  Greek  Glossa  and  Italian  Lingnetta. 
The  name  is  sometimes  incorrectly  extended  to  the  whole 
range  of  Ceraunlan  Mountains  (which  see). 

Acro-Corinthns  (ak*ro-ko-rin'thus).  A  height 
(over  1,800  feet)  covered  with  ruins,  under  the 
northern  slope  of  which  lies  the  city  of  Corinth, 
Greece :  celebrated  for  its  extensive  view.  The 
medieval  fortifications  form  a  triple  line,  1^  miles  in  cir- 
cuit, below  the  summit.  Of  the  ancient  fortifications, 
the  celebrated  temple  of  Aphrodite,  and  other  religious 
foundations,  the  remains  are  very  scanty.  The  most  inter- 
esting relic  of  antiquity  is  the  vaulted  subterranean  well- 
house  of  the  famed  fountain  Pirene.  The  view  from  the 
summit  is  of  remarkable  grandeur,  and  embraces  many 
of  the  storied  sites  and  mountains  of  Greece. 

Acropolis  (a-krop'o-Us).  [Gr.  aKp&Kokig,  the  up- 
per city,  from  atcpo^,  highest,  upper,  and  ird/ljf, 
city.]  A  general  name  for  the  citadel  of  an 
ancient  Greek  city,  but  especially  approjjriated 
to  that  of  Athens,  famous  for  the  placing  on 
its  summit  in  the  5th  century  B.  o.  of  the  high- 
est achievements  of  Greek  art,  the  Parthe- 
non and  the  Erechthenm,  with  the  sculptures 
which  adorned  them  without  and  within,  and 
the  Propylssa,  or  monumental  gate,  inside  of 
the  walls  at  the  west  end.  The  Acropolis  is  a  ijre- 
cipitous  rook  which  rises  about  260  feet  above  the  city, 
and  extends  1,000  feet  from  east  to  west,  and  400  in  its 
greatest  width.  It  was  the  site  of  the  earliest  Athens 
known  to  history,  was  strongly  fortified,  and  contained 
the  pida«e  of  the  king  until  the  expulsion  of  the  Pisistra- 
tids.  From  this  time  it  ceased  to  be  inhabited,  and  was 
reserved  as  sacred  ground  and  as  a  last  refuge  in  time  of 
danger.  It  was  taken  and  sacked  by  the  Persians  in  480 
B.  0. ;  shortly  afterward  its  fortifications  were  strength- 
ened and  completed  and  its  area  increased  by  retaining- 
walls  and  filling,  especially  by  Cimon,  who  had  much  to 
do  with  devising  the  plans  for  monumental  embellish- 
ment which  were  carried  out  under  Pericles.  The  ancient 
entrance  to  the  Acropolis  was  on  the  southwest,  by  a 
narrow,  winding  path  commanded  by  the  battlements 
above.  Among  the  other  monuments  of  the  Acropolis 
are  the  pre-Persian  temple  of  Athena,  correctly  identified 
and  studied  by  Dorpf  eld  in  1885,  the  colossal  bronze  statue 
by  Phidias  of  Athena  Promachos,  and  the  temple  of 
Wingless  Victory.  The  slopes  of  the  Acropolis  were  occu- 
pied by  important  foundations,  particularly  on  the  south, 
where  lie  the  Odeum  of  Herodes,  the  sanctuary  of  .«!scu- 
lapius,  and  the  Dionysiac  theater.  Under  the  medieval 
Franks  and  Turks  the  Acropolis  was  the  citadel  and  abode 
of  the  dukes  and  pashas.  The  Parthenon  was  in  turn 
cathedral  and  mosque ;  the  Propylsea  became  the  palace 
and  government  offices;  and  the  Erechthenm,  after  being 
a  church,  was  fitted  as  the  pasha's  harem.  These  great 
monuments  remained  comparatively  unharmed  until  a 
late  date  in  the  Turkish  domination.  The  Propylsea  were 
shattered  by  an  explosion  of   gunpowder  induced  by 


11 

lightning,  the  Erechthenm  was  destroyed  by  the  over- 
weighting of  the  A)ofs  in  the  effort  to  make  them  bomb- 
proof, and  the  Parthenon  was  cut  in  two  in  1687,  during 
the  Venetian  siege  of  Athens  under  Kbnigsmark,  by  a 
bomb  purposely  shot  into  the  powder  stored  in  it. 

Acropolita  (ak"r6-p6-li'ta),  George.  Bom  at 
Constantinople  in  1220 :  died  Dec. ,  1282.  A  By- 
zantine historian  and  diplomat,  employed  by 
the  emperor  Michael  Palreologus  in  the  nego- 
tiations with  Popes  Clement  IV.,  Gregory  X., 
John  XXI.,  Nicholas  III.,  and  Martin  IV.,  to  re- 
unite the  Greek  and  Latin  churches.  He  wrote 
a  history  of  the  Byzantine  empire  from  1204 
to  1261. 

Acs  (ach).  A  village  in  the  county  of  Eomorn, 
Hungary,  situated  on  the  Danube  west  of 
Komorn :  the  scene  of  several  contests  between 
the  Austrians  and  Hungarians  in  1849. 

Acta  Apostolorum  (ak'ta  a-pos-to-lo'rum). 
See  Acts  of  the  Apostles. 

Acta  Diurna (ak'ta di-6r'na).  [L.,'eventsof the 
day.']  AEoman  "  of&cial  daily  chronicle,  which, 
in  addition  to  official  reports  of  events  inthe 
imperial  family,  and  state  and  city  afEairs,  con- 
tained regulations  by  the  magistrates,  transac- 
tions and  decrees  of  the  senate,  accidents,  and 
family  news  communicated  to  the  editors.  The 
Acta  were  publicly  exhibited  on  a  whitened  board  (oZfrttm), 
which  any  one  might  read  and  copy ;  and  there  were  men 
who  made  a  business  of  multiplying  and  transmitting 
such  news  to  the  provinces.  Alter  a  time  the  originals 
were  placed  among  the  state  archives  for  the  benefit  of 
those  who  wished  to  consult  them"  {Seyffert,  Diet,  of 
Class.  Antiq.  Ed.  by  Nettleship  and  Sandys),  The  publi- 
cation of  such  news  was  made  ofiicial  by  Caesar :  it  ceased, 
apparently,  on  the  transfer  of  the  capital  to  Constanti- 
nople. The  eleven  fragments  of  "Acta  (diuma)  populi" 
first  published  in  1615  (called  "fragmenta  Dodwelliana," 
from  Dodwell  the  chief  defender  of  their  genuineness) 
are  now  regarded  as  spurious. 

Actseon  (ak-te'on).  [Gr.  Ji/craiuv.]  In  Greek 
mythology,  a  hunter,  son  of  Aristaaus  and  Au- 
tonoe,  daughter  of  (Iladmus,  who,  having  seen 
Artemis  (Diana)  bathing^  was  changed  by  her 
into  a  stag  and  torn  in  pieces  by  his  own  dogs. 
Other  accounts  of  his  death  are  given. 

Acta  Eruditorum  (ak'ta  e-rS-di-to'rum).  [L., 
'acts  of  the  learned':  with  reference  to  the 
Eoman  'acta,'  or  official  records.  See  Acta 
Diuma.}  The  first  German  literary  periodical, 
founded  by  Otto  Menoke  at  Leipsie,  1682,  and 
discontinued  1782.  After  his  death  his  son  J.  B. 
Mencke  became  editor.  In  1732  the  title  was  changed  to 
' ' Nova  Acta  Eruditorum " — anew  series  edited  by  another 
son,  F.  0.  Mencke. 

Acta  Martyrum  (ak'ta  mar'ti-rum).  See  Acta 
Sanctorum. 

Acta  Pilati  (ak'ta  pi-la'ti).  A  spurious  report 
said  to  have  been  sent  by  Pilate  to  Tiberius  on 
the  trial  and  death  of  Christ. 

Acta  Sanctorum  (ak'ta  sangk-to'rum).  [L., 
'the  deeds  of  the  saints':  with  reference  to 
the  Eoman '  acta,'  or  official  records.]  A  name 
applied  generally  to  all  collections  of  accounts 
of  saints  and  martyrs,  both  of  the  Boman  and 
Greek  churches;  specifically,  the  name  of  a 
work  begun  by  the  Bollandists,  a  society  of 
Jesuits,  in  1643.  It  now  consists  of  over  sixty 
folio  volumes,  including  an  index  published  in 
1875. 

Actium  (ak'shi-um).  [Gr.  'ii/cnow.]  In  ancient 
geography,  a  promontory  on  the  northwestern 
coast  of  Acamania,  Greece,  about  lat.  38°  56' 
N.,  long.  20°  46'  E.  The  ancient  peribolos  or  sacred 
inclosure,  rectangular  in  plan  and  built  in  opus  reticula- 
tum,  the  seat  of  the  famous  Actian  games  of  Augustus, 
still  remains.  Recent  excavations  have  laid  bare  extensive 
ruins  of  several  successive  temples,  the  latest  of  which  is 
that  dedicated  by  Augustus  after  the  victory  of  B.  0.  31. 
A  famous  naval  battle  was  fought  near  Actium  between 
Ootavius  and  Mark  Antony  and  Cleopatra  Sept.  2,  31  B.  0. 
It  was  decided  by  the  flight  of  Cleopatra.  Antony's  land 
forces  surrendered  to  Octavius.  The  victory  secured  for 
the  latter  supreme  rule  over  the  Itoman  dominion. 

Actius  Syiiceriis.  The  academical  name  of 
Sanazzaro. 

Acton  (ak'ton).  A  suburb  of  London  in  the 
county  of  Middlesex,  Similes  west  of  St.  Paul's. 
Population  (1891),  24,207. 

Acton,  Charles  Januarius  Edward.  Bom  at 
Naples,  March  6, 1803 :  died  there,  June  23, 1847. 
The  second  son  of  Sir  John  Francis  Edward 
Acton.  He  entered  the  service  of  the  Pope,  was  made 
cardinal  in  1842,  and  played  an  important  part  in  papal 
politics,  especially  in  matters  relating  to  England. 

Acton,  Eliza.  Bom  at  Battle,  England,  April 
17,  1799:  died  at  Hampstead,  Feb.  13,  1859. 
AJn  English  poet  and  prose  writer,  best  known 
as  the  author  of  "Modem  Cookery"  (1845). 

Acton,  Sir  John  Francis  Edward.  Bom  at 
Besan^on,  France,  1736:  died  at  Palermo,  Aug. 
12,  1811.  An  officer  in  the  naval  service  of 
France  and  afterward  (1799)  of  Tuscany,  gen- 
eralissimo and  prime  minister  at  Naples  during 


Adalbert 

the  French  revolutionary  epoch,  in  December, 
1798,  after  the  successes  of  the  French  in  northern  Italy, 
Acton  fled  (with  the  king  and  queen)  to  Palermo,  but 
was  soon  restored  to  Naples  where  he  established  a  reign 
of  terror,  committing  to  prison  and  executing  many  citi- 
zens on  the  authority  of  the  Junta.  In  1804  he  waa  re- 
moved on  the  demand  of  France. 

Acton,  Thomas  0.  Bom  1823:  died  May  1, 
1898.  An  American  banker  and  public  official, 
president  of  the  board  of  New  York  police 
during  the  draft  riots  in  1863. 

Actors'  Vindication,  The.  See  Apology  for 
Actors. 

Acts  of  the  Apostles.  A  book  of  the  New 
Testament,  a  continuation  of  the  third  gospel 
(Luke),  and,  according  to  a  uniform  tradition, 
by  the  same  author.  It  is  a  history  of  the  early 
progress  of  Christianity  after  (and  including)  the  ascen- 
sion of  Christ. 

Acuco.    See  Acoma. 

Acufia  (a-kon'ya),  Cristoval  de.  Bom  at  Bur- 
gos, Spain,  1597:  died  at  Lima,  Peru,  probably 
before  1655.  A  Jesuit  missionary  and  author. 
He  was  rector  of  the  College  of  Cuenca,  near  Quito.  In 
1639  he  accompanied  Pedro  Teixeira  on  his  voyage  down 
the  Amazon,  and  in  1641  published  at  Madrid  his  "  Nuevo 
descubrimiento  del  gran  no  de  las  Amazonas,"  which  is  the 
first  clear  account  of  that  river.  The  original  edition  of 
this  work  is  very  rare,  but  there  are  later  ones  in  various 
languages.  It  appears  that  Acufia  visited  Home  as  procu- 
rator of  his  province  before  returning  to  Peru. 

Acuna  y  Bejarano  (a-kon'ya  e  ba-Ha-ra'no), 
Juan  de,  Marquis  of  Casa  Puerto.  Bom  at 
Lima,  Peru,  1657:  died  at  Mexico,  1734.  A 
Spanish-American  soldier  and  administrator. 
He  was  governor  of  Messina,  viceroy  of  Aragon  and  Mal- 
lorca,  member  of  the  supreme  council  of  war,  and  vice- 
roy  of  New  Spain  from  1722  until  his  death. 

Acuna,  Hernando  de.  Died  1580.  A  Spanish 
poet  and  soldier.  He  served  in  the  expedition  of 
Charles  V.  against  Tunis.  At  the  request  of  the  emperor 
he  translated  Olivier  de  la  Marche's  "Le  chevalier  iill- 
b^r6."  His  poems  were  published  after  his  death,  under 
the  title  "Varias  Poeslas"  (1591). 

Acusilaus  (a-ku-si-la'us).  [Gr.  'AKOvaiTiaog.']  An 
ancient  Greek  commentator  on,  or  prose  para- 
phrast  of,  the  Theogony  of  Hesiod.  He  was  born 
at  Argos  probably  about  the  middle  of  the  eth  century 
B.  0.,  and  waa  by  some  regarded  as  one  of  the  seven  wise 
men. 

Ada  (a'da).  [The  Greek  form  of  the  Hebrew 
name.]    See  Adah. 

Adad.    See  Sadad. 

Adafudia,  or  Adafoodia(a-da-f6'di-a).  Atown 
in  the  western  part  of  Sudan,  Africa,  in  lat. 
13°  6'  N.,  long.  1°  8'  E.  Population,  about 
25,000  (?). 

Adah  (a'da).  [Heb.,  'ornament,'  'beauty'; 
Gr.  'A6d,  Ada.]  1.  In  the  Old  Testament  :'(o) 
The  first  of  the  two  wives  of  Lamech.  Gen.  iv. 
19-23.  (6)  One  of  the  wives  of  Esau  and  the 
mother  of  EUphaz.  Gen.  xxxvi. —  2.  The  wife 
of  Cain,  a  character  in  "Cain,"  by  Lord  Byron. 

Adair  (a-dar'),  James.  An  English  trader  resi- 
dent among  the  North  American  (Chickasaw 
and  Cherokee)  Indians  from  1735  to  1775.  He 
wrote  a ' '  History  of  the  American  Indians  "  (1776X  in  which 
he  maintains  that  the  Indians  are  descendants  of  the  Jews. 

Adair,  John.  Bom  in  Chester  County,  S.  C, 
1759:  died  in  Harrodsburg,  Ky.,  May  19,  1840. 
An  American  politician  and  soldier.  He  served 
in  the  Kevolutionary  War,  was  an  officer  in  the  Kentucky 
State  militia  (ultimately  brigadier-general),  served  in  the 
Indian  wars,  and  commanded  the  Kentucl^  troops  at  the 
battle  of  New  Orleans.  He  was  United  States  senator 
from  Kentucky  1806-06,  governor  of  Kentucky  1820-24, 
and  member  of  Congress  1831-33. 

Adair,  Sir  Robert.  Bom  at  London,  May  24, 
1763 :  died  there,  Oct.  3, 1855.  An  English  dip- 
lomat and  writer  of  historical  memoirs.  He  was 
sent  on  diplomatic  missions  to  Vienna  1806-07,  to  Constan- 
tinople 1808-09,  where  he  concluded  the  treaty  of  the  Dar- 
danelles, and  to  the  Low  Countries  1831-35.  He  published 
"Historical  Memoirs  of  a  Mission  to  the  Court  of  Vienna 
in  1808"  (1844),  and  "The  Negotiations  for  the  Peace  of 
the  Dardanelles  in  1808-1809  "  (1846). 

Adair,  Robin.    See  BoMn  Adair. 

Adaize.    See  Hadai. 

Adal  (a-dal'),  or  Adel  (a-dal').  A  region  in 
eastern  Africa,  bounded  by  Danakil  Land  on 
the  north,  the  Gulf  of  Aden  on  the  east,  Somali 
Land  on  the  south,  and  Abyssinia  on  the  west. 
Its  inhabitants  are  Mohammedan  nomads.  There  are 
British  and  French  possessions  on  the  coast.    Also  Adaiel, 


Adalberon  (a-dal'be-ron),  or  Adalbero  (a-dal'- 
be-ro).  Died  988.  BishopofEheims  and  chan- 
cellor of  France  under  Lothaire  and  Louis  V. 
In  963  he  was  made  archbishop,  and  in  987  he  officiated 
at  the  coronation  of  Hugh  Capet,  by  whom  he  was  elevated 
to  the  position  of  lord  high  chancellor. 

Adalbert  (ad'al-bert).  Saint.  Flourished  about 
700.  An  early  English  saint,  perhaps  a  grand- 
son of  Oswald,  king  of  Deira.  He  devoted  him- 
self to  missionary  work  among  the  Friesians,  and  is  said  to 
have  been  the  first  archdeacon  of  Utrecht 


Adalbert 

Adalbert,  Saint  (originally  CzechVojtech  (voi'- 
tedh).  Born  near  fiague,  Bohemia,  about  955: 
martyred  in  West  Prussia,  April  23,  997.  A 
Bohemian  prelate,  bishop  of  Prague,  called  the 
"  Apostle  of  the  Prussians."  in  988  he  abandoned 
his  diocese  and  retired  to  the  monastery  of  Sant'  Alessio 
In  Rome,  but  was  constrained  in  993  to  return.  He  then 
devoted  himself  to  missionary  work  among  the  Prussians. 

Adalbert.  Died  981.  A  German  missionary, 
archbishop  of  Magdeburg,  called  the  "Apostle 
of  the  Slavs."       ^  ^>  *" 

Adalbert.  Died  at  Goslar,  Prussia,  March  16, 
1072.  A  German  prelate,  archbishop  of  Bre- 
men and  Hamburg.  He  attempted  the  forma- 
tion of  a  northern  patriarchate. 

Adalbert  (a'dal-bert),  Heinrich  Wilhelm. 
Born  at  Berlin,  Oct.  29, 1811:  died  at  Karlsbad, 
June  6,  1873.  A  prince  of  Prussia,  son  of 
Prince  Wilhelm,  the  youngest  brother  of  King 
Frederick  William  HI.  He  entered  the  army  as  an 
artillery  officer  In  1832.  In  1842  he  visited  southern  Brazil 
and  the  Amazon  and  Xingti.  A  description  of  this  voyage 
was  published  for  private  circulation,  and  republished  in 
English  (2  vols.,  London,  1849).  After  the  revolution  of 
1848  he  was  employed  in  the  organization  of  the  German 
marine. 

Adalia  (a-da'le-a),  or  Antaliyell  (an-ta'le-ye), 
or  Satali  (sa-ta'le),  orSataliah  (sa-ta'le-a).  A 
town  in  the  vilayet  of  Konieh,  Asiatic  Turkey, 
situated  on  the  Gulf  of  Adalia  about  lat.  36° 
52'  N.,  long.  30°  45'  E.,  built  by  Attains  II.  of 
Pergamum,  and  a  leading  city  of  ancient  Pam- 
phyUa :  the  ancient  Attaleia.  Population  (es- 
timated), 13,000. 

Adalia,  Gulf  of,  or  Pamphylian  Gulf.  An 
arm  of  the  Mediterranean  on  the  southern  coast 
of  Asia  Minor:  the  ancient  Pamphylious  Sinus. 

Adam  (ad'am).  [Heb.  'Adhdm.]  1.  The  first 
man ;  the  father  of  the  human  race,  according 
to  the  account  of  the  creation  in  Genesis. 

like  cherub,  Adam  also  was  a  Babylonian  word.  It  has 
the  general  sense  of  "man,"  and  Is  used  in  this  sense  both 
in  Hebrew  and  in  Assyrian.  But  as  in  Hebrew  it  has  come 
to  be  the  proper  name  of  the  first  man,  so,  too,  in  the  old 
Babylonian  legends,  the  "Adamites "  were  "the  white 
race  "  of  Semitic  descent,  who  stood  in  marlced  contrast 
to  "the  blacls  heads  "  or  Accadians  of  primitive  Babylonia. 
Sayce,  Anc.  Monuments,  p.  31. 

2.  A  character  in  Shakspere's  "As  you  Like 
it,"  an  old  and  faithful  servant  of  Oliver,  but 
following  the  fortunes  of  Orlando.  There  is  a 
tradition  that  Shakspere  himself  acted  this 
part. 

Adam,  Master  or  Mattre.    See  Billaut,  Adam. 

Adam.  A  city  of  Palestine  mentioned  in  the 
3d  chapter  of  Joshua. 

Adam  of  Bremen.  Died  at  Bremen  about 
1076.  A  German  ecclesiastical  historian,  au- 
thor of  a  history  of  the  diocese  of  Hamburg 
and  Bremen  for  the  period  788-1072  (Copen- 
hagen, 1579) :  the  chief  authority  for  Scandi- 
navian church  history  during  this  period. 

Adam  of  Murimuth.  Bom  about  1286 :  died 
1370.  An  English  chronicler,  ambassador  to 
Bome  1823,  canon  of  Hereford,  and  vice-gen- 
eral to  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury  1325. 
"His  clux)nicle  extends  as  an  original  record  over  the 
forty  years  from  1306  to  1346.  The  continuation  extends 
to  the  year  1380."    Morley,  Eng.  Writers,  IV.  251. 

Adam  of  Orlton.  Bom  at  Hereford,  England: 
died  at  Farnham,  England,  July  18, 1345.  An 
English  prelate,  made  bishop  of  Hereford  in 
1317,  of  Worcester  in  1327,  and  of  Winchester  in 
1333.  He  took  the  part  of  the  barons  against  Edward 
IL,was  tried  by  Parliament  for  treason  as  an  adherent  of 
Mortimer  (the  first  English  bishop,  it  is  said,  ever  tried 
before  a  lay  court),  and  was  inlluential  in  political  affairs 
during  the  reign  of  Edward  III. 

Adam  (a-don'),  Adolphe  Charles.  Bom  at 
Paris,  July  24, 1803 :  died  at  Paris,  May  3, 1856. 
A  French  composer  of  comic  opera.  His  best- 
known  work  is  "Le  Postilion  de  Longjumeau" 
(1836). 

Adam  (a'dam),  Albrecht.  Bom  at  Nordlingen, 
April  16,  1786 :  died  at  Munich,  Aug.  28,  1862. 
A  German  painter  noted  especially  for  his  bat- 
tle-pieces and  paintings  of  horses. 

Adam  (ad'am),  Alexander.  Born  near  Forres, 
Scotland,  June  24,  1741 :  died  at  Edinburgh, 
Dec.  18,  1809.  A  Scottish  educator,  rector  of 
the  High  School  of  Edinburgh  3768-1809.  He 
published  "Koman  Antiquities"  (1791),  and 
other  works. 

Adam  (a-doii'),  Mme.  Edmond.  Bom  at  Ver- 
berie,  Oise,  Oct.  4,  1836.  A  French  journalist, 
founder  (in  1879)  and  editor  of  the  "  Nouvelle 
Eevue,"  and  miscellaneous  writer.  Among  her 
works  are  "Garibaldi"  (1859),  "E^cits  d'une  paysanne" 
(1862),  "Voyage  autourd'un  grand  pin"  (1863),  "Dansles 
Alpes"  (1867),  "Laide"  (1878),  "La  Patrie  Hongroise: 
Souvenks  personnels,"  etc.  She  has  been  twice  married, 
first  to  M.  la  Messine.    M.  Adam,  prefect  of  police  in 


12 

the  Franco-German  war,  and  later  life  senator,  died  in 
1877.  She  has  written  under  the  names  of  J.  La  Messine, 
Juliette  Lamber,  and  Comte  Paul  Vasili. 

Adam  (a'dam),  Franz.  Bom  May  4, 1815 :  died 
Sept.  30,  1886.  A  German  painter,  chiefly  of 
military  scenes,  son  of  Albrecht  Adam. 

Adam  (a-don'),  Louis.  Bom  at  Miettershelz, 
Alsace,  1758:  died  at  Paris,  1848.  A  noted 
French  pianist,  father  of  Adolphe  Charles 
Adam. 

Adam  (a'dam),  MelcMor.  Bom  at  Grottkau, 
Silesia,  1551 :  died  1622.  A  German  Protestant 
divine  and  biographer,  author  of  "Vitse  Ger- 

'  manorum  Philosophorum,"  etc. 

Adam  (a-don'),  Qulrin  Francois  Lucien. 
Bom  at  Nancy,  May  31, 1833.  A  French  magis- 
trate and  philologist,  noted  for  researches  on 
American  and  other  languages. 

Adam  (ad'am),  Bobert.  Bom  at  Kirkcaldy, 
Scotland,  lt28:  died  at  London,  March  3, 1792. 
A  noted  Scottish  architect  and  landscape-pain- 
ter.   See  Adelphi. 

Adam,  William.  Bom  at  Maryburgh,  Kinross, 
Scotland,  Aug.  2, 1751 :  died  at  Edinburgh,  Feb. 
17, 1839.  A  British  lawyer  and  politician,  one 
of  the  managers  of  the  impeachment  of  Warren 
Hastings,  1788,  and  chancellor  of  the  Duchy  of 
Comwall,  1806. 

Adam,  William  Patrick.  Bom  Sept.  14, 1823 : 
died  at  Ootacamimd,  India,  May  24:,  1881.  A 
British  politician,  whip  of  the  Liberal  party 
from  1874  to  1880,  and  governor  of  Madras  from 
1880  till  his  death. 

Adam  Bede  (ad'am  bed).  A  novel  by  George 
EUot  (Mary  Ann  Evans)  published  in  1859. 
See  Bede,  Adam. 

Adam  Bell,  Clym  of  the  Cloughe,  and  Wyl- 
lyam  of  Cloudeslee.  An  old  ballad  printed  by 
William  Copland  about  1550,  and  in  the  collec- 
tions of  Percy  and  Bitson.  Child  repeats  it  from 
mtson  with  some  variations  from  an  edition  older  than 
Copland's  recovered  by  Payne  Collier.    See  Bell,  Adam. 

Adam  Cupid.  A  nickname  of  Cupid  in  Shak- 
spere's "Komeo  and  Juliet"  (ii.  1).  Some  com- 
mentators contend  that  the  name  should  be  "  Abram  "  (the 
quartos  (2-5)  and  folios  have  "Abraham"),  a  corruption 
of  "auburn,  as  Cupid  is  frequently  represented  with  au- 
burn or  yellowish  hair.  Others  agree  with  Upton  in  the 
following  extract. 

Shakespere  wrote  "Young  Adam  Cupid,"  &c.  The 
printer  or  transcriber  gave  us  this  "Abram,"  mistaking 
the  d  for  br,  and  thus  made  a  passage  direct  nonsense 
which  was  understood  in  Sh.'s  time  by  all  his  audience ; 
for  this  Adam  was  a  most  notable  archer,  named  Adam 
Bell,  who  tor  his  skill  became  a  proverb.  In  Much  Ado, 
I,  i:  "And  he  that  hits  me,  let  him  be  clapped  on  the 
shoulder,  and  called  Adam." 

Upton,  quoted  in  Furness,  Var. 

Adam  de  la  Halle.    See  La  Salle. 

Adam  Eadmon  (ad'am  kad'mon).  [Heb., '  the 
first  man.']  In  eatalistio  doctrine,  the  first 
man,  emanating  from  the  infinite  and  repre- 
senting the  ten  Sephiroth  (which  see). 

Adamastor  (ad-am-as'tor).  The  phantom  of 
the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  in  the  "Lusiad":  a 
terrible  spirit  described  by  Camoens  as  appear- 
ing to  Vaseo  da  Gama  and  prophesying  the  mis- 
fortunes which  should  fall  upon  other  expedi- 
tions to  India. 

Adamawa  (a-da-ma'wa).  A  region  in  Sudan, 
Africa,  intersected  by  lat  8°  N.,  long.  13°  E., 
having  an  area  of  about  70,000  square  miles : 
the  ancient  kingdom  of  Fumbina.  The  ruling 
class  isFulah ;  but  the  population  consists  of  several  negro 
tribes  with  Bantu  admixtures.  Such  are  the  Batta,  Dama, 
Mbana,  Mbuma,  Kotofo,  Zani,  and  Fall.  To  denote  the  re- 
spective tribal  dialects,  the  suffix  nchi  is  appended,  e.  g., 
Batta-nchi,  Daraa-nchi,  Mbana-nchi.  All  these  dialects 
seem  to  form  one  linguistic  cluster.  Islam  is  the  domi- 
nant religion ;  the  masses  are  pagan.  There  is  no  Chris- 
tian mission. 

Adamello  Alps  (a-da-mel'6  alps).  A  group  of 
the  Alps  on  the  border  between  Italy  and  Tyrol, 
south  of  the  Ortler  group.  The  highest  point 
is  about  11,500  feet. 

Adamites  (ad'am-its).  A  sect  which  originated 
in  the  north  oi  Africa  in  the  2d  century,  and 
pretended  to  have  attained  to  the  primitive  in- 
nocence of  Adam,  rejecting  mamage  and  (in 
their  assemblies  or  "paradises")  clothing.  This 
heresy  reappeared  in  the  14th  century,  in  Savoy,  and  again 
in  the  15th  century  among  the  Brethren  and  Sisters  of 
the  Free  Spirit,  in  Germany,  Bohemia,  and  Moravia.  It 
was  suppressed  in  1421  on  account  of  the  crimes  and  im- 
moralities of  its  votaries.  When  toleration  was  proclaimed 
by  Joseph  II.,  in  1781,  the  sect  revived,  but  was  promptly 
proscribed.  Its  latest  appearance  was  during  the  insur- 
rection of  1848-49. 

Adamnan  (ad'am-nan),  or  Adomnan,  Saint. 
Bom  in  Ulster,  Ireland,  about  625:  died  at 
lona,  Scotland,  704.  A  Cleltic  ecclesiastic,  ab- 
bot of  lona;  author  of  "  Vita  Columbse "  and 
"De  Locis  Sanctis,"  an  account  of  Palestine 
and  other  countries. 


Adams,  Henry 

Adampi  (a-dam'pe).    See.<4fcrrf. 

Adams  (ad'amz).  A  town  in  Berkshire  County, 
Massachusetts,  47  miles  northwest  of  Sprmg- 
field.    Population  (1900),  11,134. 

Adams.  A  town  in  Jefferson  County,  New 
York,  40  miles  northeast  of  Oswego.  Popula- 
tion (1900)j  town,  3,081. 

Adams,  Abraham  ("Parson").    In  Fielding's 

•  novel  "Joseph  Andrews,"  a  poor  curate  whose 
adventures  (chiefly  ludicrous)  in  the  company 
of  Joseph  Andrews  and  his  betrothed,  Fanny, 
constitute  .a  large  part  of  the  book.  He  is  a  por- 
trait of  Fielding's  friend  Young.  His  characteristics  are 
given  in  the  following  passage. 

Mr.  Abraham  Adams  was  an  excellent  scholar.  He  was 
a  perfect  master  of  the  Greek  and  Latin  languages :  to 
which  he  added  a  great  share  of  knowledge  in  the  Oriental 
tongues  and  could  read  and  translate  French,  Italian,  and 
Spanish.  He  had  applied  many  years  to  the  most  severe 
study,  and  had  treasured  up  a  fund  of  learning  rarely  to 
be  met  with  in  a  university :  he  was,  besides,  a  man  of 
good  sense,  good  parts,  and  good  nature ;  but  was,  at  the 
same  time,  as  entirely  ignorant  of  the  ways  of  this  world 
as  an  infant  Just  entered  into  it  could  possibly  be.  As  he 
had  never  any  intention  to  deceive,  so  he  never  suspected 
such  a  design  in  others.  He  was  generous,  friendly,  and 
brave,  to  an  excess ;  but  simplicity  was  his  characteristic : 
he  did,  no  more  than  Mr.  CoUey  Cibber,  apprehend  any 
such  passions  as  malice  and  envy  to  exist  in  mankind ; 
which  was  indeed  less  remarkable  in  a  country  parson,  than 
in  a  gentleman  who  has  passed  his  life  behind  the  scenes ; — 
a  place  which  has  been  seldom  thought  the  school  of  in- 
nocence ;  and  where  a  very  little  observation  would  have 
convinced  the  great  apologist  that  those  passions  have  a 
real  existence  in  the  human  mind. 

Fwlding,  Joseph  Andrew^  p.  4. 

Adams,  Charles  Baker.  Bom  at  Dorchester, 
Mass.,  Jan.  11, 1814:  died  at  St.  Thomas,  West 
Indies,  Jan.  19,  1853.  An  American  naturalist 
and  geologist.  He  became  professor  of  chemistry  and 
natural  history  at  Middlebury  College,  Vermont,  in  1888: 
was  State  geologist  of  Vermont  from  1846  to  1848;  and 
became  professor  of  astronomy  and  zoology  in  Amherst 
College,  1847.  He  was  associated  with  Professor  Edward 
Hitchcock  in  a  geological  survey  of  New  York.  Between 
1844  and  1851  he  made  scientific  journeys  to  Panama  and 
the  West  Indies. 

Adams,  Charles  FoUen.  Bom  at  Dorchester, 
Mass.,  April  21,  1842.  An  American  writer  of 
German  dialect  poems,  etc.  He  served  in  the  13th 
Massachusetts  regiment  of  infantry  in  the  Civil  War,  and 
was  wounded  and  taken  prisoner  at  Gettysburg.  In  1877 
he  published  "  Leedle  Yawcoob  Strauss  and  other  Poems." 

Adams,  Charles  Francis.  Born  at  Boston, 
Aug.  18,  1807:  died  at  Boston,  Nov.  21,  1886. 
An  American  statesman  and  diplomatist,  son 
of  J.  Q.  Adams.  He  was  graduated  at  Harvard  in 
1825,  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1828,  became  a  Whig 
member  of  the  Massachusetts  legislature  in  1831,  and  was 
made  candidate  of  the  Free-soil  party  for  Vice-President 
in  1848.  He  was  member  of  Congress  from  Massachusetts 
1859-61,  United  States  minister  to  England  1861-68,  and 
United  States  arbitrator  at  the  Geneva  tribunal  1871-7i 
He  published  "Life  and  Works  of  John  Adams  "  (10  vols., 
1850-66),  and  edited  "Diary  of  John  Quincy  Adams"  (12 
vols.,  1874-77). 

Adams,  Charles  Francis.  Bom  at  Boston, 
May  2'7,  1835.  An  American  lawyer  and  poli- 
tician, second  son  of  C.  F.  Adams  (1807-86).  He 
served  in  the  Union  army  throughout  the  Civil  War  (mus- 
tered out  as  brevet  brigadier-general  of  volunteers),  was 
appointed  a  member  of  the  board  of  Massachusetts  rail- 
road commissioners  in  1869,  and  was  president  ol  the 
Union  Pacific  Kailroad  from  1884  to  1890. 

Adams,  Charles  Kendall.  Bom  at  Derby,  Vt., 
Jan.  24, 1835:  died  July  26,  1902.  An  Ameri- 
can educator  and  historical  writer.  He  was  pro- 
fessor of  history  at  the  University  of  Michigan  1863-85, 
president  of  Cornell  University  1885-92,  and  president  of 
the  University  of  Wisconsin  1892-1901.  He  was  the  author 
of  "Democracy  and  Monarchy  in  I"rance"  (1874),  "Man- 
ual of  Historical  Literature  "  (1882),  etc. 

Adams,  Clement.  Born  at  Buckington,  War- 
wickshire, about  1519:  died  Jan.  9,  1587.  An 
English  teacher  and  author,  schoolmaster  to 
the  royal  "henchmen"  (pages)  at  Greenwich. 
He  wrote  down  Chancellor's  oral  narrative  of  his  journey 
to  Moscow  in  1653,  the  first  written  account  of  the  earliest 
English  intercourse  with  Russia  (published  by  Haklnyt 
in  his  "  Collections  "  of  1689). 

Adams,  Edwin.  Bom  at  Medford,  Mass.,  Feb. 
3, 1834:  died  at  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Oct.  25, 1877. 
An  American  actor,  particularly  successful  in 
the  romantic  drama,  though  much  admired  in 
pure  comedy  and  tragedy.  He  made  his  d6but 
in  1853  at  Boston. 

Adams,  Hannah.  Bom  at  Medfield,  Mass., 
1755:  died  at  Brookline,  Mass.,  Nov.  15,  1832. 
An  American  writer,  author  of  "  View  of  Re- 
ligious Opinions"  (1784:  later  entitled  "Dic- 
tionary of  Religions"),  a  "History  of  New  Eng- 
land" (1799),  a  "History  of  the  Jews"  (1812), 
etc. 

Adams,  Henry.  Bom  at  Boston,  Mass.,  Feb. 
16,  1838.  An  American  historian,  third  son  of 
C.  F.  Adams  (1807-86);  author  of  "Essays  in 
Anglo-Saxon  Law"  (1876),  a  life  of  Gallatin 
(1879),  a  life  of  John  Randolph  (1882),  etc. 


Adams,  Henry 

HIb  chief  Tork  is  a  "History  of  tlie  United  States  "  under 
the  administrations  of  Jefferson  and  M.adifion  (9  vols.). 

Adams,  John.  Born  at  Braiutree  (in  present 
Quinoy),  Mass.,  Oct.  30,  1735:  died  at  Quinoy, 
Mass.,  July  4,  1826.  The  second  President  of 
the  United  States,  1797-1801.  He  was  graduated 
at  Harvard  in  1765,  studied  law,  took  a  leading  part  in 
opposing  the  Stamp  Act,  was  counsel  for  the  soldiers 
charged  with  murder  in  connection  with  the  "Boston 
massacre"  of  1770,  and  became  a  leader  of  the  patriot 
party.  In  1774  he  was  chosen  a  member  of  the  Revolu- 
tionary congress  of  Massachusetts.  He  was  a  delegate 
to  the  first  and  second  Continental  Congresses,  proposed 
Washington  as  commander-in-chief,  signed  the  Declara- 
tion of  Independence,  was  appointed  commissioner  to 
Trance  in  1777  (arriving  at  Paris  in  1778),  negotiated  a 
treaty  with  the  Netherlands  in  1782,  was  one  of  the  nego- 
tiators of  the  treaties  with  Great  Britain,  1782-83,  nego- 
tiated a  treaty  with  Prussia,  was  appointed  minister  to 
London  iu  1785,  and  was  recalled  in  1788.  He  was  Fed- 
eral Vice-President  1789-97,  and  was  elected  as  Federal 
candidate  for  President  in  1796.  In  1800  he  was  the  un- 
successful Federal  candidate  for  President,  and  retired  to 
Quincy  in  1 801.  "  Life  and  Works, "  edited  by  0.  F.  Adams 
(10  vols.,  1850-66);  life  by  J.  Q.  and  C.  F.  Adams  (1871),  by 
J.  T.  Morse  (1885). 

Adams,  John.  Bom  in  England  about  1760  (?) : 
died  at  Pitoaim  Island,  1829.  A  leading  mu- 
tineer of  the  Bounty  (under  the  name  of  Alex- 
ander Smith)  and  governor  of  Pitoaim  Island. 
See  Bounty. 

Adams,  John.  Bom  in  Tennessee  in  1825: 
died  Nov.  30,  1864.  A  Confederate  general  in 
the  Civil  War.  He  was  graduated  at  West  Point  in  1846, 
brevetted  first  lieutenant  for  gallantry  at  Santa  Cruz  de 
Sosales,  and  promoted  captain  of  dragoons  Nov.  30, 18S6 : 
he  resigned  May  31, 1861,  to  become  a  Confederate  major- 
general.    He  was  killed  at  the  battle  of  Franklin,  lenn. 

Adams,  John  Couch.  Born  at  Lidcot,  Corn- 
wall, England,  June  5, 1819 :  died  at  Cambridge, 
England,  Jan.  21,  1892.  An  English  astrono- 
mer, professor  of  astronomy  at  Cambridge  and 
director  of  the  observatory.  He  shares  with 
Leverrier  the  honor  of  the  discovery  of  the 
planet  Neptune  (1846).    See  Neptune. 

Adams,  John  Quincy.  Bom  at  Braintree, 
Mass.,  July  11, 1767 :  died  at  Washington,  D.  C, 
Feb.  23, 1848.  The  sixth  President  of  the  United 
States,  1825-29,  son  of  President  John  Adams. 
He  was  graduated  at  Harvard  in  1787.  and  was  admitted 
to  the  bar  in  1791.  He  was  United  States  minister  to  the 
Netherlands  1794-1797,  and  to  Prussia  1797-1801 ;  United 
States  senator  from  Massachusetts  1803-08 ;  professor  of 
rhetoric  and  belles-lettres  at  Harvard  1806-09;  United 
States  minister  to  Russia  1809-14 ;  one  of  the  negotiators 
of  the  treaty  of  Ghent,  1814 ;  United  States  minister  to 
England  1815-17 ;  secretary  of  state  1817-25 ;  candidate 
for  President,  1824,  and,  there  being  no  choice  by  electors, 
chosen  by  the  House  of  Representatives.  In  1828  Jackson 
defeated  him  for  the  Presidency.  He  was  member  of  Con- 
gress from  Massachusetts  (Anti-Masonic  and  Whig)  1831- 
1848,  and  unsuccessful  candidate  for  governor  of  Massachu- 
setts 1834.  His  diary  was  edited  by  C.  F.  Adams  (1874-77). 

Adams,  John  Quincy.  Bom  Sept.  22, 1833 :  died 
Aug.  14, 1894.  An  American  politician,  eldest 
son  of  C.  P<  Adams  (1807-86).  He  was  the  un- 
successful Democratic  candidate  for  governor  of  Massa- 
chusetts in  1867  and  1871. 

Adams,  Mount.  1.  The  second  highest  (5,819 
feet)  summit  of  the  White  Mountains,  near 
Mount  Washington.— 2.  A  peak  of  the  Cas- 
cade Mountains,  9,570  feet  high. 

Adams,  Nehemiah.  Bom  at  Salem,  Mass., 
Feb.  19,  1806:  died  at  Boston,  Mass.,  Oct.  6, 
1878.  An  American  Congregational  clergy- 
man, pastor  in  Boston,  and  author  of  devotional 
and  other  works. 

Adams,  Parson.    See  Adams,  Abraham. 

Adams,  Point.  The  northwestemmost  head- 
land of  Oregon,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia 
river. 

Adams,  Samuel.  Bom  at  Boston,  Mass.,  Sept. 
27,  1722:  died  at  Boston,  Oct.  2,  1803.  An 
American  patriot  and  statesman,  one  of  the 
leaders  of  the  Kevolution.  He  was  a  delegate  to  the 
first  Continental  Congress,  an  influential  member  of  the 
second  Continental  Congress,  asigner  of  the  Declaration  of 
Independence,  a  member  of  the  Massachusetts  ratifying 
convention  1788,  lieutenant-governor  of  Massachusetts 
1789-94,  and  governor  of  Massachusetts  1794-97. 

Adams,  Mrs.  Sarah  Flower.  Bom  at  Great 
.  Harlow,  Essex,  Feb.  22,  1805:  died  Aug.,  1848. 
Ail  English  poet,  wife  of  William  Bridges  Ad- 
ams, inventor  and  pamphleteer,  and  the  daugh- 
ter of  Benjamin  Flower,  she  was  the  author  of 
*'  Vivia  Perpetua"  (1841),  a  dramatic  poem,  and  of  other 
poems  and  hymns,  of  which  the  best-known  is  "Nearer, 
my  God,  to  Thee." 

Adams,  Thomas,  Flourished  in  the  first  half 
of  the  17th  century.  An  English  Puritan  divine 
and  writer,  one  of  the  greatest  of  English 
preachers.  He  was  preacher  at  Willington  in  Bedford- 
shire, 1612 ;  vicar  of  Wingrave,  Bucks,  1614-36 ;  preacher 
of  St.  Gregory's  under  St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  1618-23 ;  and 
chaplain  to  Sir  Henry  Montague,  lord  chief  justice  of 
England. '  He  published  "  The  Happiness  of  the  Church  " 
(1618 :  a  collection  of  sermons),  a  collection  of  occasional 
sermons  (1629),  and  a  commentary  on  the  second  epistle 
of  St.  Peter  (1638). 


13 

Adams,  William.  Bom  at  GHllingham,  near 
Chatham,  England:  died  in  Japan,  1620.  An 
English  navigator.  He  joined,  as  pilot  major,  in  1698, 
a  Dutch  fleet  of  five  ships  fitted  out  by  Rotterdam  mer- 
chants for  the  India  trade,  and  after  an  unfortunate  voy- 
age, in  which  all  the  ships  except  the  Charity,  in  which 
he  sailed,  returned  to  Holland  or  were  lost,  he  arrived  at 
the  island  of  Kiushiu,  Japan,  April  19, 1600.  There  he 
remained,  under  compulsion,  rose  into  favor  at  court,  and 
received  from  the  shogun  lySyasu  a  considerable  estate 
at  H4mi  near  Yokosuka.  In  1613  he  obtained  for  the 
English  the  privilege  of  establishing  a  trading-station  at 
Firando,  and  was  employed  in  the  service  of  the  factory 
at  Firando  from  Nov.  24, 1613,  to  Dec.  24, 1616. 

Adams,  William.  Bom  at  Colchester,  Conn., 
Jan.  25, 1807:  died  at  Orange  Mountain,  N.  J., 
Aug.  31,  1880.  An  American  Presbyterian 
clergyman,  pastor  in  New  York  city,  and  presi- 
dent of  Union  Theological  Seminary,  New 
York,  1873-80. 

Adams,  William.  Born  1814:  died  1848.  An 
English  clergyman  and  writer,  vicar  of  St. 
Peter's,  Oxford  (1840) :  author  of  "  The  Shadow 
of  the  Cross"  (1842),  "Distant  Hills"  (1844), 
and  other  sacred  allegories. 

Adams,  William  Taylor:  pseudonym  "Oliver 
Optic.  Bom  at  Medway,  Mass.,  July  30, 
1822 :  died  at  Boston,  March  27, 1897.  An  Amer- 
ican teacher  (in  the  public  schools  of  Boston) 
and  writer  of  fiction,  chiefly  juvenile,  including 
the  series  entitled  the  "Boat  Club,"  "Young 
America  Abroad,"  "Starry  Flag,"  "Eiverdale 
Series,"  "Onward  and  Upward,"  etc.  He  also 
founded  and  edited  "  OlivBr  Optic's  Magazine." 

Adam^s  Bridge,  or  Bama's  Bridge.  A  dan- 
gerous shoal,  about  30  miles  long,  northwest  of 
Ceylon,  about  lat.  9°  15'  N.,  long., 79°  30'  E. 

Adams  Island.  A  name  of  Eoa-Poua,  one  of 
the  Marquesas  Islands. 

Adam's  Peak.  A  conical  mountain,  7,379  feet 
high,  in  Ceylon,  about  lat.  6°  50'  N.,  long.  80° 
30'  E.,  the  seat  of  Singhalese  worship.  There 
is  a  Buddhist  temple  on  the  summit. 

Adam's  Bun.  A  township  in  Colleton  County, 
South  Carolina,  about  25  miles  west-southwest 
of  Charleston.    Population  (1900),  4,966. 

Adamson,  John.  Born  at  Gateshead,  England, 
Sept.  13,  1787:  died  at  Newcastle,  Sept.  27, 
1855.  An  English  archffiologist  and  Portu- 
guese scholar. 

Adamson  (ad 'am- son),  Patrick  (originally 
Conston,  Constant,  Consteane,  or  Constan- 
tine).  Bom  at  Perth,  Scotland,  March  15, 15.37 : 
died  at  St.  Andrew's,  Scotland,  Feb.  19,  1592. 
A  Scottish  prelate,  made  archbishop  of  St. 
Andrew's,  1576,  and  excommunicated  on  vari- 
ous charges  in  1588. 

Adamson,  Bobert.  Bom  1852 :  died  1902.  A 
Scottish  philosophical  writer,  professor  of  phi- 
losophy at  Owens  College,  Manchester,  and  of 
logic  and  rhetoric  at  Glasgow  University  1895- 
1902.  He  was  the  author  of  "Roger  Bacon;  the  Philosophy 
of  Science  in  the  Middle  Ages  "  (1876), "  On  the  Philosophy 
of  Kant "  (1879).  "  Fichte  "  (1881),  etc. 

Adamsthal  (a'dams-tai).  A  village  9  miles 
north  of  Briinn,  Moravia.  There  are  noted 
caves  in  the  vicinity. 

Adana  (a-da'na).  A  vilayet  in  Asia-  Minor, 
Turkey,  corresponding  nearly  to  the  ancient 
Cilicia  Campestris.  it  was  ceded  by  the  sultan  to 
Ibrahim  Pasha  in  1833  (Peace  of  Kutaya,  MTay  of  that  year). 
Population  (1886),  402,489. 

Adana.  The  capital  of  the  vilayet  of  Adana, 
situated  on  the  Sihun  about  lat.  37°  1'  N.,  long. 
35°  18'  E.  It  was  colonized  by  Pompey  with  pirates 
about  63  B.  C,  and  was  refounded  in  the  time  of  Harun- 
alRasbid.  It  formed  the  northwestern  outpost  of  Ibra- 
him Pasha.    Population  (estimated),  45,000. 

Adangbe  (a-dang'be).  A  town  of  German  To- 
go-land, western  Afnca.  it  has  about  7,000  inhabi- 
tants, whose  ancestors  were  driven  from  Elmina  by  the 
Ashanti,  in  the  latter  part  of  the  last  century. 

Adans  le  Boi.    See  Adenet. 

Adanson  (a-don-s6n').  Michel.  Bom  at  Aix, 
Prance,  April  7,  1727:  died  at  Paris,  Aug.  3, 
1806.  A  French  naturalist  and  traveler  in  Sene- 
gambia:  author  of  "Histoire  naturelle  du  S6- 
n^gal"  (1757),  "Families  des  plantes"  (1763), 
etc. 

Adar  (a'dar).  [Assyro-Babylonian  addaru,'tlaB 
dark.']  The  name  of  the  12th  month  (Febru- 
ary-March) of  the  Babylonian  calendar  from 
which  it  was  adopted  by  the  Jews,  along  with 
the  rest  of  the  names  of  the  months,  after  the 

Exile.  The  intercalated  month  necessary  in  a  lunar 
calendar  was  added  both  by  the  Babylonians  and  Jews 

after  Adar,  and  was  called  by  the  latter  the  second  Adar. 

In  the  Jewish  calendar  It  occurs  7  times  in  a  cycle  of  19 

years. 

Adar  (a'dar).    The  probable  reading  of  the 

name  of  an  Assyrian  deity,  the  warrior  god, 


Adela 

usually  called  the  warrior  of  Bel.  His  consort 
was  Gula.    See  Adrammeleeh. 

Adara  (a-da'ra).  [At.,. 'the  virgins,' a  name 
for  four  stars,  of  which  Adara  is  the  brightest, 
in  the  southern  part  of  Canis  Major.]  The  bright 
second-magnitude  star  c  Canis  Majoris,  in  the 
animal's  thigh. 

Adbeel  (ad'be-el).  The  name  of  the  third  son 
of  Ishmael.  Gen.  xxv.  13,  1  Chron.  i.  29.  An 
Arabian  tribe,  Idiba'  U,  is  mentioned  in  the  cuneiform  in- 
scriptions. It  was  probably  located  on  the  Egyptian  bor- 
der. The  name  has  also  been  found  in  a  Minsean  in- 
scription. 

Adda  (a'da).  A  river  in  Italy,  the  ancient 
Addua.  It  rises  in  the  Alps  west  of  the  Ortler  Spitze, 
traverses  the  Valtelline  and  the  Lake  of  Como,  and  joins 
the  Po  8  miles  west  of  Cremona.  Its  length  is  about  160 
miles,  and  it  is  navigable  about  76  miles. 

Addington  (ad'ing-ton),  Henry.    Bom  at 

Reading,  England,  May  30, 1757 :  died  Feb.  15, 
1844.  An  English  politician,  created  first  Vis- 
count Sidmouth  in  1805.  He  entered  Parliament  in 
1783 ;  became  speaker  1789-1801,  and  premier  and  chan- 
cellor of  the  exchequer  1801-04 ;  negotiated  the  treaty  of 
Amiens  in  1802 ;  and  was  president  of  the  council  1805,  lord 
privy  seal  1806,  and  again  president  of  the  council  1806-07 
and  1812.  As  home  secretary,  1812-22,  he  was  noted  for 
his  repressive  measures.    He  left  the  cabinet  in  1824. 

Addiscombe  (ad'is-kum).  A  place  about  10 
miles  south  of  London,  formerly  the  seat  of  a 
college  for  the  cadets  of  the  East  India  Com- 
pany. 

Addison  (ad'i-son).  A  town  and  village  in 
Steuben  County,'  New  York,  on  the  Canisteo 
river  22  miles  west  of  Elmira.  Population 
(1890),  town,  2,908:  village,  2,166. 

Addison,  Joseph.  Bom  at  Milston,  Wilts,  May 
1,  1672 :  died  at  Holland  House,  London,  June 
17, 1719.  A  famous  English  essayist,  poet,  and 
statesman,  son  of  Lancelot  Addison.  He  was 
educated  at  the  Charterhouse  and  at  Queen's  College,  Ox- 
ford, where  he  took  his  M.  A.  degree  in  1693,  and  in  1698 
obtained  a  fellowship  which  he  held  until  1711.  A  Latin 
poem  which  he  published  in  1697  on  the  '*Peace  of  Rys- 
wick"  brought  him  a  pension  of  £300,  and  he  proceeded  to 
qualify  himself  for  the  diplomatic  service  of  the  govern- 
ment by  travel  and  study  on  the  Continent  1699-1703,  visit- 
ing France,  Italy,  Austria,  Germany,  and  Holland.  He  was 
Under-Secretary  of  state  1706-08;  secretary  to  the  lord 
lieutenant  of  Ireland  (Wharton)  1709-10  ;  secretary  to  the 
lords  justices  on  the  death  of  Queen  Anne  in  1714 ;  secre- 
tary for  Ireland  under  the  Earl  of  Sunderland  in  1716 ;  a 
commissioner  for  trade  and  the  colonies  1716 ;  and  secre- 
tary of  state,  April,  1717,  to  March,  1718.  On  Aug.  3, 1716, 
he  married  the  Countess  of  Warwick.  His  principal  works 
are  his  "Letter  from  Italy,"  a  poem  written  as  he  was  cross- 
ing the  Alps  in  1701,  printed  in  1703 ;  "  The  Campaign,"  a 
poem  published  in  1704  ;  "  Remarks  on  Several  Parts  of 
Italy, "  published  in  1705 ;  "  Fair  Rosamond,"  an  opera,  pub- 
lished anonymously  in  1707  ;  "  Cato,"  a  tragedy,  produced 
at  Drury  Lane  April  14, 1713 ;  "The  Drummer,"  a  play,  pub- 
lished anonymously  in  1716  (acted  in  1716) ;  contributions 
to  the  "Whig  Examiner"  in  1710  (five  papers) ;  contribu- 
tions to  the  "  Tatler  "  from  1709  till  1711  (41  papers  were  by 
Addison  alone,  34  by  Addison  and  Steele  together) ;  and  274 
'  Spectators  "  1711-12 :  these  last  were  all  signed  by  one 
of  the  letters  of  the  word  C.  L.  I.  0.  (Clio).  His  most  fa- 
mous character  is  that  of  Sir  Roger  de  Coverley,  originally 
sketched  by  Steele.  He  contributed  to  the  "Guardian 
51  papers  in  1713,  and  also  others  to  a  new  "Spectator  "  in 
1714.  From  Dec,  1716,  to  June,  1716,  he  contributed  66  pa- 
pers to  "The  Freeholder."  The  principal  editions  of  his 
works  are  Tickelfs  edition  (1721),  the  Baskerville  (1761), 
an  edition  by  Bishop  Hurd  (1811),  and  one  by  Q.  W. 
Greene,  New  York  (1866). 

Addison,  Lancelot.  Bom  in  the  parish  of 
Crosby  Ravens  worth,  Westmoreland,  1632 :  died 
at  Lichfield,  April  20, 1703.  An  English  clergy- 
man and  writer,  father  of  Joseph  Addison.  Ho 
was  educated  at  Queen's  College,  Oxford,  where  he  was 
graduated  (A.  B.)  in  1656.  He  was  a  zealous  royalist  and 
Episcopalian,  and  at  the  Restoration  was  appointed  Eng- 
lish chaplain  at  Dunkirk.  On  the  sale  of  Dunkirk  to  the 
French  in  1662  he  was  transferred  to  Tangier.  About 
1670  he  became  a  royal  chaplain,  in  1683  dean  of  Lichfield, 
and  in  1684  archdeacon  of  Coventry.  His  principal  works 
are  "West  Barbary,  or  a  Short  Narrative  of  the  Revolu- 
tions of  the  Kingdoms  of  Fez  and  Morocco"  (1671),  and 
"The Present  State  of  the  Jews  (moreparticularlyrelating 
to  those  of  Barbary),"  1676. 

Addison  of  the  North.  An  epithet  applied  to 
Henry  Mackenzie. 

Addison's  Walk.  A  walk  in  the  grounds  of 
Magdalen  College,  Oxford,  said  to  have  been  a 
favorite  promenade  of  the  essayist,  who  in  1689 
held  a  demyship  in  that  college. 

Addled  Parliament.  A  nickname  of  the  sec- 
ond Parliament  of  James  I.  (April-^June,  1614), 
which  was  dissolved  without  having  passed 
any  acts,  on  its  refusal  to  grant  supplies  until 
the  king's  imposition  of  customs  and  the  res- 
toration of  the  nonconforming  clergy  ejected 
in  1604  had  been  considered. 

Addua  (ad'u-a).  The  ancient  name  of  the  Adda.- 

Adel.    See  Adal. 

Adela  (ad'e-la).  Bom  about  1062  (?) :  died  1137. 
The  fourth'  daughter  of  William  the  Conqueror, 
wife  of  Stephen,  earl  of  Blois  and  Chartres, 
and  mother  of  Stephen,  king  of  England. 


Adelaar 

Adelaar  (a'de-lar)  (Cort  Sivertsen).  Bom  at 
Brevig,  Norway,  Deo.  16, 1622 :  died  at  Copen- 

,  hagen,  Nov.  5,  1675.  A  naval  commander,  in 
the  service  of  the  Netherlands  (1637),  ofVenice 


14  Admetus 

flows  past  Bovigo  into  the  Adriatic  north  of 

the  Po. 
ben  stii '■  "Mith-   AJigj,e  fii-de'ghe).     A  collective  name  for 
German  language  -ft-^if^X  )■;„„„„  °o„ti, 


kritisches   Worterbuoh   der  hochdeutschen  Mundart 
(1774-86),  "  Umstandliclies  Lehrgebaude  der  deutschen 
Sprache"  (1781-82),  "tjber  den  deutschen  Stil,"  "Mith- 
ridates,"  and  other  works,  especially  on  " 
and  literature. 


(1642),  and  of  Denmark  (1663).    He  defeated  Aden  (a'den  or  a'den).    A  seaport  in  Arabia, 


the  Turks  at  the  Dardanelles,  May  13,  1654. 
Adelaide  (ad'e-lad).  The  capital  of  South 
Australia,  founded  in  1836  on  the  Torrens  7 
miles  southeast  of  Port  Adelaide.  The  UniTersity 
of  Adelaide  was  founded  in  1872.  Population  (1891),  in- 
cluding suburbs,  133,262. 

Adelaide  (Amelia  Adelaide  Louise  Theresa 
Caroline).  Bom  Aug.  13,  1792:  died  Dec.  2, 
1849.  A  princess  of  Saxe-Coburg-Meiningen, 
and  queen  of  England,  wife  of  the  Duke  of  Clar- 


the  ancient  Adana,  Attause,  or  Arabia  FeUx, 
on  the  Gulf  of  Aden,  lat.  12°  47'  N.,  long.  44° 
59'  E.,  situated  on  a  rocky  peninsula  connected 
with  the  mainland  by  a  narrow  isthmus.  It  is 
an  Important  coaling-station,  and  a  port  of  call  of  the 
Peninsular  and  Oriental  steamships.  It  was  captured 
by  the  British  in  1839  and  annexed.  Aden  and  the  settle- 
ments adjoining,  with  the  island  of  Perim,  in  all  80  square 
miles,  are  administered  by  a  political  resident,  subject  to 
the  Bombay  government.  Population  (1891),  41,910.  See 
Arabia. 


ence  (later  "William  IV.),  whom  she  married  Aden,  Gulf  of.    An  ai-m  of  the  Arabian  sea, 


July  18,  1818. 
Adelaide  (a-da-la-ed'),  Eugene  Louisa.  Bom 
at  Paris,  Aug.  25,  1777:  died  Dec.  31, 1847.    A 


princess  of  Orleans,  sister  of  Louis  Philippe,  Aden^s.    See_.4tie»e<. 


lying  between  Arabia  on  the  north  and  the 
Somali  Land  on  the  south,  and  connected  with 
the  Red  Sea  by  the  Strait  of  Bab-el-Mandeb. 


ting  of  the  French.  Returning  in  1792  from  a  jour- 
ney to  England,  she  found  herself  inscribed  among  the 
^migr^s,  but  succeeded  in  making  her  escape,  and  re- 
mained in  exile  till  1814.  She  is  said  to  have  persuaded 
her  brother  to  accept  the  crown  in  1830. 

Adelaide  (ad'e-lad),  or  Adelheid,  Saint.  Born 
about  931:  died  at  Selz  in  Alsace,  Dec.  16,  999. 
A  daughter  of  Rudolf  n.  of  Burgundy,  and  wife 
of  Lothar  of  Italy  and  afterward  of  Otho  I. 
She  founded  a  Benedictine  cloister  in  Selz, 
Alsace. 

Adelaide,  Port.    See  Port  Adelaide. 

Adelard  (ad'e-lard),  or  .ffithelhard  (ath'el- 
hard),  of  Bath.  AnEngUsh  philosophical  writer 
who  flourished  in  the  early  part  of  the  12th  cen- 
tury. He  studied  at  Tours  and  Laon,  also  teaching  at 
the  latter  place,  and  traveled  in  Greece,  Asia  Minor,  and 
Arabia,  returning  to  England  in  the  reign  of  Henry  I.  He 
wrote  *'  De  eodem  et  diverso  "  (before  1116),  an  allegory,  in 
which  philosophy  and  love  of  worldly  enjoyment  (Philo- 
cosmia)  are  represented  as  contending  for  his  affections ; 
"PerdifficilesQufiestionesNaturales"  (printed  toward  the 


Adenet  (ad-na').  A  French  trouvfere  of  the 
13th  century,  surnamed  "leEoi."  Also  Adenez, 
Adends,  Adans.    See  the  extract. 

Adenfes  or  Adans  le  Roi  derived  his  imposing  surname 
from  the  function  of  king  of  the  minstrels,  which  he  per- 
formed at  the  court  of  Henry  III.,  duke  of  Brabant.  He 
must  have  been  bom  about  the  middle  of  the  thirteenth 
century,  and  the  last  probable  allusion  to  him  which  we 
have  occurs  in  the  year  1297.  The  events  of  his  life  are  only 
known  from  his  own  poems,  and  consist  chiefly  of  travels 
in  company  with  different  princesses  and  princes  of  Flan- 
ders and  Brabant.    His  literary  work  is  however  of  great 


various  disconnected  and  hostile  tribes  in  the 
Caucasus.  Some  are  Christian  and  some  Mo- 
hammedan. 

Adi-Granth  (a'de-granth).  ['  The  fundamental 
book.']  The  Bilile  of  the  Sikhs,  compiled  by 
the  fifth  successor  of  Nanak,  Gum  Arjun  (1584- 
1606).  He  collected  in  it  the  poetical  pieces  of  the 
founder  and  the  three  following  gurus,  and  added  his  own 
compositions  as  well  as  sentences  and  fragments  by  Ea- 
mananda,  Kabir,  Namdev,  and  others.  Additions  were 
made  by  Govind  (1675-1708),  the  tenth  and  last  guru,  who 
composed,  besides  a  second  Granth,  "The  Granth  of  the 
Tenth  Reign."  These  books  are  written  in  an  antiquated 
Paujabi,  called  Gurmukhi,  'that  which  comes  from  the 
mouth  of  the  guru."  These,  with  biographies  of  the  gu- 
rus  and  the  saints,  and  a  number  of  directions  as  to  ritual 
and  discipline,  make  up  the  sacred  literature  of  the  sect. 

Adin  (I'din).  [Heb.,  'delicate.']  The  head 
of  a  Hebrew  family  which  returned  from 
Babylon  with  Zerubbabel.  Ezra  ii.  15,  Neh. 
vii.  20. 

Adirondack  Mountains  (ad-i-ron'dak  moun'- 
tanz).  A  range  of  mountains  in  northeastern 
IJew  York,  the  highest  in  the  State.  The  main 
group  is  in  Hamilton,  Essex,  Franklin,  and  Clinton 
counties,  but  the  name  is  extended  to  the  whole  north- 
eastern region  of  New  York.  The  highest  peak  is  Mount 
Marcy  (5,344  feet).  Other  prominent  summits  are  Mount 
Dix,  Mount  Molntyre,  Mount  Seward,  Mount  'Whiteface, 
Haystack,  etc. 


importance.    It  consists  partly  of  refashionings  of  three  Adirondack  Park.     A  park  established  by  act 

'  ~    ■       "        ~  of  the  New  York  legislature  in  1892  withia  the 

counties  of  Hamilton,  Essex,  Franklin,  War- 
ren, St.  Lawrence,  and  Herkimer,  for  the  use 
of  the  public.     Further  provision  for  the  park 
..      ,,-,.„  ,,      ^     -     i    was  made  by  act  of  1893. 

ci^oZdlTSoem  extSfne  to  20  (£ne?ses,^Jnd  "t  !es    Adites  (ad'its).  Early  Arabian  (Cushite)rulers. 
neomades,  a  poem  extendmg  to  20,000  verses,  and  not  less  ^^.^.  (^^/j.y^^      j-gj^t.^  appar.  from  a-priv.  and 


Chansons  deGestes,  "LesenfancesOgier,"  "Berteaus  grans 
PiS8,"and  "BuevesdeOommarohis."  In  these  three  poems 
Aden^  works  up  the  old  epics  into  the  form  fashionable 
in  his  time,  ancl  as  we  possess  the  older  versions  of  the 
first  and  last,  the  comparison  of  the  two  forms  affords  a 
'  literary  study  of  the  highest  interest.    His  last,  longest. 


poem 
valuable  for  its  intrinsic  merit  than  as  a  type  of  its  class. 
Saintsburyj  Fr.  Lit.,  p.  " 
Adenez.    See  Adenet. 


end  of  the  IBth  century) ;  a  translation  of  Euclid  (printed  AderbaijaU.     See  Ageriaijan. 

1482)  which  long  remained  a  text-book ;  etc.  Adorer  ( a-de-rar' ) ,  or  Aderar  (-rar' ) ,  or  Adr ar 

Adelheid  (a'del-hid).  1.  See  Adelaide,  Saint.—  (a-drar').  A moimtainous  region  in  the  Sahara, 
2.  A  character  in  Goethe's  "Goetz  von  Ber-  within  the  Spanish  protectorate  and  new 
liohingen  "  (which  see).  French  "  sphere  of  influence,"  about  lat.  20°  N. 

Adeliza  (ad-e-li'za),  Queen.    Died  March  23,     The  chief  place  in  it  is  "Wadan. 
1151  (?).     The  second  queen  of  Henry  I.  of  Adern6  (a-dar-u6').  A  town  in  the  province  of 
England,  daughter^  of  Godfrey  (Barbatus)  of    Catania,  Sicily,  the  ancient  Hadranum,  about 


Louvain,  duke  of  Brabant  or  Lower  Lotharin- 
gia,  and  a  descendant  in  the  male  line  from 
Charlemagne.  She  was  married  to  Henry  I.,  Jan.  24, 
1120-21,  and  after  his  death  married  William  de  Albini. 
Adelnau  (a'del-nou).  A  small  town  in  the 
province  of  Posen,  Prussia,  about  44  miles 
northeast  of  Breslau :  the  scene  of  a  battle  be- 


17  miles  northwest  of  Catania.  It  contains 
Sikelian  antiquities  and  a  Norman  castle. 
Population,  19,000. 
Adersbach  (a'derz-baoh).  A  village  in  east- 
ern Bohemia,  near  the  Eiesengebirge  and  the 
Silesian  frontier,  about  12  mUes  northwest  of 
Braunau. 


tween  the  Prussians  and  Polish  insurgents,  Adersbach  Eocks.    A  labyrinth  of  fantastic    IS "Vi^a 
AprU  22,  1848.  -         ,.,.,,  •'  .     eral,  Uaksha, 

Aaelon  (ad-l6h'),  Nicolas  Philibert.    Born 

at  Dijon,  Aug.  20, 1782 :  died  July  19, 1862.    A 

French  medical  writer. 
Adelphi,  See  Adelvhce. 
Adelphi  (a-del'fi),  The.    A  region  of  London 

comprising  several  streets  on  the  south  side  of 

the  Strand  and  the  Adelphi  Terrace,  facing  the 


rocks,  about  5  miles  long,  near  the  village  of 
Adersbach. 
Adherbal  (ad-h6r'bal).  Died  112  B.  c.  A  son 
of  Mioipsa  and  king  of  Numidia,  in  conjunction 
with  his  brothers  Hiempsal  and  Jugurtha,  in 
118  B.  C.  Hiempsal  was  slain  by  Jugurtha  and  Adher- 
bal fled  to  the  protection  of  the  Romans  who  restored  him 


diti,  bond  (•/  da,  bind)^  TJsed  in  theVedas 
as  an  adjective  to  mean  'unbound,'  'free,'  'lim- 
itless,' 'infinite,'  '  exhaustless,'  and,  as  a  noun, 
to  mean  '  freedom,'  '  security,'  and  then  '  infin- 
ity,' in  particular  that  of  the  heaven  in  contrast 
with  the  finitude  of  the  earth  and  its  spaces. 
The  last  conception  personified  is  the  goddess  Aditi,  the 
mother  of  the  Adityas.  In  the  post-Vedic  literature 
Aditi  is  the  mother  of  the  gods,  daughter  of  Daksha  and 
wife  of  Easyapa,  mother  of  the  thirty-three  gods,  mother 
of  the  Tushitas  or  of  the  twelve  Adityas  and  the  sun,  and 
sister  of  Agastya.  In  Aditi  the  contused  and  imposing 
notion  of  a  substratum  of  all  existence  seems  to  have 
found  one  of  its  earliest  expressions. 
Adityas  (a'dit-yaz).  ['  Sons  of  Aditi.']  In  the 
Vedio  literature,'  seven  gods  of  the  heavenly 
light,  at  whose  head  stands  Varuna,  who  is  the 
Aditya  par  excellence.  They  are  Varuna,  Mitra, '  the 
friend,'  Aryaman,  'the  bosom  friend,"  Bhaga,  'the  lib- 
eral," Daksha,  'the  capable,"  Ansa,  '  the  apportioner,"  and 
an  uncertain  seventh.  Mitra  and  the  rest  are  only  a  split- 
ting up  and  reflection  of  Varuna,  the  god  of  the  vast 
luminous  heavens,  viewed  as  embracing  all  things  and  as 
the  primary  source  of  all  life  and  every  blessing.  In  the 
Brahmanas  and  later  the  Adityas  are  twelve  in  number, 
with  manifest  reference  to  the  number  of  the  months. 
The  term  Aditya  is  also  used  from  the  earliest  times  as  a 
designation  for  the  sun.    See  Amesha  SpenJtas. 


river.     The  name  was  given  from  the  Greek  iitk^ai  mm  in  uria.               .-,-,        rn      ,.  joi-i      a 

(•brothers  ■)  from  the  fact  that  the  terrace  was  built  about  Adiabene  (ad"i-a-be  ne).      [Gr.  'Adia/J^v^.]     A 

1768  by  four  brothers  named  Adam,  whose  names  were  small  Assyrian  district  on  the  Tigris  not  far 

given  to  the  streets  John  street,  Robert  street,  James  from  Nisibis.    It  was  a  vassal  of  Parthia,  and  suc- 

street,  and  William  street.    nuskensaBvshmmy.  cumbed  to  Rome  under  Trajan.    Its  queen,  Helen,  and 

Adelphi  Theater.     A  theater  on  the  strand,  her  sons  Izates  and  Monabaz,  embraced  Judaism  about 

London,  first  built  in  1806,  and  rebuilt  and  en-  the  year  18  a.  d. 

larged  in  1858.     "The  old  Adelphi  was  the  home  of  Adi-Buddha  (a'de-bud'ha).   [Skt.,  'the  primor- 

melodrama  and  screaming  farce,  and  these  traditions  are  dial  Buddha.']     A  creation  of  Buddhism  as- 


in  117.    He  was  again  ousted  by  Jugurtha  and  slain  by  Adler  (ad'ler),  Nathan  MarCUS.    Born  at  Han- 
himmCirta.  ^^^^^  Germany,  1803:  died  at  Brighton,  Eng- 


to  a  degree  kept  up  in  the  plays  at  the  modem  house. 
IHckey^s  Dictionary. 

Adelphians  (a-del'fi-anz).  A  branch  of  the 
Euchites,  named  from  a  certain  Adelphius,  a 
Galatian.    See  Euchites. 

Adelphoe  (a-del'fe),   or  Adelphi   (a-del'fi). 
[Gr.  aieTu^oi,  brothers.]     A  comedy  by  Ter- 
ence, adapted  from  Menander's  Greek  'ASehpoi, 
with  the  addition  of  a  scene  from  a  play  of    ^ee  i./,j,am-^««« 
Diphilos.    It  suggested  Moli6re's''Ecole  des  Adicia  (a-dis'i 


oribed  to  the  10th  century  A.  D.    He  is  represented 
as  a  being  infinite,  self-existent,  and   omniscient,  who  Adlerbeth 
evolved  out  of  himself  by  the  exercise  of  the  five  medita-     ■Rotti  M<S'\ 
tions  the  five  Dhyanibuddhas,  while  each  of  these  evolved     '^"'■^  J.  <  ui 
out  of  himself  by  wisdom  and  contemplation  the  corre- 
sponding Bodhisattvas,  and  each  of  them  again  evolved  out 
of  his  immaterial  essence  a  material  world.    These  ema- 
nations bear  a  resemblance  to  the  Eons  or  Emanations  of 
the  Gnostics.  It  is  hence  believed  possible  that  they  owe 
their  existence  to  the  influence  of  Persian  Christianity. 
See  Dhyani-Buddha,  Bodhiaattva. 
i-a).  [Gr.  arfj/cfo,  wrong,  injustice.] 


land,  Jan.  21, 1890.  Chief  rabbi  of  the  tJnited 
Congregations  of  Jews  of  the  British  Empire, 
and  au&or  of  various  theological  works. 

Adlerberg  (ad'ler-bero).  Count  Vladimir 
(Woldemar).  Born  at  St.  Petersburg,  Nov. 
10, 1790 :  died  there,  March  20, 1884.  A  Russian 
general  and  minister  in  the  service  of  Nicholas 
and  Alexander  U. 

(ad'ler -bet),  Gudmund  Goran. 
died  1818.    A  Swedish  poet,  dram- 
atist, translator  (of  old  Norse  poetry,  VergU, 
Horace,  Ovid,  etc.),  and  historical  writer. 

AdlercreutZ  (ad'ler-kroits),  Count  Karl  Jo- 
han.  Born  near  BorgS,  Finland,  April  27, 1757 


In  Spenser's  "S'aerie  Queene,"  the  wife  of  the 


Maris"  and  Baron's  "L'fioole  des  P&res. 
Adelsberg  (a'dels-berG).    A  town  in  Carniola, 
Austria-Hungary,  about  22  mUes  east-north-    ^^^^^  ^  raging  tiger. 

east  of  Trieste.    TheAdelsberg  grotto,  over  five  mUes  Adige  (a'de-je),  G.  Etsch  (ech).     A  river  of 

Tyrol  and  northern  Italy,  the  Roman  Athesis. 


died  Aug.  21, 1815.  A  Swedishgeneral,  defeated 
in  Finland  by  the  Russians  in  1808.  He  took  part 
in  deposing  Gustavus  IV.  in  March,  1809,  and  served  in 
Germany  in  1813,  and  in  Norway  in  1814. 


long,  is  one  of  the  most  noted  stalactite  caverns  in  the 
world.    Population  (1890),  3,597. 

Adelung  (a'de-long),  Friedrich  von.    Bom  at 

Stettin,  Prassia,  Feb.  25, 1768 :  died  at  St.  Peters- 
burg, Jan.  30,  1843.  A  German  philologist, 
nephew  of  J.  0.  Adelung.  He  wrote  "  Rapport  entre 
la  langue  sanscrite  et  la  langne  russe ""  (1811),  "Versuche 
einer  Literatur  der  Sanskritsprache"  (1830),  "Ubersicht 
der  Reisenden  in  Russland  bis  1700,"  etc. 

Adelung,  Johann  Christoph.  Born  at  Spante- 
kow,  Pmssia,  Aug.  8,  1732:  died  at  Dresden, 


soldan,  an  unrighteous  woman,  transformed  ■A-dlersparre  (ad '  16rs  -  pa '  re),  Count  Georg, 
•      ■  •  Bom  m  Jemtland,  Sweden,  March  28, 1760 :  died 

in  Wermland,  Swedten,  Sept  23, 1835.  A  Swe- 
dish author,  editor,  statesman,  and  general. 
He  contributed  to  the  overthrow  of  Gustavus 
IV.  in  1809.  Later  he  was  appointed  major- 
general  and  was  ennobled. 


It  rises  in  the  Col  de  Resca  in  western  Tyrol  near  the  f  ron. 
tier  of  Orisons,  traverses,  the  Vintschgau,  flows  south 
through  Tyrol  into  Italy,  sends  arms  to  the  Po,  and  flows 
into  the  Adriatic  north  of  the  mouths  of  the  latter.    Its 


length  is  about  220  miles,  and  it  is  navigable  for  about  AQlerSParre,  Karl  AugUSt.  Born  June  7, 1810: 

180  miles.    On  it  are  Trent  and  Verona.    It  has  formed  died  May  5,  1862.     A  Swedish  poet  and  histo- 

an  important  strategic  line  in  the  Italian  campaigns,  rian,  SOU  of  Count  Georg  Adlersnarre. 

Near  the  Adige  and  Lago  di  Garda  victories  were  gained  A.lm'i'h  raA>mS\      r>r,Q  ^*  +!,«  «;««„  A^^t-^^aA 

by  the  Austrians  oveTthe  French  under  Schtor  in  the  ^°^^S^  r         "/"          •       o  ^^  *'^*^®®  destroyed 

spring  of  1799.   The  most  notable  battle  was  that  of  Ma-  ^"th  bodom.    Gen.  xiv.  2. 

gnano,  AprU5.  Admetus(ad-me'tus),  or  Admetos  (-tos).   [Gr. 


Sept.  10, 1806.   A  German  phUologist,  librarian  Adigetto  (a-de-jet'to).    A  canal  or  arm  of  the    "Ad/iirrog.'i  '  In  Greek'  mythology, 
at  Dresden  (1787-1806).    He  wrote  "  Grammatisch-    Adige,  which  separates  from  it  near  Badia,  and    king,  son  of  Pheres,  king  of  Ph( 


a  Thessalian 
erte,  delivered 


Admetus 

from  death  by  the  voluntary  sacrifice  of  his 
wife  Aloestis.  See  Alcestis.  He  took  part  in  the 
expedition  of  tlie  Argonauts  and  in  the  chase  of  the  Caly- 
donian  boar. 

Admirable  Crichton.    See  Crichton. 
Admirable  Doctor,  L.  Doctor  Mirabilis.    A 

surname  given  to  Roger  Bacon. 

Admiralty  Inlet  (ad'mi-ral-ti  in'let).  An  arm 
of  the  sea,  on  the  western  coast  of  the  State 
of  Washington,  connecting  Puget  Sound  with 
the  Strait  of  Juan  de  Fuca. 

Admiralty  Island.  An  island  west  of  Alaska, 
belonging  to  the  United  States,  lat.  57°  30'  N., 
long.  134°  30'  W. 

Admiralty  Islands.  An  archipelago  in  the 
Pacific,  northeast  of  Papua,  about  lat.  2°  S., 
long.  147°  E.,  discovered  by  the  Dutch  in  1616, 
and  annexed  by  Germany  in  1885. 

Admiralty  Sound,  An  arm  of  the  Strait  of 
Magellan,  on  the  western  coast  of  King 
Charles's  South  Land,  Tierra  del  Fuego. 

Admonitionists  (ad-mo-nish'on-ists).  A  name 
given  to  the  followers  of  Thomas  Cartwright, 
two  of  whom  in  1572  published  "  An  Admoni- 
tion to  Parliament,"  followed  by  a  second  one 
by  himself,  strongly  advocating  church  govern- 
ment by  presbyters  as  opposed  to  bishops,  and 
the  supremacy  of  the  church  over  the  state. 

Admont  (ad'mont).  A  small  town  in  Styria, 
Austria-Hungary,  situated  on  the  Enns  about 
50  miles  south  of  Linz :  noted  for  its  scenery 
and  Benedictine  abbey. 

Ado  (a'do),  Saint.  Born  about  800 :  died  875. 
An  archbishop  of  Vienne  (appointed  860),  noted 
for  his  zeal  in  reforming  the  morals  of  the  peo- 
ple and  in  enforcing  church  discipline.  His 
memory  is  celebrated  by  the  Roman  Catholic 
Church  on  Deo.  16. 

Adod.    See  Sadad. 

Adolph.    See  Atawulf. 

Adolphe  (a-dolf ' ) .  A  romance  ( '  'Adolphe :  anec- 
dote trouv6e  dans  les  papiers  d'un  inoonnu")  by 
Benjamin  Constant  (first  published  1816),  which 
ranks  as  a  masterpiece  of  French  literature. 

Adolphus  (a-dol'fus),  William  Augustus,  G. 
Wilnelm  August  Karl  Friedricb  Adolf. 
Born  at  Weilburg,  July  24, 1817.  The  last  duke 
of  Nassau.  He  succeeded  to  the  duchy  in  1839.  In 
1866  he  sided  with  Austria,  and  Nassau  was  annexed  to 
Prussia  in  the  same  year.  He  became  grand  dulce  of 
Luxemburg  in  Nov.,  1890. 

Adolphus,  John.  Bom  at  London,  Aug.  7, 
1768 :  died  at  London,  July  16, 1845.  An  Eng- 
lish barrister  and  historian,  author  of  a  "  His- 
tory of  England  from  the  Accession  of  George 
HI.  to  the  Conclusion  of  Peace  in  1783"  (1802), 
etc. 

Adolphus,  John  Leyoester,  Bom  May  11, 
1795 :  died  Dec.  24, 1862.  An  English  barrister 
and  man  of  letters,  a  son  of  John  Adolphus : 
author  of  "Letters  to  Richard  Heber,  Esq.,"  on 
the  authorship  of  the  Waverley  novels  (1821). 

Adolphus,  Frederick,  G.  Friedrich  Adolf. 
Born  May  14,  1710:  died  Feb.  12,  1771.  Duke 
of  Holstein-Eutin,  chosen  as  orown-foUower  of 
Sweden  1743.    He  reigned  1751-71. 

Adolphus  of  Nassau.  Bom  about  1252 :  killed 
at  GoUheim,  Rhine  Palatinate,  Jiily  2,  1298.  A 
king  of  Germany,  elected  1292  and  deposed 
1298.  He  was  defeated  by  his  successor  Al- 
bert I.  at  GoUheim,  1298. 

Adonai  (ad-o-na'i  or  a-do-m').  [Heb.  Udonai, 
plural  of  'aclon,  lord.]  The  name  used  by  the 
Hebrews  in  place  of  the  ineffable  name  Yah- 
veh  (Jehovah)  wherever  it  occurs  in  the  Scrip- 
tures.    See  the  extract. 

It  is  in  accordance  with  this  Masoretic  mode  of  pronun- 
ciation that  Hebrew  is  now  taught.  But  there  was  one 
word  wliich  the  Masoretes  of  Tiberias  either  could  not  or 
would  not  pronounce.  This  was  the  national  name  of  the 
God  of  Israel.  Though  used  so  freely  in  the  Old  Testa- 
ment, it  had  come  to  be  regai'ded  with  superstitious  rev- 
erence before  the  time  when  the  Greek  translation  of  the 
Septuagint  was  made,  and  in  this  translation,  accordingly, 
the  word  Kyrios,  "Lord,"  is  substituted  for  it  wherever  it 
occurs.  The  New  Testament  writers  naturally  followed 
the  custom  of  the  Septuagint  and  of  their  age,  and  so  also 
did  the  Masoretea  of  Tiberias.  Wherever  the  holy  name 
was  met  with,  they  read  in  place  of  it  Addnai,  "Lord," 
and  hence,  when  supplying  vowel-symbols  to  the  text  of 
the  Old  Testament,  they  wrote  the  vowels  of  Addnai  under 
the  four  consonants,  Y  H  V  H,  which  composed  it.  This 
simply  meant  that  AddTiai  was  to  be  read  wherever  the 
sacred  name  was  found.  In  ignorance  of  this  fact,  how- 
ever, the  scholars  who  first  revived  the  study  of  Hebrew 
in  modem  Europe  imagined  that  the  vowels  of  Addnai  (i 
or  6,  0,  and  &)  were  intended  to  be  read  along  with  the 
consonants  below  which  they  stood.  The  result  was  the 
hybrid  monster  Y6hovah  [Jehovah].  In  passing  into  Eng- 
land the  word  became  even  more  deformed.  In  German 
the  sound  of  y  is  denoted  by  thesymbol  j,  and  the  German 
symbol,  but  with  the  utterly  different  English  pronunciar 


15 

tion  attached  to  It,  found  its  way  into  the  English  trans- 
lations of  the  Old  Testament  Scriptures. 

Sayce,  Anc.  Monuments,  p.  74. 

Adonais  (ad-o-na'is).  An  elegiac  poem  by 
Shelley,  commemorating  the  death  of  Keats, 
published  in  1821. 

Adonbec.    See  Saladin. 

Adonijah  (ad-o-ni'ja).   [Heb.,  'my  Lord  is  Je- 
hovah'; Gr.  'Aioiviag.']     1,  The  fourth  son  of 
David,  He  plotted  to  obtain  the  throne  in  place  of  Solo- 
mon near  the  close  of  David's  reign. 
3.  A  Levite  mentioned  in  2  Chron.  xvii.  8. 

Adonis  (a-do'nis).  In  ancient  geography,  a 
small  river  in  Syria,  the  modern  Nahr-Ibrahim, 
rising  in  the  Lebanon,  and  flowing  into  the 
Mediterranean  about  13  miles  north  of  Beirut. 

Adonis  (a-do'nis).  [Gr.  "Adavig ;  Heb.  and  Phen. 
'adon,  lord.]  In  Greek  mythology,  a  youth,  a 
model  of  beauty,  beloved  of  Aphrodite.  He  died 
from  the  wound  of  a  boar's  tuak,  received  while  hunting. 
Acceding  to  the  entreaties  of  Aphrodite,  Zeus  decreed  that 
he  should  pass  half  the  year  in  the  upper  and  half  in  the 
lower  world.  Adonis  is  an  oriental  deity  of  nature,  typi- 
fying the  withering  of  nature  in  winter,  and  its  resuscita^ 
tion  in  summer.  By  way  of  Asia  Minor  his  cult  came  to 
Greece,  then  under  the  Ptolemies  to  Egypt,  and,  at  the 
time  of  the  Empire,  to  Home.  The  yearly  festival  of 
Adonis  in  the  spring  was  a  special  favorite  with  women. 
In  the  Old  Testament  reference  is  made  to  the  weeping  of 
the  women  over  Tammuz,  the  Babylonian  equivalent  of 
Adonis  (Ezek.  viii.  14).  In  the  Babylonian  Nimrod  epic 
he  is  mentioned  as  the  beloved  of  Ishtar  (Astarte,  the  Se- 
mitic goddess,  corresponding  to  Aphrodite),  being  repre- 
sented there  as  slain  by  the  goddess  herself.  See  Tammuz. 

Adony  (od'ony).  A  small  town  in  the  county 
of  Stnhlweissenbtirg,  Hungary,  on  the  Danube 
about  28  miles  south  of  Budapest. 

Adoptive  Emperors,  The.  The  Roman  em- 
perors Nerva,  Trajan,  Hadrian,  Antoninus 
Pius,  and  Marcus  Aurelius :  so  called  because 
after  -Nerva,  who  was  elected  by  the  senate  on 
the  death  of  Domitian,  each  was  the  adopted 
son  of  his  predecessor.  They  constitute  the  greatest 
and  noblest  group  of  Boman  emperors,  and  the  period  of 

•  tlieir  reigns  is  the  happiest  in  K.oman  history — according 
to  Gibbon  the  happiest  in  the  history  of  the  world. 

Adoration  of  the  Lamb.  A  painting  by  Jan 
and  Hubert  van  Eyck,  in  the  cathedral  of 
Ghent,  Belgium.  It  is  the  capital  work  of  the 
Flemish  school. 

Adoration  of  the  Magi.  Of  the  paintings  with 
this  subject  the  following  are  among  the  most 
notable  :  (l)  An  altarpiece  (1528)  by  Sodoma  (Bazzi),  in 
San  Agostino  at  Siena,  Italy.  It  is  the  painter's  master- 
piece, admirable  in  drawing  and  color.  ^2)  A  painting  in 
tempera  by  Sandro  Botticelli,  in  the  Uffizi,  Florence.  The 
three  kings  are  portraits  of  Gosimo,  Giuliano,  and  Gio- 
vanni del  Medici.  The  Virgin  occupies  a  hut  among  rocks 
and  old  ruins.  (3)  A  painting  by  Tintoret,  in  the  Scuola 
di  San  Eocco  at  Venice.  The  entire  scene  is  lighted  by 
the  radiance  emanating  from  the  body  of  the  Child.  (4) 
A  noted  painting  by  Rembrandt,  in  Buckingham  Palace, 
London.  The  Virgin  and  Child  are  seated  at  the  right ; 
before  them  kneel  the  Magi.  Behind  are  kings  and  old 
men,  and  in  the  distance  a  caravan  of  camels.  (5)  A  pic- 
ture by  Albert  Diirer,  in  the  Uffizi,  Florence.  There  is  a 
very  delicate  landscape  background.  (6)  A  painting  by 
Bubens,  in  the  Mus^e  de  Peinture  at  Brussels,  Belgium. 
The  Virgin  stands  in  the  middle  holding  the  Child  erect, 
with  St.  Joseph  behind  her  ;  before  them  the  kings  stand 
and  kneel,  while  their  guards  and  attendants  observe  the 
scene  from  a  staircase  behind.  (!)  A  painting  by  Kubens 
(1624),  in  the  Museum  at  Antwerp,  Belgium.  The  Virgin 
appears  at  the  left,  holding  the  Child  on  a  jpillow ;  behind 
her  stands  St.  Joseph,  and  in  front  the  kings  and  their 
train.  The  figures  are  over  life-size.  (8)  A  splendid 
painting  by  Paolo  Veronese,  a  companion  piece  to  the 
Marriage  at  Cana,  in  the  Museum  at  Dresden.    The  Vir- 

'  gin  is  seated,  with  the  Child  on  her  knee ;  the  kings,  at- 
tended by  a  numerous  train  with  camels  and  horses,  offer 
their  gifts.  (9)  The  noted  "Dombild"  of  the  Cathedral 
of  Cologne,  a  large  triptych  by  Meister  Stephan  (died 
1461),  considered  the  finest  work  of  the  early  German 
school  intermediate  between  purely  medieval  and  Renais- 
sance painting.  The  side  panels  bear  St.  Gereon  and  St. 
Ursula,  and  on  the  outside  is  painted  an  Annunciation. 

Adorf  (a'dorf).  A  small  town  in  the  district 
of  Zwickau,  Saxony,  on  the  Elster  about  30 
miles  southwest  of  Zwickau. 

Adour (ad-6r').  AriverinsouthwestemFrance, 
the  ancient  Aturus,  which  rises  in  the  Pyrenees 
and  flows  into  the  Bay  of  Biscay  about  5  miles 
west  of  Bayonne.  Its  length  is  about  180  miles, 
and  it  is  navigable  for  about  70  miles. 

Adowa  (a'do-wS),  or  Adua  (a'do-a).  The  capi- 
tal of  Tigr^,  Abyssinia,  about  lat.  14°  8'  N., 
long.  38°  54'  E.   'Population,  3,000. 

Ad  rirum  (adpi'rum).  [L., '  at  the  pear-tree.'] 
An  ancient  Roman  station  in  the  Birnbaumer 
Wald  (northeast  of  Trieste),  on  the  road  across 
the  Alps  into  Italy,  celebrated  in  connection 
with  Theodosius's  victory  of  the  Frigidus,  394. 

Adra  (a'dra).  A  seaport,  the  ancient  Abdera, 
in  the  province  of  Almeria,  Spain,  on  the  Medi- 
terranean about  50  miles  southeast  of  Granada. 
There  are  numerous  lead-mines  in  its  vicinity. 
Population  (1887),  9,029. 

Adrain  (ad'ran),  Robert.    Bom  at  Carriekfer- 


Adrian  VI. 

gus,  Ireland,  Sept.  30, 1775 :  died  at  New  Bruns- 
wick, New  Jersey,  Aug.  10,  1843.  An  Irish- 
American  mathematician,  a  participant  in  the 
Irish  rebellion  of  1798.  He  escaped  to  America, 
taught  school  in  New  Jersey  and  Pennsylvania,  and  was 
professor  of  mathematics  at  Rutgers  College  from  1810  to 
1813,  at  Columbia  College  from  1813  to  1826,  and  at  the 
University  of  Pennsylvania  from  1827  to  1834.  He  edited 
Hutton's  "Mathematics,"  and  was  editor  of  the  "Mathe- 
matical Diary  "  from  1825  to  1829. 

Adrammelech,  or  Adramelech  (a-diam'e-lek). 
[Babylonian  Adar-malik,  Adar  is  councilor 
(ruler,  prince).]  1.  An  idol  worshiped,  with 
the  sacrifice  of  children,  by  the  inhabitants 
of  Sepharvaim  with  whom  Sargon,  king  of  As- 
syria, colonized  Samaria.  (2  Ki.  xvii.  31.)  See 
Adar. — 2,  A  son  of  Sennacherib,  king  of  As- 
syria. With  the  help  of  his  brother  Sharezer  he  slew 
his  father  in  the  so-called  temple  of  Nisroch,  on  his  return 
from  his  expedition  against  Hezeiuah.  (2  Ki.  xix.  37,  Isa. 
xxxvii.  38.)  This  event  is  mentioned  in  the  Babylonian 
chronicle  (cuneiform). 
3.  In  angelology,  one  of  the  fallen  angels. 

Adramyttium  (ad-ra-mit'i-um).  [Gr.  'ASpa/iirf- 
TEiQv,  'A.Spa/ArTiov.'i  "In  ancient  geography,  a 
town  in  Mysia,  Asia  Minor,  on  the  Gulf  of  Adra- 
myttium about  lat.  39°  35'  N.,  long.  26°  55'  E. 
The  modern  town  Adramyti  or  Edremid  Ues 
about  3  miles  inland  (poptdation,  8,000). 

Adramyttium,  Gulf  of.  An  arm  of  the  .^gean 
Sea,  on  the  western  coast  of  Asia  Minor,  north 
of  MytUene. 

Adrar.    See  Aderer. 

Adraste  (a-drasf).  The  principal  character  of 
Molifere's  play  "Le  Sicilien,"  a  yoxmg  French 
gentleman  who  succeeds  in  carrying  on  Isidore, 
the  beautiful  Greek  slave  of  Don  P6dre,  by 
disguising  himself  as  a  portrait-painter :  hence 
the  second  title  of  the  play,  "L' Amour  peintre." 

Adrasteia  (ad-ras-ti'a),  [Gr.  'ASpdareta.']  1. 
A  name  of  Nemesis  and  of  Ehea-Cybele. — 2. 
A  Cretan  nymph,  daughter  of  Melisseus,  to 
whom  Rhea  intrusted  the  infant  Zeus  to  be 
reared  in  the  Dictsean  grotto.  Smith,  Diet.  Gr. 
and  Rom.  Biog. 

AdrastUS  (a-dras'tus),  or  AdrastOS  (a-dras'- 
tos).  [Gr.  "AdpaoTOf.']  In  Greek  legend,  a  king 
of  Argos,  leader  in  the  expedition  of  the 
"Seven  againgt  Thebes."  He  was  worshiped 
as  ahero  in  several  places,  among  themMegara. 

Adria  (a'dri-a).  In  ancient  geography  (about 
the  1st  century  A.  D.),  that  part  of  the  Medi- 
terranean which  lies  between  Crete  and  Sicily. 

Adria  (in  ancient  Picenum).    See  Atri. 

Adria  (a'dre-a),  or  Adria  Veneta  (a'dre-a  va- 
na'ta).  A  town  in  the  province  of  Rovigo, 
Italy,  ■  the  ancient  Adria,  Atria,  Hadria,  or 
Hatria,  situated  near  the  sea  about  16  miles 
southwest  of  Venice.  It  has  a  cathedral  and  many 
antiquities,  and  has  been  successively  an  Etruscan,  a 
Greek,  and  a  Roman  town.    Population,  7,000. 

Adrian  (a'dri-an),  or  Hadrian  (ha'dri-an),  I, 

Pope  from  772  to  795.  He  summoned  Charles  the 
Great  to  resist  the  encroachments  of  the  Lombard  king 
Desiderius,  who  had  occupied  Pentapolis  and  was  threat- 
ening Rome ;  and  Charles,  after  the  destruction  of  the 
Lombard  kingdom,  granted  anew  to  him  the  territories 
originally  bestowed  by  Pepifl,  with  the  addition  of  Ancona 
and  Benevento.  Adrian  adopted  the  view  of  the  Eastern 
Church  with  regard  to  the  veneration  of  images,  anathe- 
matizing all  who  refused  to  venerate  the  images  of  Christ, 
the  Virgin,  or  the  saints.  He  was  the  son  of  a  Roman 
noble. 

Adrian,  or  Hadrian,  II.   Pope  from  867  to  872. 

He  passed  a  sentence  of  deposition  on  Photius,  patriarch 
of  Constantinople,  which  was  confirmed  at  a  council  of 
the  Eastern  Church  in  869-870. 

Adrian,  or  Hadrian,  III.  Pope  from  884  to  885. 

Adrian,  or  Hadrian,  IV.  (Nicholas  Break- 
spear).  Born  before  1100  at  Langley,  near  St. 
Albans,  in  Hertfordshire :  died  at  Anagni,  Italy, 
1159.  Pope  from  Dec.  4, 1154,  to  Sept.  1, 1159: 
the  only  Englishman  who  has  occupied  the 
papal  chair.  He  was  successively  a  clerk  and  abbot  of 
the  monastery  of  St.  Rufus,  in  Provence,  and  in  1146  was 
created  cardinal-bishop  of  Albano  by  Pope  Eugenius  III. 
Two  years  later  he  was  sent  as  legate  to  Denmark  and 
Norway.  As  Pope  he  bestowed  the  sovereignty  of  Ireland 
on  Henry  II.  of  England.  He  quelled  the  democratic 
rising  of  the  Roman  people  under  Arnold  of  Brescia,  and 
procured  the  execution  of  the  latter  in  1165.  He  com- 
pelled William,  king  of  the  Two  Sicilies,  to  acknowledge 
the  feudal  suzerainty  of  the  Pope.  With  Adrian  IV.  be- 
gan the  great  conflict  between  the  papal  power  and  the 
house  of  Hohenstaufen.  He  died  while  preparing  to 
place  himself  at  the  head  of  the  forces  of  the  Italian 
party  against  the  emperor  Frederick  I. 

Adrian,  or  Hadrian,  V.  (Ottoboni  Fiesco). 

Pope  in  1276.  He  lived  only  five  weeks  after 
his  accession  to  the  chair. 
Adrian,  or  Hadrian,  VI.  Born  at  Utrecht  in 
1459:  died  Sept.  14,  1523.  Pope  from  1522  to 
1 523.  He  studied  at  the  University  of  Louvain,  of  which 
he  became  vice-chancellor,  and  was  chosen  by  the  em- 
peror Maximilian  to  be  the  tutor  of  his  grandson,  Arch- 


Adrian  VI. 

duke  Charley  the  later  emperor  Charles  V.  In  1616  he 
became  bishop  of  Tortosa  and  grand  inquisitor  of  Aragon ; 
in  1617  he  was  created  a  cardinal  by  Leo  X.;  and  after 
the  death  of  Ferdinand  he  acted  for  a  time  as  regent  of 
Spain.  On  his  accession  to  the  papal  chair  Jan.  9, 1622, 
he  corrected  various  external  abuses  in  the  church,  but 
failed  in  his  efforts  to  checlc  the  Kef ormation. 

Adrian.    A  lord  in  Shakspere's  "Tempest." 

Adrian  de  Castello,  or  de  Corneto.  Bom  at 
Cometo,  Tuscany,  Italy,  1460  (?) :  died  1521  (t). 
An  Italian  eoelesiastic  and  scholar,  nuncio  of 
Innocent  VIU.  in  Scotland  in  1488,  agent  at 
Eome  of  Henry  VII.  of  England,  collector  of 
Peter's  pence  in  England,  and  papal  prothon- 
otary.  He  obtained  in  1492  the  prebend  of  Ealdland  in 
St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  and  the  rectory  of  St.  Dunstan-in-the- 
East,  but  returned  to  Borne  on  the  death  of  Innocent 
VIII.  He  was  made  bishop  of  Hereford  in  1602,  bishop 
of  Bath  and  Wells  in  1504,  and  cardinal  in  1B03.  In  1617 
he  was  implicated  in  the  conspiracy  of  Cardinals  Petrucci, 
De  Sauli,  and  Eiario  to  poison  Leo  X.,  and  was  deprived  of 
his  cardinalate  (1518)  and  of  his  dignities  in  England.  He 
was  probably  assassinated.  He  wrote  "  Venatio,"  a  poem 
(1605),  "De  Vera Philosophia" (1607),  "DeSermone Latino 
et  modo  Latine  Loquenm"  (1513),  etc. 

Adrian  (a'dri-an).  The  capital  of  Lenawee 
County,  Michigan,  a  manufacturing  city  situ- 
ated on  the  river  Eaisin  about  55  miles  south- 
west of  Detroit :  sometimes  called  the  "  Maple 
City."    Population  (1900),  9,654. 

Adfiana  (a-dri-a'na).  A  character  in  Shak- 
spere's "Comedy  of  Errors":  the  wife  of  Au- 
tipholus  of  Ephesus. 

Adriana,  Villa.    See  Sadrian's  Villa. 

Adrianople  (ad'ri-an-o'pl).  [Turk.  Edimeh,  or 
JBdreneft.]  The  capital  of  the  vilayet  of  Adri- 
anople, on  the  Maritza  in  lat.  41°  41'  N., 
long.  26°  35'  E.,  a  place  of  great  strategic  and 
commercial  importance,  founded  by  the  em- 
peror Hadrian  about  125  a.  d.,  on  the  site  of 
the  ancient  Uscudama :  the  residence  of  the 
sultans  1361-1453.  It  was  besieged  by  the  Avars  in 
586,  stormed  by  the  Bulgarians  in  922,  entered  by  the 
Crusaders  in  1189,  taken  by  the  Turks  in  1361,  taken  by  the 
Russians  under  Inebitsch  in  1829,  and  occupied  by  the  Kus- 
sians  Jan.,  1878.  The  emperor  Baldwin  I.  was  taken  pris- 
oner in  Adrianople  by  the  Bulgars  in  1205.  Its  most 
notable  building  is  the  mosque  of  Sultan  Selim  II.,  a  very 
impressive  building  of  the  16th  century.  It  Is  preceded 
by  a  fine  portico  of  monolithic  columns,  and  ilanked  by 
four  slender  fluted  minarets  about  200  feet  high.  The 
span  of  the  dome  (106  feet)  is  greater  than  that  of  Santa 
Sophia :  It  rests  on  four  colossal  porphyry  columns. 

Adrianople.  A  vilayet  in  European  Turkey. 
Population,  836,044. 

Adrianople,  Battle  of.  1.  A  victory  of  the 
Goths  over  the  emperor  Valens,  378  A.  D. — 2. 
A  victory  of  the  Slays  over  the  Byzantines, 
551. 

Adrianople,  Peace  or  Treaty  of.  A  treaty 
between  Russia  and  Turkey,  signed  at  Adrian- 
ople, Sept.  14,  1829.  Turkey  ceded  to  Russia  im- 
portant f  ortresseB  and  districts  on  the  northeastern  coast 
of  the  Black  Sea ;  granted  to  Bussian  subjects  freedom  of 
trade  in  Turkey,  and  freedom  of  navigation  in  the  Black 
Sea,  Danube,  and  Dardanelles ;  confirmed'  and  extended 
the  protectorate  exercised  by  the  czar  over  the  Danubian 
principalities ;  gave  Russia  control  of  a  part  of  the  left 
bank  of  the  lower  Danube,  and  of  the  Sulina  mouth  of 
that  river ;  and  recognized  the  independence  of  Greece. 

Adriani  (a-dre-a'ne),  Giovaimi  Battista. 
Born  at  Florence  1513  -^ied  1579.  A  Florentine 
statesman  and  historian,  author  of  a  history  of 
his  time,  for  the  period  1536-74. 

Adrianus,  Publius  .^lius.    SeeMadrian. 

Adriatic Sea(a-dri-at'ik,  or  ad-ri-at'ik,se).  [Gt. 
6  'Adpiag,  L.  Mare  Adriaticum,  or  Mare  Superiim, 
It.  Mare Adriatico,  F.MerAdriaUque,Gr.Adria- 
tisches  Meer.l  That  part  of  the  Mediterranean 
which  lies  between  Italy  on  the  west  and  north- 
west, and  Austria,  Montenegro,  and  Albania  on 
the  east,  and  is  connected  with  the  Ionian  Sea 
by  the  Strait  of  Otranto.  its  chief  arms  are  the  Gulfs 
of  Manf  redonia,  Venice,  Trieste,  and  Quamero,  and  its  lar- 
gest tributaries  are  the  Po  and  Adige.  Its  length  is  about 
460  miles,  and  its  average  width  about  100  miles. 

Adrienne  Lecouvreur  (a-dri-en'  le-ka-vrer'). 
A  prose  drama  in  5  acts,  by  Scribe  and  Le- 
gouv6,  first  presented  April  14, 1849.  See  Le- 
couvreur, Adrienne. 

Aduatici  (ad-H-afi-si),  or  Adnatuci  (ad-u- 
at'ii-si).  A  German  tribe  of  Belgio  Gaul,  de- 
scendants of  the  Cimbri  and  Teutones,  living 
west  of  the  Meuse,  dispersed  by  Csesar  57  b.  c. 

Adnla  (a^do'la),  or  Khein-waldgebirge  (rin- 
vald-ge-ber'ge).  A  group  of  the  Alps  in  the 
western  part  of  the  canton  of  Grisons,  Switzer- 
land, the  source  of  the  Hinter-Ehein.  The 
highest  point  is  the  Ehelnwaldhom,  11, 150  feet. 

Adule,  AdnUs.    See  Zulla. 

Adulis  Bay.    See  Annesley  Bay. 

Adullam  (a-dul'am).  [Heb.,  possibly '  retreat' ; 
Arabic  aMla,  turn  aside.]  A  city  and  cave  in 
the  territory  of  Judah  in  the  low  country :  origi- 
nally a  Canaanite  city.    The  cave  was  used  by  David 


16 

as  a  hiding-place.  It  has  been  Identified  with  the  modem 
Aid-elm^  10  miles  northeast  of  Bebron  ;  falsely  identi- 
fied by  tradition  with  Khareitfln  near  Bethlehem. 

Adullam,  Cave  of.  The  cave  to  which  David 
withdrew  from  Gath.  1  Sam.  xxii.  it  was  capable 
of  affording  shelter  to  four  hundred  men.    See  above. 

AduUamiteS.  In  English  history jthe  group 
of  Liberals  who  seceded  from  the  Whig  party 
and  voted  with  the  Conservatives  when  Earl 
Eussell  and  Mr.  Gladstone  introduced  a  measure 
for  the  extension  of  the  elective  franchise  in 
1866.  They  received  the  name  of  Adullamites  from  theto 
being  likened  by  Mr.  Bright  to  the  discontented  persons 
who  took  refuge  with  David  in  the  Cave  of  Adullam. 
The  party  was  also  known  collectively  as  "The  Cave" 
and  "  The  Cave  of  Adullam." 

Advance  (ad-vans' ),  The.  The  vessel  in  which 
Elisha  Kane  explored  the  arctic  regions  in 
search  of  Sir  John  Franklin.    See  Kane. 

Adventure  (ad-ven'pr),  The.     1.  The  ship  of 

'the  pirate  Captain  Kidd. — 2.  The  ship  in  which 
Captain  King(assooiatedwithFitzroy)  explored 
the  coasts  of  South  America,  1826-30. 

Adventures  of  Five  Hours,  The.  A  play  by 
Sir  Samuel  Tuke,  an  adaptation  of  Calderon's 
"Los  Empenos  de  Seis  Horas,"  made  by  the 
advice  of  Charles  II.,  and  printed  in  1662. 

Adventures  of  an  Atom,  The.  A  political 
satire  by  Smollett,  published  in  1769. 

Adversity  Hume.  A  nickname  of  Joseph 
Hume  (1777-1855),  given  to  him  about  1825  on 
account  of  his  predictions  of  national  disaster. 
See  Prosperity  Bdbinson. 

Adventures  of  Philip.  A  novel  by  Thackeray, 
published  in  1862. 

Adye  (a'di),  Sir  John  Miller.  Born  Nov.  1, 
1819:  died  Aug.  26,  1900.  An  English  general 
and  military  writer:  author  of  "Defence  of 
Cawnpore,"  etc. 

.^acides  (e-as'i-dez).  A  descendant  of  .Sacus, 
especially  Achilles. 

.Sacus  (e'a-kus).  [Gr.  AJoKOf.]  In  Greek 
mythology,  the  son  of  Zeus  and  .SJ^na,  re- 
nowned for  hia  justice,  and  made  a  judge  in 
the  lower  world.  He  was  the  grandfather  of 
Achilles. 

.Sdhan.     See  Aidan. 

Aedon  (a-e'don).  [Gr.  'Arii&D,']  In  Greek  my- 
thology, a  daughter  of  Pandareus  of  Ephesus. 
According  to  Homer  she  was  the  wife  of  Zethus,  king  of 
Thebes,  and  the  mother  of  Itylus.  Inspired  by  envy 
of  JS'iobe,  the  wife  of  her  brother  Amphion,  who  had  six 
sons  and  six  daughters,  she  formed  the  design  of  killing 
Niobe's  eldest  son,  but  by  mistake  destroyed  her  own  son 
Itylus.  To  relieve  her  grief  she  was  changed  by  Zeus 
into  a  nightingale. 

Sidw.  (ed'u-i).  A  Celtic  people -living  in  cen- 
tral Gaul,' west  of  the  Sequani  between  the 
Sa6ne  and  the  Loire.  Their  capital  was  Bibracte 
(Augustodurium,  Autun).  They  were  allies  of  the  Romans, 
butjoined  in  the  revolt  of  62  B.  c.    Also  Hedui. 

The  iEdui,  friends  and  brothers,  aa  they  delighted  to  be 
called,  of  the  Roman  people,  held  the  highest  place  among 
the  nations  of  central  Gaul.  Their  friendship  and  brotlier- 
hood  was  acknowledged  by  the  Romans  themselves.  It 
was  a  special  badge  of  distinction.  Rome  had  many  al- 
lies :  the  .^dui  were  her  only  brothers.  The  brothers  of 
Rome  were  naturally  the  first  among  the  nations ^of  Gaul 
to  find  thefa;  way  into  the  Roman  Senate. 

Freeman^  Hist.  Essays,  4th  ser.,  p.  98. 

.Sgadian  Islands  (e-ga'di-an  I'landz).    See 


JEgXOn  (e-je'on).    [Gr.  Myaiav.J    See  Briareiis. 

jEgaleoS  (e-ga'le-os).  [Gr.  Aiyo/Uuf.]  In  an- 
cient geography,  a  mountain-range  in  Attica 
separating  the  Athenian  and  Eleusinian  plains. 
It  ended  in  a  promontory  (Amphiale)  opposite  Salamis. 
From  it  Xerxes  witnessed  the  battle  of  Salamis, 

.fflgates  (e-ga'tez).  [L.]  In  ancient  geography, 
a  group  of  small  islands  west  of  Sicily:  the 
modern  .^gadian  Islands.  They  comprise  Eavi- 
gnana,  Maritime,  Levanzo,  and  Formica,  and  lielong  to  the 
province  of  Trapani,  Sicily.  Near  them  was  gained  the 
Roman  naval  victory  over  the  Carthaginians,  241  B.  0. 

.^gean  Sea  (e-je'an  se).  [L.  Mare  JEgsBum, 
Gr.  6  Alyato;  irdvroc,  or  to  Alyalov  wilayog,  so  called, 
according  to  Strabo,  from  Alyal,  -Slgee,  a  town 
in  Euboea;  aooording  to  others  (erroneously) 
from  Aiyeig,  jEgeus.]  That  part  of  the  Medi- 
terranean which  lies  between  Greece  on  the 
west,  European  Turkey  on  the  north,  and 
Asia  Minor  on  the  east,  and  communicates 
with  the  Sea  of  Marmora  and  thence  with  the 
Black  Sea  by  the  Strait  of  Dardanelles,  it  con- 
tains many  islands,  as  Euboea,  theCyclades,  the  Sporades, 
Samos,  Chios,  Mytilene,  Samothrace,  Thasos,  etc.  Its 
chief  arms  are  the  Gulf  of  Nauplia,  the  Saronic  Gulf,  the 
Channels  of  Egripo  and  Talanta,  and  the  Gulfs  of  Lamia, 
Volo,  Saloniki,  Cassandra,  Monte  Santo,  Contessa,  Saros, 
Adramyti,  Smyrna,  Scala  Nova,  Mendelia,  and  Kos.  Its 
chief  tributaries  are  the  Salembria,  Vardar,  Struma,  Ma- 
ritza, Sarabat,  and  Mend  ere.  Its  length  is  about  400  miles, 
and  its  greatest  width  over  200  miles.    See  ^geui, 

.^geon  (e-je'on).  A  character  in  Shakspere's 
"  Comedy  of  Errors":  a  merchant  of  Syracuse. 


.Sglamour 

jEgeus  (e'jfls).  [Gr.Aiyrff.]  In  Greek  legend, 
the  father  of  Theseus,  and  king  of  Athens. 
He  threw  himself  into  the  ^ean  Sea  (whence,  according 
to  tradition,  the  name)  through  grief  at  the  supposed 
loss  of  his  son.  _      ,     ^  .  _,., 

.SIgidi  (a-ge'de),  Ludvng  Karl.  Bom  at  Tilsit, 
April  10,  1825  :  died  at  Berlin,  Nov.  19,  1901. 
A  German  jurist,  publicist,  and  politician,  pro- 
fessor of  jurisprudence  in  the  University  of 
Bonn  (1868),  and  professor  of  jurisprudence  in 
the  University  of  BerUn  ri877). 

JEgidius  (e-jid'i-us).  1.  A  Eoman  commander 
in  Gaul  under  Majorianus  (457-461).  After  the 
death  of  the  emperor  he  maintained  an  independent  sov- 
ereignty, possibly  with  the  title  of  king,  at  Soissons.  He 
was  voluntarily  chosen  king  of  the  Franks  during  the 
temporary  exile  of  the  unpopular  Childeric. 
2.  See  Giles,  Saint. 

.ffigidius  a  Colunmis  (e-jid'i-us  a  ko-lum'nis). 
Bom  at  Eome  about  1247:  died  1316.  A  scho- 
lastic philosopher,  general  of  the  Augustine 
order,  sumamed  "Doctor  Pundatissimus." 

jEgina  (e-ji'na),  or  Aiglna  (i'gi-na).  [Gr. 
Alyiva.']  In  Greek  mythology,  the  daughter  of 
Asopus,  the  river-god,  beloved  by  Zeus,  and 
carried  by  him  to  the  island  of  .ffigina  (whence, 
according  to  tradition,  its  name). 

.^gina,  or  Aigina.  An  island  of  Greece,  in  the 
Saronic  Gulf  of  the  ^gean,  lat.  37°  45'  N.,  long. 
23°  26'  E.  It  was  colonized  by  Dorians,  and  was  an  im- 
portant commercial  state  and  center  of  art  In  the  6th  and 
6th  centuries  B.  0.  In  456  B.  0.  it  was  subjugated  byAthens, 
and  now  belongs  to  the  nomarchy  of  Attica  and  Bceotia. 
Its  length  is  9  miles.    Population,  about  6,000. 

J£gina,  or  Aigina,  The  capital  of  the  island  of 
JEgina,  situated  on  the  western  coast:  popula- 
tion, about  3,000.  The  temple  of  Athena  at  Mgbm  was 
a  monument  famous  for  both  architecture  and  sculpture. 
It  was  a  Doric  peripteros  of  6  by  12  columns,  the  cells 
having  pronaos  and  opisthodomos  with  2  columns  in  antis. 
Twenty-two  columns,  with  their  entablature,  are  standing. 
Each  pediment  was  filled  with  a  group  of  sculpture  rep- 
resenting a  combat  between  Greeks  and  Trojans  under 
the  presidency  of  Athena,  who  is  the  central  figure.  The 
major  part  of  these  sculptures  has  been  recovered,  and 
Is  included  in  the  collection  of  the  jSginetan  Marbles 
(which  see)  at  Munich.  Though  appearing  older,  the 
temple  is  ascribed  to  the  early  part  of  the  5th  century  B.  0. 
Of  the  temple  of  Aphrodite  but  one  of  the  great  Doric 
columns,  very  similar  to  those  of  the  temple  of  Athena, 
but  larger,  is  standing,  but  the  plan  has  been  in  part  re- 
covered.   The  temple  was  hexastyle. 

.ffigina,  Gulf  of.    See  Saronic  Gulf. 

.Sgineta,  Paulus.    See  Paulus  Mginsta. 

.^ginetan  Marbles  (ej-i-ne'tan  mar'blz).  An 
important  collection  of  sculpture  from  the  tem- 
ple of  Athena  in  .3!gina,  now  in  the  Glyptothek 
at  Munich.  These  sculptures  were  discovered  In  1811, 
and  consist  for  the  most  part  of  the  remains  of  the  series  of 
statues  from  both  pediments  of  the  temple.  Five  figures 
survive  from  the  eastern  pediment^  and  10  from  the  west- 
ern, which  is  probably  complete.  Both  groups  represent 
the  exploits  of  Greek  heroes  lu  the  Trojan  war,  with 
Athena  as  the  central  figure.  They  belong  to  an  artistic 
period  immediately  before  the  time  of  full  mastery,  an! 
thus,  while  in  many  particulars  admirable^  preserve  Bome 
archaic  features,  as  the  rigid  smile  on  the  expressionless 
faces,  and  the  stiffness  of  attitude  of  some  of  the  figures. 
The  date  generally  accepted  is  about  475  B.  a;  but  this 
is  not  definitely  established.  These  sculptures  were  re- 
stored by  Thorwaldsen. 

-Sgipan  (e'ji-pan).  [Gr.  AlyfTrav,  the  goat  Pan.] 
In  Greek  mythology,  the  goat  Pan,  in  some 
forms  of  the  myth  identical  with  Pan,  and  in 
others  different  from  him.  He  is  called  the 
sou  of  Zeus  and  .33ga,  Pan's  wife,  and  also  the 
father  of  Pan. 

wSgir  (a'jir).  [ON.  segir,  AS.  edgor,  the  sea.] 
In  Old  Norse  mythology,  the  god  of  the  ocean. 
He  was  the  principal  water-demon  and  by  race  a  giant, 
but  personifies  the  more  propitious  characteristics  of  the 
sea.  He  is  also  called  Bier  (ON.  BUr)  and  Qymir.  His 
wife  is  Ran. 

.Sgis  (e'jis).  [L.  SBgis,  <  Gr.  alyi^,  the  segis,  also 
a  rushing  storm,  hurricane.]  In  Greek  mjrthol- 
ogy,  originally  the  storm-cloud  enveloping  the 
thunderbolt,  the  especial  weapon  of  Zeus,  it 
afterward  came  to  be  regarded  as :  (a)  The  skin  of  the 
goat  Amalthea,  the  foster-mother  of  Zeus,  which  the  latter 
took  for  defensive  armor  in  his  war  with  the  Titans.  •  (6) 
A  terrible  weapon  wrought  by  Hephtestus  after  the  faBh- 
lon  of  a  thunder-cloud  fringed  with  lightning,  intrusted 
to  Zeus  to  Apollo  and  to  Athena,  and  a  characteristic  at- 
tnbute  of  the  latter.  In  art  the  ^gia  is  represented  as 
a  sort  of  mantle  fringed  with  serpents,  generally  worn 
over  the  breast,  but  sometimes  held  extended  over  the 
left  arm,  or  thrown  over  the  arm  to  serve  as  a  shield.  The 
.S^gis  of  Athena,  except  In  the  most  primitive  representa- 
tions, bears  in  the  midst  the  head  of  the  Gorgon  Medusa, 
and  is  usually  covered  with  scales  like  those  of  a  serpent. 

iEgisthus(e-jis'thus).  [Gr. Atyicfcc.]  InGreek 
legend,  a  son  of  Thyestes  and  cousin  of  Aga- 
memnon: he  seduced  Clytemnestra,  and  pro- 
cured the  murder  of  Agamemnon,  in  the  "Aga- 
memnon "  of  .Sschylus  Clytemnestra,  incited  to  the  act 
by  .(Egisthus,  commits  the  murder. 

.^glamour  (e'gla-mSr).  The  Sad  Shepherd  in 
Jonson's  play  of  that  name.  He  grieves  at  the 
reported  drowning  of  the  shepherdess  Earine. 


■£gle 

^gle  (eg'le).  [Gr.  AiyA,.]  In  Greek  mythol- 
ogy: (a)  A  naiad,  mother  of  the  Graces.  (J) 
One  of  the  Hesperides. 

jEgOSpotami  (e-gos-pot'a-mi).  [Gr.  Aiydf  tto- 
Ta/wi,  '  goat's  rivers.']    Li'  ancient  geography,  a 

small  river  and  a  town  of  the  Thracian  Cher- 

sonesus,  about  lat.  40°  20'  N.,  long.  26°  33' E.,  ^Eneas  "(e-ne'as)! 


noted  as  the  place  of  a  naval  victory  of  the 
Spartans  under  Lysauder  over  the  Athenians, 
405  B.  0.,  which  led  to  the  close  of  the  Pelopon- 
nesian  war. 

-ffigyPtUS  (e-jip'tus).  [Gr.  Myvm-gg.']  In  Greek 
mythologVj  a  son  of  Belus  and  twin  brother  of 
Danaus.  He  reoeivedfromBelus the  sovereignty 
of  Arabia  and  conquered  Egypt.    See  Egypt. 

.Slfheah  (alf 'hean),  or  Saint  Alphege  (al'fej). 
Born  954 :  died  April  19, 1012.  An  Anglo-Saxon 
prelate,  made  bishop  of  Winchester  in  984  and 
archbishop  of  Canterbury  in  1006.  He  was  captured 
by  the  Danes  in  1011,  and  held  for  ransom.  This  he  at 
first  agreed  to  jpay,  bat  afterward  refused,  and  in  conse- 
quence was  slam. 

JElfred.    See  Alfred. 

.£lfric  (alf  rik).  Born  about  955:  died  about 
1020  A.  D.  An  English  (Anglo-Saxon)  abbot, 
surnamed  "Grammaticus,"  author  of  homilies 
(edited  by  Thorpe  1844-46),  a  Latin  grammar 
and  glossary,  a  treatise  on  the  Old  and  New 
Testaments,  "  Heptateuchus,"  etc.  There  has 
been  much  discussion  with  regard  to  his  identity,  and  it 
is  still  in  dispute. 

.  jElfthryth  (alf'thrith),  L.  Elfrida  (el-fri'da). 
Bom  about  945:  died  about  1000.  An  Anglo- 
Saxon  queen,  daughter  of  Ordgar,  ealdorman  of 
Devon,  wife  first  of  ^thelwald,  ealdorman  of 
the  East  Anglians,  and,  after  his  death,  of  King 
Eadgar  by  whom  she  was  the  mother  of  .^thel- 
red  II.  She  is  said  to  have  caused  the  murder  of  her 
stepson  Eadward  at  Corf  e,  in  order  to  secure  the  election 
of^thelred. 

iElia  Capitolina  (e'li-a  kap"i-t9-ll'na).   In  an 


17 

.ffimilius,  Paulus  (Paolo  Emilio).    Bom  at 

Verona,  Italy :  died  at  Paris,  May  5, 1529.     An 
ItaUan  historian,  summoned  to  France  in  the 
reign  of  Charles  VIII.  to  write  a  French  history, 
"De  rebus  gestis  Prancorum." 
JEmilius  Paulus.    See  Paulus. 

_.  .  [Gr.  Mvelag.']  In  classical 
legend,  a  Trojan  prince,  son  of  Anchises,  king 
otDardanus,  and  Aphrodite.  The  traditions  about 
him  vary.  According  to  Homer,  being  robbed  of  his  oat- 
Ue  by  Achilles,  he  took  sides,  with  his  Dardanians,  against 
the  Greeks,  played  an  important  part  in  the  war,  and  after 
the  sack  of  Troy,  and  the  extinction  of  the  house  of  Priam, 
reigned  (as  did  also  his  descendants)  in  the  Troad.  In 
post-Homeric  traditions  he  is  sometimes  represented  as 
absent  from  the  sack  of  Troy,  sometimes  as  seeking  refuge, 
on  the  admonition  of  Aphrodite,  in  Mount  Ida,  and  carry- 
ing his  father  thither  on  his  shoulders  (with  other  varia- 
tions), and  as  settling  in  the  peninsula  of  Pallene,  or  in 
the  Arcadian  Orchomenps.  Most  of  the  traditions,  how- 
ever, represent  him  as  liinding  in  Italy,  and  becoming  the 
ancestral  hero  of  the  Komans.    See  Jkneid. 

.Sneas  Sylvius.    See  Fius  II. 

2Bneid  (e-ne'id),  oriEneis (-is).  An epicpoem, 
in  twelve  books,  by  Vergil,  recounting  the  ad- 
ventures of  .^neas  after  the  fall  of  Troy,  founded 
on  the  Roman  tradition  that  JEneas  settled  in 
Latium  and  became  the  ancestral  hero  of  the 
Roman  people.  The  hero,  driven  by  a  storm  on  the 
coast  of  Africa,  is  hospitably  received  by  Dido,  queen  of 
Carthage,  to  whom  he  relates  the  fall  of  Troy  and  his  wan- 
derings. An  attachment  between  them  is  broken  by  the 
departure  of  ^neas,  in  obedience  to  the  will  of  the  gods, 
and  the  suicide  of  Dido  follows.  After  a  visit  to  Sicily, 
iBneas  lands  at  Cumse  in  Italy.  In  a  descent  to  the  in- 
fernal regions  he  sees  bis  father,  Anchises,  and  has  a  pro- 
phetic vision  of  the  glorious  destiny  of  his  race  as  weU  as 
of  the  future  heroes  of  Home.  He  marries  Lavinia,  daugh- 
ter of  Latinus,  king  of  the  Latini,  and  a  contest  with  Tur- 
nus,  king  of  the  Kutuli,  the  rejected  suitor,  follows,  in 
which  Tumus  is  slain.  The  poem  is  a  glorification  of  Bome 
and  of  the  emperor  Augustas,  who,  as  a  member  of  the 
Julian  gens,  traced  his  descent  from  Julus  (sometimes 
identified  with  Ascanius),  the  grandson  of  .Slneas.  Tlie 
poem  was  completed,  but  not  finally  corrected,  at  the  death 
of  the  author  in  19  B.  0. 


eieut  geography,  a  Roman  colony  established    m  tne  author  m         _    .  ,.,        .      ,..,      ,,      ,. 
T.,7  TTaSriaT,  lai  A   T,    n„ +!,<.  =l+.n  nf  .To^iioalorr,    .ffinesidemus  (en-o-si-de'mus).     i&T.  AcvrimSv- 


iU0f.]  A  celebrated  Greek  skeptical  philoso- 
pher of  Cnossus  (or  JEgse)  in  Crete,  a  younger 
contemporary  of  Cicero, 


by  Hadrian,  134  a.  d.,  on  the  site  of  Jerusalem. 
iBlia  was  the  family  name  of  Hadrian:  a  temple  was 
dedicated  to  Jupiter  Capitolinus  in  the  place  (hence  the 
name).  ___^ 

.Slia  gens  (e'li-a  jenz).  In  ancient  Rome,  a  ^olia  (e-5'li-a).  See  Molis. 
plebeian  clan  or  house  whose  family  names  and  JEolian  Islands  (e-o'li-an  i'landz).  The  an- 
surnames  were  Bala,  Catus,  Gallus,  Gracilis,  cient  name  of  the  Lipari'lslan'ds. 
Lamia,  Ligur,  P»tus,  Sejanus,  Staienus,  Stilo,  jEolians  (e-6'li-anz).  The  ^oles  or  ^olii,  one 
and  Tubero.  To  this  gens  belonged  the  em-  „£  the  four  ^eat  divisions  of  the  Greek  race, 
peror  Hadrian  and  the  Antonmes,  whom  he  They  occupied  from  an  early  period  a  large  part  of  north- 
adopted,  em  Greece  and  the  western  part  of  Peloponnesus,  and 

JEUan  (e'li-an).     See  Mlianus,  Claudius.  »l8o  migrated  to  Asia  Minor,  settling  in  the  region  named 

V,,.  ,_",._,        \     r*.t       J.  AT-.  for  them  .^k)hs,  and  in  Lesbos. 

.ffilianus  (e-h-a'nus),  Claudius.  A  Roman  zpnUo  (s's  lii)  or  ;Pn1ia  (e  o'li  HI 
rhetorician  of  the  2d  century  a.  d.,  said  to  have  -^P^  (f  ^^^^^l^^^^^^-J-^^^J^:^. 
been  born  at  Prseneste,  Italy.    His  extant  works 


are  noiKiAij'Io-Topta,  commonly  called  "  Varia  Historia, 
"a  collection  of  *ana'  containing  anecdotes  of  every 
kind,  historical,  biographical,  antiquarian,  put  together 
without  any  method  or  connection,  and,  perhaps,  not  in- 
tended for  publication"  {E.  0.  Miiiler);  and  IXepl  Ziiuiv 
IStdngTo;'  (De  Animalium  Natura),  "On  the  Peculiarities  of 
Animals, '  a  work  similar  in  f  oim  to  the  preceding. 

iEliauus  Tactions  (e-li-a'nus  tak'ti-kus). 


[Gr.  Aio/li'f, 
Alo/li'a.]  'In  ancient  geography','  originally  the 
western  coast  of  Asia  Minor  between  the  river 
Hermus  and  Lectum.  Later  it  extended  along 
Troas. 
.ffiolus  (e'o-lus).  [Gr.  AJoJoOf.]  1.  In  Greek  my- 
thology, the  god  of  the  winds,  which  he  con- 
fined in  a  cavern. —  2.  The  son  of  Hellen,  and 
the  eponymic  founder  of  the  .^olian  race 


Lived  about  100  a.  d.    A  writer,  probably  a  .ffipinus(a-pe'nos)  (Franz  Maria  UlricliTlieo- 

Greek  residing  at  Rome,  author  of  a  work  in    dor  Hocll)>    [G.  Hoch,  high ;  Gr.  alnv(,  high, 

Greek  on  the  military  tactics  of  the  Greeks  and 

the  constitution  of  a  Roman  army. 
.Slla  (al'a),  or  Ella  (el'a).    Died  588.    King 

of  the  De'irans  from  559  t'6  588,  the  son  of  Iffa, 

ealdorman  of  the  Deirans.    He  cast  off  the  sa- 

premaey  of  the  Bernicians  at  the  death  of  Ida. 
Aello  (a-el'6).   £Gr.  a^Au.]    In  Greek  mythol- 


steep,  whence  ^pinus.'}  Bom  at  Rostock,  Ger- 
many, 1724:  died  at  Dorpat,  1802.  A  German- 
Russian  physicist,  authof  of  "  Tentamen  theo- 
rise eleotricitatis  et  magnetismi"  (1759),  etc. 
.Spinus,  Johann  (originally  Hocn).  Bom  at 
Ziesar,  Prussia,  1499 :  died  at  Hamburg,  May 
13,  1553.  A  German  Protestant  theologian,  an 
opponent  of  Melanchthon,  and  author  of  a  work 
"De  Purgatorio." 
.Squi  (e'kwi).  In  ancient  geography,  a  tribe 
living  in  Latium,  east  of  Rome  and  north  of  the 
Hemici,  often  allied  with  the  Volscians  and  at 
war  with  the  Romans.  They  were  finally  sub- 
the  fourth  book  of  Spenser's  "Faerie  Queene,"  dued  about  300  b.  c. 
a  lovely  lady  "rapt  by  greedie  lust"  into  the  Aerians  (a-e'n-anz).  A  reforming,  Anan,  sect 
power  of  a  cannftal  giant  who  held  Amoret  of  the  4th  century:  so  called  from  their  leader 
also  captive.  ShewassavedbyBelphoebe.— 2.  Aerius.  They  maintained  that  a  presbyter  or  elder  does 
In  Shafe«mPTp'<!  "  Comedv  of  ETTors  "  the  wife  ""*  ^'^^'^  '™™  *  bishop  in  authority,  repudiated  prayers 
in  &naj£spere  s  uomeay  oi  JirrorSj^  me  wue  j^^  ^^^  ^^^^  ^^  rejected  church  fasts.  This  sect  was 
of  .iligeon,  acting  as  tne  abbess  ot  Jipnesus.  the  forerunner  of  modern  Presbyterianism. 

Emilia  gens  (e-mil'i-a  jenz )^  One  of  the  most  Aerius  (a-e'ri-us).    A  presbyter  of  Sebastia, 


ogy,  one  of  the  Harpies, 

Aelst.    See  Alost. 

Aelst  (alst),  Willem  van.  Bom  at  Delft,  Neth- 
erlands, 1620:  died  at  Amsterdam,  1679.  A 
Dutch  painter  of  flowers  and  fruit. 

.ffimilia  (e-mil'i-a).    [Fem.  oi  JEmilius.']    1.  In 


ancient  patrician  houses  at  Rome,  probably  of 
Sabine  origin,  which  regarded  as  its  ancestor 
Mamerous,  called  /^milius  on  account  of  his 
persuasive  language,  who  was  variously  repre- 
sented as  the  son  of  Pythagoras,  or  of  Numa, 
or  as  the  descendant  of  Ascanius.  The  first 
member  of  the  gens  who  obtained  the  consulship  was  L. 
Anilius  Mamercus  (in  484  B.  c).  Its  family  names  are 
Barbala,  Buca,  Iicpidus,  Mamercus  or  Mamercinus,  Papas, 
Paulus,  B.egilluB,  and  Scauros. 

^milius  (e-mil'i-us^.  [A  Roman  name  said  to 
be  from  Gr.  aifd>?uoc,  flattering.  See  Mmilia 
gens.']  In  Shakspere's  (?)  "  Titus  Andronicus," 
a  noble  Roman. 


in  Pontus,  Asia  Minor,  who  lived  in  the  middle 
of  the  4th  century  a.  d.,  and  was  the  founder 
of  the  Aerians. 

JEro  (a're),  or  Arroe  (ar'rfi-e).  An  island  of 
Denmark,  in  the  Little  Belt,  south  of  Fii- 
nen..  Length,  15  miles.  Area,  33  square  miles. 
Population,  about  11,000.  Its  chief  town  is 
iEroeskjobing. 

Aerschot,  or  ArscllOt  (ar'skot).  Atown  in  the 
province  of  Brabant,  Belgium,  on  the  Demer 
about  23  mUes  northeast  of  Brussels.  Popula- 
tion (1890),  6,234. 

Aertszen  (art'sen),  Pieter.     Born  at  Amster- 


.£stii 

dam  about  1520 :  died  1573.  A  Dutch  histori- 
cal painter.  Among  his  works  is  a  Crucifixion, 
in  Antwerp. 

.ffiscanes  (es'ka-nez).  A  character  in  Shak- 
spere's "  Pericles" :  a  lord  of  Tyre. 

.ffischines  (es'ki-nez).  [Gv.  Amxlvrn.']  An  Athe- 
nian philosopher,  a  contemporary  and  disciple 
of  Socrates.  The  three  extant  dialogues  as- 
cribed to  him  are  spurious. 

.ffischines.  Bom  389  B.  c. :  died  in  Samos  314 
B.  C.  A  famous  Athenian  orator,  the  political 
antagonist  of  Demosthenes,  son  of  Atrometus 
(Tromes),  of  the  dome  of  the  Cothocidre,  and 
Glaucothea.  He  served  in  the  campaigns  at  Nemea  in 
368,  at  Mantineia  in  362,  and  at  Tamynse  in  349 ;  was  a 
tragic  actor  and  a  clerk  to  the  assembly  before  he  ap- 
peared about  348  as  a  public  speaker;  was  twice  an  envoy 
to  Philip  of  Macedon,  346 ;  was  twice  accused  (once  (343) 
by  Demosthenes)  of  having  accepted  bribes  from  the  king, 
but  saved  himself ;  and  was  defeated  (330)  in  a  trial  which 
he  brought  against  Ctesiphon  for  having  proposed  that 
Demosthenes  should  be  rewarded  for  his  public  services 
with  a  golden  crown,  and,  as  a  consequence,  went  into 
exile.  He  finally  settled  in  Khodes,  where  he  is  said  to 
have  established  a  school  of  eloquence.  His  extant  ora- 
tions are  "  Against  Timarchns  "  (345),  "  On  the  Embassy  " 
(343),  and  "  Against  Ctesiphon  "  (330). 

.ffischines  the  Orator.  A  Greek  statue  from 
Hereulaneum,  in  the  Museo  Nazionale,  Naples, 
of  high  rank  among  works  of  its  class.  The  orator 
stands  quietly,  his  arm  wrapped  in  his  mantle ;  the  ex- 
pression is  preoccupied,  but  full  of  dignity. 

.^schylus  (es'ki-lus).  [Gr.  At(T;t;{iAoc.]  Born 
at  Eleusis,  Attica,  in  525  b.  c.  :  died  at  Gela, 
Sicily,  in  456  B.  c.  The  greatest  of  the  Greek 
tragic  poets.  He  was  the  son  of  a  certain  Euphorion, 
and  fought  in  the  great  battles  of  the  Persian  war,  being 
wounded,  it  is  said,  at  Marathon  in  490  B.  0.  In  485  B.  0. 
he  gained  his  first  tragic  victory :  in  all  he  gained  tliirteen. 
In  468  he  was  defeated  by  Sophocles.  In  the  same  year 
he  quitted  Athens,  according  to  Plutarch,  in  mortification 
at  his  defeat,  and  went  to  the  court  of  Hiero  at  Syracuse, 
at  whose  invitation  he  had  already  once  before  visited 
Sicily  and  written  a  local  piece  called  the  "^tnseans." 
^schylus  was  the  father  of  the  Greek  tragic  drama.  Of 
his  plays  there  remain  72  titles,  over  60  of  which  seem 
genuine,  but  only  7  are  extant:  the  "Supplices,"  the 
"Persse,"  the  "Seven  against  Thebes,"  the  "Prometheus 
VinctUB,"  and  the  Orestean  trilogy,  consisting  of  the 
"Agamemnon,"  "Choephori,"and  "Eumenides." 

.Ssculapius  (es-ku-la'pi-us),  or  Asklepios  (as- 
kle'pi-os).  [Gr.'A(T«vl,)?m(ic.]  In  Greek  mythology, 
the  god  of  medicine,  son  of  Apollo  and  Coronis. 
He  was  killed  with  a  thunderbolt  by  Zeus,  because  Pluto 
complained  that  Hades  was  being  depopulated.  At  the 
request  of  Apollo,  he  was,  after  death,  placed  among  the 
stars.  He  is  commonly  represented  as  an  old  man  with 
a  beard,  his  usual  attribute  being  a  staff  with  a  serpent 
coiled  around  it.  The  common  offering  to  him  was  a 
cock. 

Aeshma  Daeva  (a-esh'ma  da-a'va).  The  de- 
mon of  anger  in  Avestan  mythology,  identified 
with  the  Asmodeus  of  the  Book  of  Tobit. 

.Ssir  (a'sir).  The  collective  name  for  the  gods 
of  Scandinavian  mythology.  There  were  12 
gods  and  26  goddesses,  dwellers  in  Asgard. 

.£son  (e'son).  [Gr.  Klauv.']  In  Greek  legend, 
the  father  of  Jason,  and  stepbrother  of  Pelias, 
who  excluded  him  from  his  share  of  the  king- 
dom of  Thessaly.  -when  Pelias,  on  the  reported  re- 
turn of  the  Argonauts,  attempted  to  kill  him,  he  com- 
mitted suicide.*  According  to  Ovid,  he  was  rejuvenated 
by  Medea  after  the  return  of  the  Argonauts. 

.Ssop,  or  Esop  (e'sop).  [Gr. A((T(a7rof,L..i®sop«s.] 

1.  According  to  tradition,  a  Greek  fabulist  of 
the  6th  century  b.  c,  represented  as  a  dwarf 
and  originally  a  slave.  Samoa  and  other  places 
claimed  the  honor  of  being  his  birthplace.  After  obtaining 
his  freedom  he  visited  Lydia  and  Greece.  Of  the  so-called 
fables  of  ^sop  there  have  been  several  editions ;  but  they 
are  all  spurious.  Indeed,  he  is  probably  not  a  historical  per- 
sonage. "  Some  of  the  fables  attributed  to  him  are  drawn 
from  Egyptian  sources  older  by  eight  hundred  years  than 
the  famous  dwarf  who  is  supposed  to  have  invented 
them.  The  fable  of  'The  Lion  and  the  Mouse'  was  dis- 
covered by  Dr.  Brugsch  In  an  Egyptian  papyrus  a  few 
years  ago.  '  The  Dispute  of  the  Stomach  and  the  Mem- 
bers* has  yet  more  recently  been  identified  by  Pro- 
fessor Maspero  with  an  ancient  Egyptian  original." 
(Edwards,  Pharaohs,  Fellahs,  etc.,  p.  223.)  He  was  repre- 
sented in  later  art  as  deformed,  "perhaps  to  indicate 
his  nearer  approach  to  the  lower  animals  and  his  pecu- 
liar sympathy  for  their  habits.  Such  is  the  conception 
of  the  famous  statue  now  in  the  Villa  Albanl  at  Rome." 

2.  A  Greek  historian  of  the  7th  or  8th  century 
A.  D.,  author  of  a  life  of  Alexander  the  Great. 

.£sop,  Clodius.  A  Roman  tragic  actor,  a  con- 
temporary and  intimate  friend  of  Cicero,  re- 
garded by  Horace  and  others  as  the  equal  of 
the  great  actor  Roscius. 

.^stii  (es'ti-i).    See  the  extrp.ct. 

North  ot  the  Slavs,  and  intimately  connected  with  them, 
the  Prusso-Lettish  branch  of  languages  was  situated; 
these  tribes  are  first  mentioned  as  the  .^stii  of  Taci- 
tus (c.  45)  on  the  amber  coast,  then  as  the  Galindse  and 
Sudini  of  Ptolemy,  the  neighbours  of  the  Venedee.  Mul- 
lenhoS  makes  it  probable  that  "the  stock  collectively 
spread  from  the  south  or  south-east,  so  that  the  swampy 


^stii 

dlBtrlct  of  the  Fripet  was  once  its  natural  boundary  to 
the  south,  and  the  original  basis  of  its  diffusion." 

Schroder,  A^an  Peoples  (tr.  by  Jeyons),  p.  428. 

^tlielbald(ath'el-baid),  orEthelbald  (eth'el- 
bald).  Died  757.  King  of  the  Mercians  from 
716  (718  ?)  to  757,  son  of  Alweo,  grandnephew  of 
Penda,  and  successor  of  Ceolred.  He  was  acknow- 
ledged overlord  of  the  English  as  far  as  the  Humber,  731 ; 
took  the  West-Saxon  town  of  Somerton,  733 ;  ravaged 
Northumbria,  740 ;  was  defeated  by  his  West-Saxon  under- 
king,  Cuthred,  at  the  battle  of  Burf  ord,  754  ;  and  was  killed 
by  his  ealdormen,  757. 

iEthelbald,  or  Ethelbald.    King  of  the  West 

Saxons  858-860,  son  of  .^thelwulf .  He  married 
his  father's  widow,  Judith  of  France,  who  on  his  death  re- 
turned to  France  and  married  Baldwin,  afterward  count 
of  Flanders.  From  this  last  union  was  descended  Matilda, 
wife  of  William  the  Conqueror. 

/Gthelberht  (ath'el-bernt),  orEtbelbert  (eth'- 
el-b6rt),  Saint.  Born  552  (?):  died  Feb.  24, 
616.  King  of  Kent  from  560  to  616,  son  of 
Bormenric,  and  great-grandson  of  Hengist.  He 
was  defeated  by  the  West  Saxons  under  Ceawlin  and  Cu- 
tha  at  the  battle  of  Wimbledon,  568  ;  married  Bertha  or 
Bercia,  a  Christian  princess,  daughter  of  Charibert,  king 
of  the  Franks;  gradually  established  his  overlordship 
over  the  English  south  of  the  Humber  after  the  death  of 
Ceawlin,  593 ;  received  St.  Augustine  at  the  Isle  of  Thanet, 
597 ;  and  was  converted  and  vigorously  supported  Augus- 
tine.   He  issued  the  first  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  codes,  600. 

.Sthelberht,  or  Ethelbert.  King  of  the  West 
Saxons  860-866,  son  of  .ffithelwulf . 

jEthelburh  (ath' el-born),  L.  Etbelburga  (eth- 
el-b6r'ga),  Saint.  Bied676(?).  Abbess  of  Bark- 
ing, Essex.    She  is  commemorated  on  Oct.  11. 

.Sthelflsed  (ath'el-flad),  or  Ethelfleda  (eth'el- 
fle-da).  Died  in  918  (?).  The  eldest  daughter 
of  King  Alfred.  She  married  Ethelred,  ealdorman  of 
the  Mercians.  During  his  life  they  had  equal  rule,  and 
after  his  death,  in  9U  or  912,  she  was  sole  ruler.  She  is 
known  as  "  the  Lady  of  the  Mercians." 

.Sthelfrith  (ath'el-frith),  or  Ethelfrid  (eth'- 
el-frid),  or  .ffldilfrid.  Died  617.  King  of  the 
Northumbrians  from  593  to  617,  son  of  ^thel- 
rie,  whom  he  succeeded.  He  defeated  Aidan  (iEd- 
han)  at  the  battle  of  Dsegsastan  (probably  Dawstone),  603 ; 
defeated  the  Welsh  at  the  battle  of  Chester,  613,  massa- 
cring about  twelve  hundred  of  the  two  thousand  monks 
from  Bangor  Yscoed,  who  were  praying  for  the  success  of 
the  Welsh ;  and  was  defeated  and  killed  by  Esedwald  at 
the  battle  of  the  Idle,  617. 

iEttaelred  (ath'el-rad),  or  Ethelrtd  (eth'el- 
red),  or  Ethered  (eth'e-red),  I,  King  of  the 
West  Saxons  from  866  to  871,  son  of  ^thel- 
•vmlf. 

.Stbelred,  or  Ethelred,  II.  Bom  968:  died  at 
Iioudon,  April  23,  1016.  King  of  England,  sur- 
named  "  The  Unready "  ('lackingcounsel'),  son 
of  Edgar  and  Elfrida.  He  succeeded  to  the  throne 
979,  instituted  the  payment  gS  "  danegeld  "  991,  ordered 
a  general  massacre  of  the  Danes  1002,  was  deposed  1013, 
and  was  restored  1014. 

JEthelstan,     See  Athelstan. 

.ffithel-wulf  (ath'el-wulf),  or  Etbelwulf  (eth'- 
el-wtdf),  or  Athulf.  Died  Jan.  13  (June  13?), 
858.  An  Anglo-Saxon  king,  son  of  Bcgberlit 
(king  of  Wessex,  ruler  of  Sussex,  Kent,  and 
Essex,  and  overlord  of  Mercia,  East  Auglia, 
Northumbria,  Wales,  and  Stratholyde),  whom 
he  succeeded  in  839.  In  842  he  was  defeated  by  the 
Danes  at  Charmouth,  but  in  851  repulsed  them  with  great 
slaughter  at  Ocldey  in  Surrey.  In  856  he  married  a  sec- 
ond wife,  Judith,  the  daughter  of  Charles  the  Bald.  The 
West  Saxons  revolted  under  his  son  iE^thelbald  to  whom 
he  surrendered  the  government  of  Wessex,  retaining  only 
his  overlordship. 

.ZBther  (e'ther).  [G-r.  AWr/p.']  In  Greek  mythol- 
ogy, the  sou  of  Chaos  and  Darkness,  and  the 
brother  of  Night,  Day,  and  Erebus ;  or,  accord- 
ing to  Hesiod,  the  son  of  Erebus  and  Night, 
and  the  brother  of  Day.  By  Day  he  was  the  father 
of  Land,  Heaven,  and  Sea;  by  Earth,  of  the  Giants  and 
Titans  and  the  vices  which  destroy  the  human  race.  Ac- 
cording to  the  Orphic  hymns,  he  is  the  soul  of  the 
world  from  which  all  life  springs.  In  later  times  he  was 
regarded  as  the  broad  expanse  of  heaven,  the  abode  of 
the  gods. 

.StMopia.    See  Ethiopia. 

.Sthiopica.    See  Theagenes  and  Chariclea. 

iEthiopis  (e-thi'o-pis),  or  Lay  of  .Ethiopia.  A 
Greek  epic  poem' of  the  Trojan  cycle,  by  Aretinus 
of  Miletus,  the  oldest  certainly  known  epic  poet 
(about  776  B.  0. ):  so  named  from  one  of  its  heroes, 
Memnon  the  .Ethiopian.  It  was  a  continuation  of 
the  Iliad,  reaching  "from  the  death  of  Hector  to  that  of 
Achilles,  and  telling  of  the  arrival  of  the  Amazons  and 
the  jitliiopians  to  aid  Troy." 

Aetians.    See  Ae'tius  and  Anomceans. 

Aetion  (a-e'shi-on).  \0:t. 'AeriiM.']  A  noted 
Greek  painter,  probably  a  contemporary  of 
Apelles.  His  picture  of  the  "Marriage  of 
Alexander  and  Roxana"  was  famous  in  an- 
tiquity. 

Aetius(a-e'shi-us),or  Aetios(-os).  [Gr.  !imof.] 
Bom  at  Antioch,  in  Coele-Syria :  died  at  Con- 
stantinople, 367  A.  D.  A  Syrian  theologian,  sur- 


18 


AfMca 


named  "  The  Atheist,"  the  founder  of  a  sect  of  natives  of  Afghanistan,  and  called  by  them 
extreme  Ai-ians,  called  Aetians  from  him,  Euno-   Pushtu  or  Pukhtu. 

^j^^l*''''^  Ms  disciple  Eunomius,  and  Ano- ^^^flngg^  (af'ing-er),  Bemhard.    Bom  at  Nn- 
moeans.     The  Aetians  "were  the  first  to  carry  out  the    rfimhfirir  Rnvarin    Mnv  fi  18T1-  Hied  at  TifirliTi 
doctrines  of  Arius  to  their  legitimate  issue,  and  in  oppo-    ??       o?^'i  oif7     f '  ^f  7,") -'■°-^^  •  <"eQ  at  iserlin, 
sition  both  to  Homoousianp  and  Homoiousians  maintained   -Deo.  25,  1882.    A  noted  German  sculptor. 

ttfname  AjJoZansf*''  "''°''°'°''  ^''^  ^»*''« "  (*"«°'=«  Aflum-Karallissar  (a-fe-6m'ka-ra'his-sar'),  or 
Aetius.  Born  at  Durostoms  (Silistria)  about  Karahissar.  [Tm-k  'black  castle  of  opium.'] 
396:  killed  at  Rome,  454.  A  Roman  general,  ^,.*°^^  f  *^®J^^/f*i°o^o°o'J°w^^*^^^Q''Ao'^o7' 
commander-in-chief  under  Valentinian  III.  atic  Turkey,  about  lat.  38°  38' N.,  long.  SO"  28' 
He  gained  many  victories  over  the  West  Goths,  Franks,  ^-  '•  *? ^  native  City  of  Othman,  founder  of  the 
Burgundians,  and  other  northern  invaders,  and  is  famous  Turkish  empire.  Near  it  is  the  site  of  the  an- 
for  his  victory  over  Attila,  near  ChSlons-sur-Marne,  451.  cient  Synnada.  Population,  20,000  (?). 
He  was  put  to  death  by  the  emperor.  ,,        .         ,      .,.._.  .     -, 

Aetius.  Born  at  Amida,  Mesopotamia:  flour- ■'"'^^ill^S  (^-^^>.-As)'  Lticius.  A  Roman 
ished  about  500  A.  D.  A  Greek  writer,  author  ''°™'2  PJ}?*'  ^^  mitator  of  Menander,  livmg 
of  a  medical  work  in  sixteen  books  (Latin    about  100  B.  o.    Fragments  of  his  works  are 

translation  1542).    Though  essentiaUy  a eompilation,  .*?               , 

it  is  one  of  the  most  valuable  books  of  antiquity  on  AfraniUS  NepOS,   LuClUS,     A  Roman  general, 

^edicine.  an  adherent  of  Pompey.      He  was  consul  60  b.  c, 

JtiZaa,  (et  na) .     A  Ijatin  didactic  poem  errone-  was  opposed  to  Csssar  in  Spain  49  b.  c,  and  died  in  Africa 

ously  attributed  to  Vergil.    It  combats  the  **  b.  o. 

popular  mythical  theory  of  the  causes  of  vol-  Afrasiab   (a-fra-si-ab').    In  the  Shahnamah, 

canic  action.  son  of  the  Turaman  king  Pesheng  and  a  de- 

.£tna.  Mount.    See  Etna.  scendant  of  Tur,  the  son  of  Feridun.    The  obliga- 

.ffitolia  (e-to'li-a),  or  Aitolia  (i-to'li-a).     TGr.  tion  to  blood-revenge  for  the  death  of  Eraj,  who  had  been 

AlToMa.l     In  aicient  geography,  a  district  of  killed  by  Tur  and  his  brother  Salm,  was  the  ground  of  the 

n     ^       T,        J   J  T,    -ci    •      °      J  mi-      "^"i"^*^"  "^  long  struggle  between  Iran  and  Turan.    A  great  part  oi 

trreece,  bounded  by  lipirus  and  Thessaly  on  the  the  Shahnamah  is  taken  up  with  the  account  of  the  wars 

north,  Doris  on  the  northeast,  Locris  on  the  waged  by  Afrasiab  with  Iranian  sovereigns  until  he  at  last 

east   ajid  southeast,   the   Corinthian  GuU  on  escapes  from  Hom,  who  had  bound  him,  into  the  lake  of 

the  south,  and  Acarnania  on  the  west.    It  now  Ur'"°H'>-    As  Afrasiab  is  induced  to  raise  his  head  above 

J.  ',     »   "^o"^"""'"  ""  ^uc  nroou.     iu  iiuyv  jjjg  ^afgrs,  he  IS  caught  with  a  lasso  by  Hom,  who  gives 

lorms  part  of  the  nomarcny  ot  Aearnama  and  him  over  to  Kaikhosrav,  who  beheads  him.    Afrasiab  is 

.^tolia.  the  Franrasyan  of  the  Avesta. 

.ffltolian  League  (e-to'li-an  leg).    A  oonfeder-  Africa  (af'ri-ka).     [P.  Afrigue,  G.  Afnka,  Sp. 

acy  of  Greek  tribes  whose  constitution  was  It.  Pg.  Africa, '  L.  Africa  (whence  Gr.  'A^piic^, 

copiedfromthat  of  the  Achsean  League,  it  waged  the  prop.  Gr.  term  being  Aiflii/,  Libya),  prop.  adj. 

war  against  Macedon  323  B._o.,  against  the  Gauls  279,  and  (go.  terra),  from  Afer  (pi.  Afri),  an  inhabitant 


against  the  Achaean  League  220,  and  was  allied  with  Some 
211-192.    It  was  dissolved  in  167  B.  c. 

Afanasieff  (a-fa-na'si-ef),  Aleksandr.  Bom 
1826:  died  1871.  A  Russian  archseologist, 
author  of  "Russian  Popular  Stories,"  "Poeti- 
cal Views  of  the  Old  Slavonians  about  Na- 
ture," etc. 

Afar  and  Afar  country.  See  DanaMl  and 
Danalcil  country.  ' 

Afer  (a'f  6r),  Domitius.  Bom  at  Nimes,  Prance : 
died  60  a.  d.  A  Roman  orator,  a  teacher  of 
Quintilian.  In  A.  D.  26  he  conducted  the  accusation 
for  the  government  against  Claudia  Pulchra,  the  cousin 
of  Agrippina,  and  in  A.  D.  27  appeared  against  Varus 
Quintilius,  her  son. 

Affenthal  (af 'fen-tal).  A  village  near  Baden, 
in  Baden,  noted  for  its  red  wine. 

Afire  (af'r),  Denis  Auguste.  Bom  at  St. 
Rome,  Tarn,  France,  Sept.  27,  1793:  died  at 
Paris,  June  27,  1848.  A  French  ecclesiastic, 
appointed  archbishop  of  Paris  in  1840.  He  was 
mortally  wounded  in  the  insurrection  of  1848,  at  the  barri- 
cades, June  25,  while  attempting  to  admonish  the  in- 
surgents. 

Afghanistan  (af-gan-is-tan').  A  country  of 
Asia,  bounded  by  Asiatic  Russia  and  Bokhara 
north,  India  and  Kafiristan  east,  Baluchistan 
south,  and  Persia  west,  and  extending  from 
about  lat.  29°  to  37°  30'  N.,  and  long.  61°  to 
72°  E.  The  limits  of  the  ameer's  rule  are  ill  defined. 
The  chief  divisions  are  Kabul,  Herat,  Kandahar,  Afghan 
Turkestan,  and  Jelalabad.  The  Ameer  of  Kabul  is  its 
absolute  sovereign.  The  -prevailing  religion  is  Moham- 
medanism. Afghanistan  became  independent  of  Persia 
under  the  Durani  dynasty  in  1747.  Under  its  ruler,  Dost 
Mohammed,  war  broke  out  with  the  British  in  1838. 
The  latter  captured  Kandahar,  Ghazni,  and  Kabul  (1839), 
establishing  a  new  ameer ;  but  in  1841  the  British  agent 
was  massacred,  and  the  British  army  was  annihilated 
in  1842  in  retreating  in  the  Kurd-Kabul  Pass.  Gen- 
eral Pollock  ended  the  war  in  1842.  In  1878,  under  the 
ameer  Shere  All,  war  again  broke  out  with  the  British, 
who  captured  Jelalabad  and  Kandahar.  Shere  All  fled, 
and  Yakub  Khan  was  proclaimed  in  1879.  A  massacre  of 
the  British  resident  at  Kabul  was  followed  by  an  invasion 
under  General  Roberts,  and  Yakub  Khan  abdicated.  The 
latter's  brother  Ayub  Khan  in  1880  defeated  the  British 
forces,  but  under  General  Roberts  they  relieved  Kandahar 
in  1880,  defeated  Ayub  Khan,  and  recognized  Abdurrah- 
man Khan  as  ameer.  Various  disputes  arose  regarding 
the  boundai7  between  Afghanistan  and  the  Russian  pos- 
sessions. The  Russians  seized  Penjdeh  in  1885,  and  war 
was  narrowly  averted.  An  Anglo-Russian  commission 
arranged  the  delimitation  of  the  northern  frontier  in 
1886-87.  Recent  occurrences  have  been  revolts  of  the 
Ghilzais  and  other  tribes.  Area  (estimated),  216,400  square 
miles.  Population  (estimated),  4,000,000,  including  the 
Afghans  proper,  Pathans,  Hindkis,  Hazaras,  Kataghans, 
etc. 

Afghan  Turkestan.  A  region  between  the 
Oxus  and  the  Hindu-Kush  Mountains,  subject 
to  the  Ameer  of  Kabul :  a  vague  term. 

Afghan  wars.  British  wars  with  Afghanistan 
in  1838-42  and  1878-80.     See  Afghanistan. 

Afghan  (af'gan).  1.  One  of  an  Iranian  race 
forming  a  large  part  (about  3,000,000)  of  the 
inhabitants  of  Afghanistan.  The  native  name 
is  Pusht&nah  (pi.). — 2.  One  of  the  languages 
of  the  Aryan  family,  spoken  by  the  Afghans  or 


of  Africa,  orig.  with  reference  to  the  country 
of  the  Carthaginians,  from  whom  the  term  was 
received.]  1.  A  continent  of  the  eastern 
hemisphere,  next  to  Asia  the  largest  grand 
division  of  the  world,  bounded  by  the  Medi- 
terranean on  the  north  (which  separates  it 
from  Europe),  the  Isthmus  of  Suez  (which  con- 
nects it  with  Asia),  the  Red  Sea  (which  sepa- 
rates it  from  Asia),  and  the  Indian  Ocean  on 
the  east,  the  Southern  Ocean  on  the  south,  and 
the  Atlantic  on  the  west.  It  extends  from  lat.  37° 
20'  N.  to  lat.  34°  60'  S.,  and  from  long.  17°  81'  W.  to  long. 
61°  22'  E.  Its  principal  political  divisions  are  Morocco, 
Algeria,  Tunis,  Tripoli,  Barca,  Fezzan,  Egypt,  the  Mahdi's 
dominions  (in  the  eastern  Sudan),  Abyssinia,  the  Italian 
possessions,  British  East  Africa,  German  East  Africa,  Brit- 
ish protectorates  in  the  interior,  the  Portuguese  posses- 
sions on  the  east  and  west  coasts,  British  South  Africa 
(Cape  Colony,  Katal,  the  Orange  River  Colony,  the  Trans- 
vaal Colony,  etc.),  the  German  possessions  in  west  Africa 
(Kamerun,  Togo-land,  Damaral^nd,  etc.),  the  Kongo  Fi-ee 
State,  the  Fi'ench  Kongo,  the  British  possessions  in 
west  Africa  (Sierra  Leone,  Gold  Coast,  etc.),  the  French 
sphere  of  influence  in  western  Africa  (including  the  west- 
ern Sahara),  Senegal,  Liberia,  the  Spanish  coast,  and 
various  native  states  in  the  Sudan  (Bambarra,  Gando, 
Sokoto,  Bornu,  Adamawa,  Wadai,  etc.).  The  more  dis- 
tinctive physiographic  features  of  the  continent  are  to  be 
found  in  the  Atlas  Mountains,  the  Sahara,  the  great  equa- 
torial forests,  the  lake  region  (Albert  Nyanza,  Victoria 
Nyanza,  Tanganyika,  etc.),  and  in  the  south-central  pla- 
teau. Principal  rivers :  Nile,  Kongo,  Niger,  and  Zambesi 
(with  the  Victoria  Falls,  the  "African  Niaaara").  Africa 
has  few  high  mountains ;  the  highest  are  the  glacier-cov- 
ered Kilimanjaro  (19,780)  in  German  East  Africa  and  Ke- 
nia  (18,620)  in  British  East  Africa.  Its  inhabitants  axe 
chiefly  of  the  negro  race,  with  Kafirs,  Hottentots,  Copts, 
Arabs,  Moors,  Berbers,  and  some  Europeans.  The  prevail- 
ing religions  are  Mohammedanism,  various  forms  of  pa- 
ganism, the  Coptic  Church,  and  the  Abyssinian  Church. 
The  name  "Dark  Continent "  has  been  given  to  it  as  the 
least-known  of  the  earth's  grand  divisions.  Its  northern 
portions  were  early  seats  of  civilization,  and  part  of  the  Ro- 
man Empire ;  but  much  of  its  interior  is  still  unexplored. 
It  was  circumnavigated  by  the  Phenicians  as  early  as  the 
7th  century  B.C.  Coast-line  exploration  was  undertaken  by 
the  Portuguese  in  the  middle  of  the  16th  century,  and  the 
Cape  of  Good  Hope  was  doubled  by  Da  Gama(1497).  Explo- 
rations (interior)  have  been  made  since  the  last  part  of  the 
18th  century  by  Bruce,  Muugo  Park,  Homemann,  Burck- 
liardt,  Deuham,  Clapperton,  Lander,  Oudney,  Rebmann, 
Barth,  Richardson,  Overweg,  Vogel,  Livingstone,  Burton, 
Speke,  Grant,  Baker,  Stanley,  Schweinfurth,Mauch,Nach- 
tigal,  De  Brazza,  Holub,  Wissmann,  Sei-pa  Pinto,  Cameron, 
Rolilfs,  Lenz,  Du  Chaillu,  Emin  Pasha,  and  others.  Recent 
events  are  the  founding  of  the  Kongo  Free  State,  and  the 
partitioning  among  various  powers  (Great  Britain,  France, 
Germany,  Portugal,  Italy,  Spain,  etc.)of  immense  districts 
especiallyin  the  interior  and  along  the  eastern  and  western 
coasts :  this  so-called  "  scramble  for  Africa  "  began  about 
1884.  (^e  Spheres  of  Injluenoe.)  The  length  of  Africa  is 
4,970  miles,  its  breadth  about  4,700  miles,  its  area  (esti- 
mated, Petermann),  11,608,793  square  miles,  and  its  popu- 
lation (1897),  about  170,000,000. 

[African  names,  in  most  purely  African  languages 
the  najQes  of  tribes,  languages,  and  countries,  as  first 
heard  and  written  by  travelers,  colonists,  authors,  and 
cartographers,  appear  not  in  their  naked  form,  but  adorned 
with  prefixes  or  sufiixes,  which  distinguish  the  name  of 
one  member  of  the  tribe  from  iflany,  the  tribe  from  the 
language,  and  the  country  from  both  tribe  and  language. 
Strictly  speaking,  the  only  correct  way  would  be  to  use 
the  prefixes  and  suffixes  as  the  natives  do.  This,  however, 
is  impassible,  because  the  languages  are  not  yet  suffi- 


Africa 

dently  known,  and  because  a  speclaliBt  alone  could  mas- 
ter the  great  variety  of  prefixes  and  suflQxes.  Therefore 
Dr.  Lepsius  and  Dr.  K,  N.  Cust,  and  many  after  them, 
prefer  to  use  the  stem  of  the  word,  as  it  may  be  ascer- 
tained, and  add  to  it,  respectively, "  man,"  "men,"  "tribe," 
"language,"  "country."  Thus,  Ganda  man  (instead  of 
M-gatula),  Oanda  tribe  or  pmie  (instead  of  Ba-ganda), 
Qanda  language  (instead  of  jM-ganda\  and  GaTida-land 
(instead  of  Bu-ganda).  Uganda,  as  generally  written,  is 
the  Soahill  form  of  Bu^anda.  In  this  dictionary  the 
tribe  and  the  dialect  will  generally  be  found  under  one 
name,  the  word-stem.  In  the  case  of  suffixes,  which  are 
used  in  a  few  Nigrltic  and  in  the  Hottentot  and  Hamitic 
languages,  there  is  no  difficulty :  for  the  initial  syllables 
are  not  affected,  and  can  be  readily  found  in  the  diction- 
ary. Thus  in  Mandi-ngo,  of  the  Nigritic  branch,  the  stem 
is  Mandi  or  MaTide,  and  -vgo  is  a  sutBlx.  In  the  Hottentot 
name  Nama-qua,  the  suffix  -qua  signifies  people  or  tribe ; 
and  it  is  better  to  say  Nama  tribe  or  people.  The  great- 
est difficulty  is  met  with  in  the  Bantu  languages,  where 
every  noun  has  a  prefix  for  the  singular  and  another  for 
the  plural.  The  following  rules  will  be  found  useful :  In 
a  general  way,  and  in  cases  of  doubt,  the  prefix  Mw-  may 
be  considered  to  signify  'person '  (man,  woman,  or  child), 
Ba-  or  Wa-  to  signify  people,  U-  to  signify  country,  and 
Ki-  to  signify  language.  Thus,  llw-gogo,  a  Oogo  man ; 
Vagogo,  Gogo  people ;  U-gogo,  Oogo-land ;  Ki-goga,  Gogo 
language.  Generdly  speaking,  too,  the  plural  prefix 
Ama-  (for  tribe)  is  used  among  the  Kafirs  in  South  Africa, 
Ova-  in  West  Africa,  between  Benguella  and  Walflsch  Bay, 
A-  or  Alma-  from  Loanda  to  the  Lunda  country,  Eihi- 
{Exi-\  BasM-,  and  Bena-  from  the  Kongo  district  of  An- 
gola due  east  to  Nyangwe,  Ba-  in  the  Kongo  basin  and 
central  Africa  generally,  Wa-  in  Eas^  Africa.  The  pre- 
fixes of  most  frequent  occurrence,  in  proper  names,  are : 
Man  :  3f«-,  Urn-,  Mo-,  M- ;  seldom  Ki-,  Tshi-,  Ea-,  Mushi-, 
Mvikua-.  People :  Ba-,  Wa-,  Ova-,  A-,  Ma-,  Ama- ;  seldom 
/-,  Tvr,  Eehi-  or  Bashi-,  Akua-,  Language:  Ki-,  Tshi-, 
Shi-,  SI-,  Se- ;  seldom  U-,  Lu-,  Di-.  Land :  Bu-,  U- ;  sel- 
dom Le-. 


19 


Agassiz,  J.  L.  R. 


North  Alrica-the  only  Africa  known  to  the  ancients-  AfadeS  (a'ga-dez).     The  capital  of  the  sultan- 
had  seen  many  rulers  come  and  go  since  the  Arabs  under  t^rv;*  A»>,?„  I A"-\   ■     a£:         T.     ii  i  Tii, 

Okba  first  overran  its  plains  an!  valleys,  ^^ty  had     ^*^  °*  ^^^o'^J?'J^k  ™  f!""*'  ^^°"*  ^^-  ^^ 
succeeded  dynasty;  the  Arab  governors  under  the  Kha-     ^-i  J^o^lg-  '    45'  i.     Population,  about  7,000. 

lifs  of  Damascus  and  Baghdad  had  made  room  for  the  Agag  (a'gag).     [Heb. :  of  uncertain  meanine.1 
?.°!?°^!  i'Li?!!!.*.^ .?;  J-^*..!?."!  A^V*?  ,„<!??> :  *¥=^  '"     1 .  An  Amalekite  king,  spared  by  Saul,  contrary 


Examples : 

'     Man. 


Ganda ;  M-ganda, 

Lnba:  Mu-luba, 

Gogo :  Mu-gogo, 

Owamba:  Mo-gwamba, 

"  ^-  Maputo, 


People. 

Ba-ganda, 

a-luba, 


Language. 

Ln-ganda, 

Ki-Giba, 

Ki;gogo, 


Mbangala:   Ei-mbi 
Mbunda: 
Lauge : 
roia 


Ra-Iuba, 

Wa-gogo,  „-„  . 

Margwamba,  Sbi-gwamba. 

Ba-Buto,  8e-Buto, 

.. I-mbangala,  U-mbangala. 

O-tahi-mbundu,   Ovi-mbundu,  TJ-mbuudu. 

MuBhi-langc,        Basbi-lange,  Elsbi-lange. 

Mukua-ngola,      Akua-ngoTa.  Dl-ngola. 


Land. 
Bu-ganda. 
U-luba. 
U-gogo. 

Le-Buto. 


turn  had  given  way  to  the  Fatimi  Khalifs  (909) ;  and  when 
these  schismatics  removed  their  seat  of  power  from  their 
newly  founded  capital  of  Mahdiya  to  their  final  metropo- 
lis of  Cairo  (968),  their  western  empire  speedily  split  up 
into  the  several  princedoms  of  the  Zeyris  of  Tunis,  the 
Beni  Hammad  of  Tilimsan,  and  other  minor  governments. 
At  the  close  of  the  eleventh  century,  the  Murabits  or  Al- 
moravides,  a  Berber  dynasty,  imposed  their  authority  over 
the  'greater  part  of  North  Africa  and  Spain,  but  gave  place 
in  the  middle  of  the  twelfth  to  the  Muwahhids  or  Almo- 
hades,  whose  rule  extended  from  the  Atlantic  to  Tunis, 
and  endured  for  over  a  hundred  years.  On  the  ruins  of 
their  vast  empire  three  separate  and  long-lived  dynasties 
sprang  up  :  the  Beni-Hafs  in  Tunis  (1228-1634),  the  Beni 
Ziyan  in  Central  Maghrib  (1236-1400),  and  the  Beni  Merin 
in  Morocco  (1200-1660).  To  complete  the  chronology  it 
may  be  added  that  these  were  succeeded  in  the  sixteenth 
century  by  the  Corsair  Pashas  (afterwards  Deys)  of  Algiers, 
the  Turkish  Pashas  or  Beys  of  Tunis,  and  the  Sherifs  or 
Emperors  of  Morocco.  The  last  still  continue  to  reign  ; 
but  the  Deys  of  Algiers  have  given  place  to  the  French, 
and  the  Bey  of  Tunis  is  under  French  tutelage. 

Poole,  Story  of  the  Barbary  Corsairs,  p.  21. 

3.  A  diocese  of  the  later  Roman  prefecture  of 
Italy.  It  comprised  the  Roman  provinces  of  Africa,  Nu- 
midia,  and  a  part  of  Mauritania,  and  corresponded  to 
modern  Algeria,  Tunis,  and  Tripoli. 

4.  See  the  extract. 
Africa  meant  to  the  Arabs  the  province  of  Carthage 

or  Tunis  and  its  capital,  which  was  not  at  first  Tunis  but 
successively  Kayrawan  and  Mahdiya.  Throughout  the 
later  middle  ages  the  name  Africa  is  applied  by  Chris- 
tian writers  to  the  latter  city.  Here  it  was  that  in  1390 
a  "grand  and  noble  enterprise  "  came  to  an  untimely  end. 
''The  Genoese,"  says  Froissart,  "bore  great  enmity  to  this 


Ngoia 

AfWoan  languages.   Our  knowledge  of  African  Ian-     April  28?  1865,  after  his  death, 
guages  is  not  yet  sufficient  to  warrant  a  final,  or  even    a«£i„-_     Tn+jtona+lnnol      A <,<■»»{ >>4.</»i 
a  generaUy  acceptable,  claesifloation.    SpeciaUsts  contra-  iUncail     inwrnaxionai     ASSOCiaWOIl. 
diet  each  other  as  soon  as  they  begin  to  classify.    The     Jxpfigo  Jfree  otate, 
English-speaking  public  still  holds  to  the  temporary  clas- 
sification of  Dr.  R.  N.  Cust  in  his  "  Modem  Languages  ol 
Africa, "  which  is  simply  that  of  Fr.  Muller  in  his  "  Grund- 
risB  der  Sprachwissenschaft."    German  Africanists  show, 
of  late,  a  preference  for  that  of  Dr.  Lepsius  in  the  intro- 
duction to  his  "Grammar  of  Nuba."    Somewhat  modi- 
fled,  this  will  probably  be  that  of  the  future.    Our  classi- 
fication tries  to  combine  the  nomenclature  of  Dr.  Cust, 
generally  followed  in  English  books,  with  the  facts,  which 
give  more  support  to  the  system  of  Lepsius.    The  main 
question  is  about  the  relation  of  Bantu  and  Negro. 


to  his  vow,  and  slain  by  order  of  Samuel.  1 
Sam.  XV. —  2.  A  character  in  Dryden's  "Absa- 
lom and  Achitophel,"  a  satire  of  Sir  Edmund 
Berry  Godfrey,  a  magistrate  who  received  the 
declaration  of  Titus  Gates.  He  was  afterward 
found  in  a  ditch  dead  and  mutilated,  hence  the 
allusion  (see  def.  1). 
Agamemnon  (ag-a-mem'non).  [Gr.  'A-ya/ic/ivom.'] 

1.  In  Greek  legendary  history,  the  son  of 
Atreus,  king  of  Myeense,  and  the  most  power- 
ful ruler  in  Greece.  He  led  the  Greek  expedition 
against  Troy,  and  on  his  return  was  slain,  according  to 
Homer,  by  ^gisthus,  according  to  iEschylus,  by  his  wife 
Clytemnestra,  who  was  incited  to  the  deed  partly  by 
jealousy  of  Cassandra,  and  partly  through  fear  on  account 
of  her  adultery  with  .Xgisthus. 

2.  The  greatest  of  the  tragedies  of  .aischyluB. 
The  scene  is  laid  in'  Argos,  in  the  palace  of  Agamemnon, 
at  the  time  of  the  king's  return  from  the  capture  of  Troy ; 
the  catastrophe  is  the  murder  (behind  the  scenes) 'of 
Agamemnon  and  Cassandra  (whom  he  has  brought  captive 
with  him)  by  the  queen  Clytemnestra  urged  on  by  her 
paramour  .^Egisthus.  Tragedies  with  this  subject  have 
been  written  also  by  Seneca,  Alfieri,  and  Lemercier. 

Agamenticus  (ag-a-men'ti-kus),  Mount.  A 
hill,  673  feet  high,"in  York  County,  near  the 
southwestern  extremity  of  the  State  of  Maine. 
The  locality  was  the  site  of  one  of  the  earliest  English 
colonies  in  Maine,  led  by  Gorges  and  others,  in  1631. 

Agana  (a-ga'nya).  The  principal  place  in  the 
Ladrones,  Pacific  Ocean,  situated  on  the  island 
of  Guahan. 

town;  for  its  Corsairs  frequently  watched  them  at  sea,  and  A  ffanillDefaff-a-nin'e)  TGr  'AvawOTim  1  In  nn 
whenstrongestfell  on  and  plundered  theu- ships,  carding  „flt+  %?„^„lw  ?  fl'  +  •  ^'"^'^J^-J  /£.^° 
their  spoUs  to  this  town  of  Africa."  "i™*  geography,  a  fountain  near  Mount  Heh- 

Poole,  Story  of  the  Baxbary  Corsairs,  p.  13L     con,  in  BoBotia,  Greece,  sacred  to  the  Muses. 
...      .        ,..-.,-, ST.       »  -unT  It  was  believed  to  inspire  those  who  drank  of  it,  and  it 

Africaine  (af-n-kan  ),  L  .     An  opera  by  Mey-     gave  the  name  "Aganippldes"  to  the  Muses.  See  Helicon. 
erbeer,  produced  at  the  Academic  in  Paris,  Agape  (ag'a-pe).     [Gr.  dyain/,  love.]    In  Spen- 
ser's "Faerie  Queene,"  a  fay,  the  mother  of 
three  knights  born  at  a  birth,  for  whom  she 


obtained  the  gift  that  if  one  were  killed  his 
strength  should  pass  into  the  remaining  bro- 
thers or  brother. 


I.  Purely  African  languages. 

(1)  Negro  languages : 
(a)  Bantu  languages  (pure). 
0>)  Nigritic  or  Sudan-negro  languages  (mixed), 
(c)  Nuba-Fulah  or  Pul  languages  (mixed). 

(2)  Hottentot,  Bushmen,  or  Batua  languages : 

'^  iSr^n'SS  1  ■"  «-*  ^*'- 
(c)  Pygmy  languages,  in  central  Africa. 

(3)  Hamitic  languages : 
(a)  Egyptian. 

ib)  Libyan  or  Berber  languages. 
(c)  Ethiopian  or  Enshitic  languages. 
n.  Extra-African  languages. 

(1)  Semitic  languages : 
(a)  Pure  Arabic  (Egyptian,  Maghreb,  Sudani,  and  Mus- 
cat dialects). 

(ft)  Mixed  (Amharic,  Tigr^,  etc.). 

(2)  Malay  languages  (Madagascar). 

(3)  Aryan  languages, 
(a)  English,  in  South  Africa  and  Liberia.  ?  p^ 

French,  in  Algeria.  i 

(&)  Creole  aialecte. 

Mediterranean  Lingua  Franca. 

English  Creole  (in  West  Africa,  Kru-English). 

Portuguese  Creole  (Cape  Verde  Islands ;  S.  Thom£ 
and  Principe  Islands). 

Dutch  Creole  (Boers  and  Hottentots). 
In  the  English,  Portuguese,  and  Dutch  Creoles,  the  word-  AfzeliUS,  Arvid  AugUSt.     Born  May  6,  1785: 
store  is  Europea,n;  much  of  the  phonology,  morphology,     died  at  Enkoping,  Sept.  25,  1871.     A  Swedish 
and  syntax  ,s  African..   Forjhe  Semitic  and  Malay  Ian-    ^^j^^^   ^^^   scholar,  noted  as   a   collector  of 


See 

African  War,  The.    The  war  between  Julius 
CsBsar  and  the  followers  of  Pompey,  who  had 

collected  in  the  province  of  Africa  after  the  Agapetus  (ag-a-pe'tus)  I.     [Gr.  'Ayav^dg,  be- 

defeat  of  Pharsalia  48  b.  c,  and  were  over-  loved.]    Pope  from  June,  535,  to  April,  536, 

thrown  at  Thapsus  46  b.  c.  son  of  Gordianus,  a  Roman  priest.    He  went  to 

Africans,    The.      A  pastoral  hy  Colman   the  Constantinople  in  636,  and  there  deposed  Anthlmus  the 

younger,  produced  in  1808.  5"'?°?'''''!JP*'P'^,''!' .'''..*'™?.'*"."??Pl^-     ^^e  Roman 

Africanus  (af-ri-ka'nus),  Sextus  Juliiis. 

Christian  historian  of  the  first  half  of  the  3d  ' 


,      Church  celebrates  his  festival  Sept.  20. 

A  Agapetus  II.    Pope  from  946  to  955,  a  Roman 
by  birth. 

Igapida  (a-ga-pe'THa),  Fray  Antonio.  The 
fictitious  writer  to  whom  Washington  Irving 
originally  attributed  the  authorship  of  the 
"Conquest  of  Granada." 
Agard,  or  Agarde  (a-gard'),  Arthur,  Bom 
at  Foston,  Derbyshire,  1540:  died  at  London, 
Aug.  22, 1615.  .An  English  antiquary,  clerk  in 
the  Exchequer,  and  (1603)  deputy  chamberlain. 
He  prepared  catalogues  of  state  papers,  compiled  a  list  of 
all  the  leagues,  treaties  of  peace,  "  intercourses,"  and  mar- 
riages arranged  between  England  and  other  countries 
down  to  the  end  of  the  16th  century,  and  wrote  a  Latin 
treatise  on  the  Doomsday  Book.  He  bequeathed  his  nu- 
merous MSS.  partly  to  the  Exchequer  and  partly  to  his 
friend  Robert  Cotton.     Most  of  them  are  now  in  the 


century  A.  D.,  author  of  a  treatise  on  chro-  Agapida  (a-ga-pe'raa),  Fray  Antonio 

nology,  fragments  of  which  are  extant  (chiefly    fictitious  writer  to  whom  WasMn^ton 

in  Eusebius). 
Afridis  (a-fre'diz).    A  warlike  tribe  of  Afghans 

dwelling  south  of  Peshawar. 
Afrikander  (af-re-kan'der).    The  Dutch  word 

for  "African  ":  a  name  given  to  whites  bom  in 

South  Africa,  particularly  to  those  of  Dutch 

descent.  ' 

Afrikander  Bund  (af-re-kan'der  bont),   or 

Bond  (bond).     A  South  African  association 

founded  in  1879  (and  under  the  present  name 

in  1880),  which  aims  not  only  at  the  furtherance 

of  Afrikanderinfluence,but  atthe ultimate  com-    ^  ... ,  „ 

plete  independence  of  South  Africa  in  the  form  /"™5^^?^5"?';,s  -v„v. /I.     „    -d         t-r      ;, 
of  a  United  States  of  South  Africa.  -^^'^^  ^%  li ,  ^^'/^^?5  ^°^t.  ^T  o*  ^"f  1' 

Sweden,  1813 :  died  there  1901.     A  Swedish 


Afzelius  (af-ze'li-us ;  Sw.  pron.  af-tsa'li-os), 
Adam.  Bom  at  Larf,  Sweden,  Oct.  7,  1750 : 
died  Jan.  30,1837.  A  Swedish  naturalist,  demon- 
strator of  hotany  at  Upsala  (1785),  scientific 
explorer  in  Sierra  Leone  (1792),  secretary  of 


naturalist,  son  of  K.  A.  Agardh,  professor  of 
botany  at  Lund :  author  of  "  Species,  Genera, 
et  Ordines  Algarum,"  "  Theoria  Systematis 
Naturalis  Plantarum"  (1858),  etc. 


legation  in  Loudon  (1796),   and  professor  of  Agardh,  Karl  Adolf.  Born  at  Bastad,  Sweden, 
materia  medica  at  Upsala  (1812) 


For  the  Semitic  and  Malay  lan- 
guage's, see  Arabic,  Malay-Polynesian.  For  the  purely 
African  languages,  see  Bantit,  Hfigriiic,  Hamitic,  Nuba- 
Pvlah,  Hottentot— AtnoaaetYni.OBra.vihy.  Owing  to  the 


Swedish  folk-songs. 
_    .   .  ping  after  1821. 

scantiness  of  ethnographic  data,  the  linguistic  division  of  A  ffanu«!  (aff'a-bus) 
Africa  is  also  generally  applied  to  the  ethnographic  classi-       °j         A.  °     c  t.-u 
fication.   It  should,  however,  be  remembered  that  the  two     """^  ry,ovt,7,.  «i-  *ho 
do  not  cover  each  other  exactly  either  within  a  family  or 
group,  or  from  class  to  class.   Thus  the  Hottentots  of  Cape 
Colony  have  lost  their  original  dialect,  and  adopted  Dutch. 
The  Ba-Rotse,  on  the  Zambesi,  have  lost  their  language 
and  adopted  the  Se-chuana  dialect  of  the  Ma^Kololo.  The 
Nuba  of  Egypt,  while  retaining  many  characteristics  of 
their  language,  have  lost  nearly  all  their  racial  traits, 

while,  on  the  contrary,  the  Hausa  have  given  up  almost  a„,*j«  /  '  A"\ 
every  trace  of  their  first  mother-tongue,  but  are  still,  ra-  ~b»^^  (^S  9""3.) 
cially,  pure  negroes.    As  a  rule,  the  names  of  African  ~       "     ~^' 

tribes  and  languages  or  dialects,  if  stripped  of  prefixes 
and  sufiixes,  coincide,  and  will  be  found  under  one  title 
in  this  dictionary.  See  Bantu,  Nigritic,  Hottentot,  Hamitic, 
Nuba-FiUah  ;  also  African  names  and  African  languages.] 
2.  lu  ancient  geography,  a  part  of  northern  .Af- 
rica which  corresponded  nearly  to  the  modern 
Tunis.   It  comprised  the  immediate  dominions 


He  was  pastor  at  Enko- 
[Gr.  "AyappQ.']    A  prophet 


Jan.  23,  1785:  died  at  Carlstad,  Sweden,  Jan. 
28,  1859.  A  noted  Swedish  naturalist  and 
political  economist,  professor  of  botany  and 
economics  at  the  University  of  Lund  1812,  and 
bishop  of  Carlstad  1834.  His  most  important 
scientific  works  are  "Systema  Algarum  "(1824),  "Icones 
Algarum  Europsearum "  (1828-36),  "LSrobok  i  Botanik" 
(1830-32). 


of  Carthage.    Later  it  was  a  Roman  province.  Agade  (a-ga'de).    See  Akkad. 


and  martyr  of  the  early  Christian  church,  sup-  Agasias  (a-gas'i-as).  [Gr.  ^iyatr/of.]  Aseulptor 
posed  to  have  been  one  of  the  seventy  disciples  of  Bphesus.  According  to  the  inscription  on  the  statue 
of  Christ.  In  43  A.  D.,  while  Paul  and  Barnabas  were  he  was  the  sculptor  of  the  so-caUed  Borghese  Gladiator 
in  Antioch,  he  came  from  Judea  to  Antioch,  where  he  (jWch  jee)  m  the  Louvre.  This  inscription  is  in  late 
predicted  the  approach  of  a  famine.  (Acts  xi.  27, 28.)  He  Greek  characters  which  place  the  work  at  about  the  last 
is  said  to  have  suffered  martyrdom  at  Antioch,  and  is  century  of  the  Roman  repubhc.  ..  _ 
commemorated  as  a  saint  in  the  Byzantme  Church  on  AgaSSlZ(ag'a-si;F.pron.a-ga-se  ),  Alexander. 
March  8.  Born  at  Neuohatel,  Switzerland,  Deo.  17,  1835. 

[Aramean  form  of  Hebrew  An  American  zoologist  and  geologist,  son  of 
hagada,  narrative.]  The  name  given  to  one  J.  L.  R.  Agassiz,  director  and  curator  of  the 
of  the  two  great  divisions  of  post-biblical  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology  of  Harvard 
Hebrew  literature,  it  denotes  that  portion  of  the  University,  Cambridge,  Mass.,  1874-98. 
Talraudio  literature  not  devoted  to  religious  law:  thus  AgaSSlZ,  Jean Louls Kodolphe.  Born  at  Mc- 
the  exegetlcal  and  homUettcal  portions  fables,  proverbs  ^ j  canton  of  Fribourg,  Switzerland,  May  28, 
the  ethics,  as  well  as  everythmg  relatmg  to  natural    Tani.A-ACo-h'A         M  n         1A 

science  and  history,  are  included  under  the  term  ji^oda,    -loU/  :     died   at    OamDriuge,    iViass.,    l-'eo.    14, 
which  is  opposed  to  Halacha,  the  legal  portions.  1873.  A  celebrated  Swiss- American  naturalist, 

especially  noted  as  a  geologist  (researches  on 


Agassiz,  J.  L.  B.  20  Agnes 

glaciers)  and  ichthyologist.    He  was  made  pro-    mythology:  1.  A  son  of  Heracles,  and  ances-    the  third  son  of  the  Turanian  king  Pesheng.  He 

fessor  of  natural  history  at  NeucMtel  in  1832;  studied     tor  of  Croesus 2    A  servant  of  Priam  who     fruitlessly  tried  to  dissuade  Pesheng  from  attacking  Iran, 

the  Aav  glacier  1840-41;  came  to  the  United  States  in  n-s-nnaflrl  PdtHo  «r.  Mmi^t  T/io  •»  TV,o  >,r.'o-c-o=t  and  Afrasiab  from  executing  Naudar.  He  freed  Naudar's 
1846;  became  professor  of  zoology  and  geology  at  Cam-  "JpoH^ii  f'aris  onMOunt  laa.— d.  ine  Dravesi  captiye  nobles,  who  had  been  spared  on  his  entreaty  and 
bridge  in  1848;  traveled  in  the  United  States,  in  Brazil  Or  tne  suitors  01  Penelope.  He  was  one  of  the  were  imprisoned  at  Sari.  For  this  he  was  killed  by 
(1865-86),  and  around  Capo  Horn  (1871-72),  and  became  .  last  to  be  slain  by  Ulysses.  Afrasiab. 

curator  of  the  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology  at  Cam-  Agen  (a-zhon').  The  capital  of  the  department  Aghrim,  or  Auglirim  (4g'rim).  A  village  in 
Sn's'LTsilfs'^  (i1M'-?Natur^"ms'toi;^m^^^  °f  Lot-et-Gar^nne,  France,  the  ancient  Agin-    Co"ty'Galway,^Irelaiid,  Ibout  31  miles  east  of 

water  Fishes  of   Europe"  (1839-40),  "Etudes    sur   les     num,  on  the  Garonne  about  lat.  44°  13'  N.,     Galway.    Here,  July  12, 1691,  the  English  under  Ginkel 
glaciers  "  (1840),  '  Systeme  glaciaire  "  (1847),  "  Contribu-     long.  0°  39'  E.     It  has  a  cathedral.    It  was  the  capi-     defeated  the  Irish  and  French  under  Saint-Euth. 
tions  to  the  Natural  History  of  the  United  States"  (1857),     tal  of  the  Mitiobriges,  and  later  of  the  Ag^nois,  and  was   Aeias  (a'ii-as).    [Gr.  54yi(Zf.]    An  ancient  Greek 
etc.  ,,      ^        .      the  scene  of  executions  in  the  Albigensiau  and  Huguenot     ir„,,„i,-„»  T^nof    nf    Trmyfin   ^ahont  740    B    c1 

Agasti  (a-gas'ti),  or  Agastya  (a-gast'ya).     A     wars.    It  is  also  notable  as  the  birthplace  of  Scaliger  and         ''P""  *?S  ^°■Sr,^:/,^»  ?,. '^T?^^ow«,.H  Vnv 
Rishi,  reputed  author  of  a  number  ofVedie     l^^pMe.    Population  (1891),  23,234''  '  ^^t^"""  °^  *^\  V      *  I'      L  f^T+Z  «f«I  J^? 

hymns.  He  is  said  to  have  been  the  son  of  both  Mitra  Agcndicum  (a-jen'di-kum).  The  ancient  name  ages"  of  the  Achaean  .heroes  from  the  siege  of 
and  Varuna  by  Urvasi,  to  have  been  born  in  a  water-jar,     01  bens,  J! ranee.  iroy.  .1..  j   z-i  i      j        •      n. 

to  have  been  of  short  stature,  to  have  swaUowed  the  Ag6noiS  (a-zha-nwa'),  or  Ag^Iiais  (a-zha-na').  AglD  (a'gib).  1.  The  third  Calendar  m  tne 
ocean  and  compelled  the  Vindhya  mountains  to  prostrate  A  former  district  of  France  comprised  in  the  story  of  "The  Three  Calendars"  in  the  "Ara- 
^Sro\\?e"cc!j/g"uir"e5'SS^  S°/d'  l^^J^T^    modern  department  of  Lot-et-Garo^nne  ^f^^^^W  Entertainments  ''-2^1^^^^^^^ 

to  have  been  made  regent  ol  the  star  Canopus.  He  is  most  Agenor(a-3e'n6r).     [Grr. 'Aj^vup.^    l.InGreek    of  Noureddin  All  and  Bedredden  Hassan  in 
prominent  in  the  Ramayana,  where  he  dwells  in  a  her-     legend:  (a)  A  king  of  PhcBnicia,  son  of  Posei-     "The  Arabian  Nights,"  a  son  ot   Beoreaden 
mitage  on  Mount  Kunjara  and  is  chief  of  the  hermits  of    don  and  Libya,  and  father  of  Cadmus  and  Eu-    Hassan  and  the  Queen  of  Beauty. 
J^rh°e"i'5sc?enc'eZ^llSreJ:,^^L^;?fSSlv'e^^^^^^^^        yopa.     (6)  A%on  of  Phegeus,  king  of  Psophis  Agilolfinger  (a-gi-lol'fing-er).     The  family  of 
tribes.  ■  m  Arcadia,  one  of  the  slayers  of  Alcm£eon,slain,    the  earhest  dukes  of  Bavaria.    The  line  began 

Agatharchides  (ag-a-thar'ki-dez).  [Gr.  ayaeap-    in  turn,  by  Alemseon's  son.    (c)  A  brave  Trojan    about  590  (530  ?)  and  ended  in  788. 
xi^K-l    BornatCnidos,  Asia  Minor:  flourished    -warrior,  son  of  Antenor,  who  appears  in  the  II-  Agilulf  (a'gi-lulf).    Died  616.    AdukeofTurm 
during  the  latter  half  of  the  2d  century  B.  c.     iad  as  a  leader  in  the  attack  on  the  fortifications    and  king  of  Lombardy.  t,..  m 

A  Greek  grammarian,  author  of  several  geo-  of  the  Greeks.  He  fought  with  and  wounded  Achilles,  Agincourt  (aj'in-kort;  F.  pron.  azh-an-kor  ). 
graphical  works.  Of  a  part  of  one,  "  On  the  ^^d  Apollo  assumed  his  form  in  order  to  lead  Achilles  A  village  in  the  department  of  Pas-de-Calais, 
Erythrfean  Sea,'"  an  extract  is  given  by  Pho-    ^^^"'^^^^  ?"™"  of  the  retreating  ftojans.  Prance,  about  29  miles  southeast  of  Boulogne, 

tius.     A\so  Agdtharcus.  2.  The  Greek  name  for  Baal-Samen.  noted  for  the  victory  gained  there  Oct.  25, 1415, 

Agatharchus  (ag-a-thar'kus).  [Gr.  'Aydeapxog.]  ^\°^  Innocence.    A  noted  pamtmg  by  Bir    fcy  the  English  (about  15,000)  under  Heniy  V. 
S^Aaatlmrchides  Joshua  Reynolds,  m  the  National  Gallery,  Lon-    over  the  French  (50,000-60,000)  under  the  Con- 

Agatharchus.  An' Athenian  painter  of  the  5th    ^o°-    It  represents  a  little  girl  seated  on  the    stable  d'Albret.    The  loss  of  the  English  was 
cInturyB.  c,  said  byVitruvius  to  have  painted  A^oW5V^.^''^=«tn/^  A'T»t.t„.f.  M^^Hlo     ^^°"*  l'^""'  *^^*  °"^®  ^^^"""^  °^^^  ^°'"''°- 
a  sceni  for  a  tragedy  of  ^schylus,  and  thus  4^5 l^'/^'^^.W*^^;,^.  4  ^tv  nfo^f »  t  Agincourt.    See  Seroux  d'Agincourt. 
to  have  been  the  inventor  of  scene-painting.       *°?..t^^f^oKi!?I  «SflLwf-.ft!™^?n^lCL   Agincourt,  Ballad  of.    A  poem  by  Drayton 

Agatha  (ag'a-tha).  Saint.     A  Sicilian  vir|in    soldier  of  delicate  andnoble  nature  who  makes,    ^Mch  appeared  in  "Poems  Lyrick  and  Pasto- 
martyr(bo?n  at  Palermo)  put  to  death  by  Quin-    m  his  consideration  of  a  point  of  family  honor     ^al"  about  1605.    (Not  to  be  confused  with  "The 
tianus,  the  governor  of  Sicily,  Feb.  5,  251,  be-    ^  ^®  distinction  between  moral  and  physical    Battle  of  Agincourt,"  also  by  Drayton,  which  he  pub- 
cause  she  reiectedhisillicitadvances.  TheHoman   •^^!!^^f^^„„,i^    „„  Ti „/>-,•   cs'™<™n       4   o^on     ''™®'^ "'J_*^-' 
and  Anglican  churches  celebrate  her  festival  on  that  day.  Agen  (a  ger-1),   or  Egen  (a  ger-1).     A  small  Aginnum.     See  Jg'era. 

She  is  said  to  have  been  scourged,  burnt  with  hot  irons,  valley  m  the  eastern  part  of  the  canton  ot  Agira  (a-]e'ra),  or  San  FlUppo  d  ArgirO.  A 
torn  with  hooks,  and  then  placed  on  a  bed  of  live  coals   .Zug,  Switzerland.  town,  the   ancient   Agyrium,  in  the  province 

andglass.  ,.     a.     -i    -d        Agori,  or  Egeri,  Lake  of.    A  lake,  about  3 J^    of  Catania,  Sicily,  about  31  miles  northwest  of 

Agathias  (a-ga  thi-as).     [Gr.  'ATaSiaf.]     Born    ^^igg  jo^g^  j^  ^i^g  canton  of  Zug,  Switzerland.    Catania.    Population,  about  13,000. 
atMyrma,  Asia  Minor,  about  536:  died  about    its  outlet  is  by  the  Lorze  into  the  Lake  of  Zug.  Agis  (a'iis)  I.     [Gr.  'aytf.]    King  of  Sparta 
582.     A  Byzantine  poet  and  historian,  author  Agesander    (aj-e-san'der),    or    Agesandros  Hout  1032  (?)  B.  c. 

of  a  history  of  the  period  5o2-558  (ed.  by  Nie-  (.flios).  [Gr.  'AyfiaavSpoQ.}  A  Greek  sculptor,  Agis  II.  TT^rig  of  Sparta  from  about  426  to  399 
buhr,  1828).  „  .  j.  j  mr.  a  native  of  Rhodes.    With  Athenodorus  and    b.  c.    He  was  victorious  at  Mantineia  418. 

Agatho  (ag  a-tho),  Saint,  surnamed  Thauma-    Polydorus  of  Rhodes  he  carved  the  Laocoon  Agis  III.    King  of  Sparta  338-330  b.  c.    He  was 
turgus.    Pope  from  June  27,  678,  to  Jan.  10,     (^^ich  see).  allied  with  Persia  against  Macedon,  and  was 

682:  a  native  of  Palermo,  Sicily.    He  brought  ^gegilail  of  ColcllOS.    The  principal  character    defeated  and  killed  in  330. 
t^''^t\^^irS^.^^lt.^'.'^''^^7:i.    in  the  romance  of  that  name  in  the  eleventh  Agis  IV.    KedB.  c.240.    King  of  Sparta  from 

Awa+iinoloo   Cfl  ffath'o  klp/l     or  Affathoklfis      and  twelfth  books  of  "Amadis  of  Gaul."  B.c.244:sonof  EudamidasH.of  theEurypontid 

rlrSyX^c  1  Born  at  ThM^^  Sreilv  361  (?)  Agesilas  (a-zha-se-las').  A  tragedy  by  Cor-  line.  He  proposed  to  recruit  the  ranks  of  the  Spartans 
[trr.  •AyoWoKAw.J  ±sorn  at  inermBS,  oieuy,  ^oi  ( v     neille,  produced  in  1666.  from  among  the  Perioeci,  and  advocated  a  redistnbution 

B.  0. :  died  289  B.  C.  A  bieilian  despot,  tyrant  a  „.,-i'  ^,.f„j„  ^ija'usMI  or  Aeesilaos  f-os).  of  the  landed  property.  In  these  measures  of  reform  he 
of  Syracuse  317-289  b.  c.  He  invaded  Africa  ■^S.t^M^^-.^ni  i  Dipfl  ir,  F^W  f^  the  vrinter  ^»«  °^^^^  "y  ^^  colleague,  Leonidas  II.,  of  the  Agid 
j„  qfo  [(^V. 'AyrjatAOOi.i     JJied  inJLgypt  mtne  winter    une,  and  was,  after  sometransient  successes,  captured  and 

At,„+v,~  /„„'„  +i,™i    rn-r  'Av,5A«j1  Tlni^  nhniit'    <>*  361-360  B.  C.     King  of  Sparta  from  399  to     sentenced  to  death  by  the  ephors.    Alfleri  produced  a 

Agathon(aga-thon).[Gr.Ay6tf«^.]  Born  about  ^  Arehidamus  H.  of  the  Eu-    remarkable  tragedy  on  this  subject. 

flr^;,  ^n   thr"lvmno^um"  of  P^o    the  rypontid'line,  by  his  second  wife  Eupolia,  and  Aglabites (ag'la-blts), or  Aghlabites, or  Agla- 

figures    in    the      Symposium     ot  i-lato,  tne  j^-'gjf.^j.other  of  Agis  H.  whom  he  succeeded,    bldes  (ag'la-bidz).     AnTrab  dynasty  wEich 

scene  of  which  is  laid  m  his  house.  i„  ggg  he  came  to  the  Felief  of  the  Asiatic  Greeks  against     reigned  in  northern  Africa  (capital  at  Kairwan) 

Agathon.     A  philosophical  romance  by  Wie-  Persia,  and  in  the  following  year  defeated  the  satraps     from  the  beriniiinffrf  the^h  eenturTto  909 

land,  published  in  1766 :  so  named  from  its  chief  Tissaphernes  and  Pharnabazus.    In  394,  as  he  was  prepar-  ■   »om  tne  Deginnmg  ot  tne  trtn  century  to  yua. 

X™?tPr  in  wMch  the  autt^      depicted  himself  mg  t^  enter  the  heart  of  the  empire,  he  was  calleS  home     It  was  succeeded  by  the  Patimites. 

character  m  which  tne  autuoraepicteammseu.  ^Aj^^  ^^g^g  ^  take  part  in  the  Corinthian  war,  stirred  Aglaia  (ag-la'ya).     [_GT.>A.y%aia.^     1.  In  Greek 

Agathon..  Aa  unknown  author  referred  to  by  ^        Pj  g^^j   ^y  Persian  gold.    In  394  he  defeated  "Mythology,  one  of  the  three  Graces.-2.  An 

Chaucer  m   the   prologue  to  the  "Legend  ot  the  troops  of  the  allies  at  the  battle  of  Coronea  in  Bceotia.     5,s4.p-„4flYNo   471  discovPTpfl  hv  Luther  at  Bilk 

Good  Women."  In  393  he  ravaged  Argolis,  in  392  the  Corinthian  territoiy,     asteroid  (J^o.  4/;  OiSCOVereO  Dy  I^Utner  at  UUK, 

AiroTToCi.  ctS'vpI     rfir  'Aw»^  1  In  fJreeklpffend  and  in  391  reduced  the  Acarnanians.    In  369  he  mam-     Sept.  10,  100/ .  ,,„.,, 

Agave  (a-ga  ve;.  [^v.  Ayavtj.i  in  irreeK  legena,  unwalled  Sparta  a«ainst  the  attacks  of  four  Aglaura  (ag-U'ra).      A  tragedy  by  Sir  John, 

^e  daughter  of  Cadmus,  wife  of  the  Spartan  ^j,.     He  was  present  at  the  battle  of  Mantineia  in    buckling,  atted  in  1637-38  and  printedin  1646. 

Echion,andmotherofPentheus,kingofTh6bes,  362,  and  in  361  he  crossed  with  a  Laoedsemoman  army  of  "      s)  J:- 

whom  she  destroved  in  a  frenzv.  mercenaries  into  Egypt.  Aglaura  enjoys  the  eccentric  possession  ot  two  fifth 

Agawam  (ag'a^wom).     A  town  in  Hampden  Agger  of  ServiUS  TulliuS,     [L.aff^er  mound      act^,  -  that  it  can  be  made  a  tragedy  or  a  tr^^l^medy 

CJounty,  Massachusetts,  situated  on  the  Con-  rampart.]    An  especially  important  stretch  ot        f^  ,      ,.,      .         •  ,  ,„x 

necticut  nearly  opposite  Springfield.    Popula-  the  Servian  Wall  of  Rome,  extending  from  the  Aglauros  (ag-ia  ros),  or  Agraulos  (ag-ra  los), 

tion  (1900),  2,536.  Colline  Gate,  on  the  site  of  the  present  Ministry    or  Agraule  (-le).    [Gr.  "A.y/'M.vpoi,  ''AypavT^Q,  'Ay- 

Agawam.    See  Pennacook.  of  Finance,  across  the  low  ground  to  the  Es-    pavyi'^.'\    In  Greek  mythology,  the  wife  of  Ce- 

Agbatana     Same  as  Ecbatana.  quiline  Gate,  adjoining  the  existing  Arch  of    crops:  also,  the  daughter  of  Ceerops,  noted  in 

Aede  (agd).    A  town  in  the   department   of  Gallienus,  at  the  foot  of  the  Esquiline.     In  the    legends  of  Attica. 

H6rault  France,  the  ancient  Agatha,  on  the  middle  of  the  Agger  there  wm  a  third  gate,  the  Porta  Aglemut  (ag  le-mot).     [Singular  Aglemu.l    A 

H^raultneartheMediterranean,29milessouth-    S??^'^froStVXV?htf^*as°i  ^ditfh^1o-?^5le1    ^elLtof  Biyan'dfht^rthtSorfo^^^^^^^ 
west  of  Montpelher.     it  was  a  colony  of  Massilia.     and  100  wide.    The  mound  had  a  very  massive  retaining-    Bristol  Bay  ana  tlie  nortnem  snore  01  tne  Alas- 
A  council  was  called  here  by  Alaric  IL  in  606,  and  it  has     ^gji  jnfront,  rising  SO  feet  above  the  topof  the  ditch,  and     kan  peninsula.     Also  Aglemuit,  Aglegmut. 
often  been  sacked  in  the  religious  wars.    Itwasheldfor     a  lighter  wall  at  the  back.    An  impressive  length  of  the  AgnadoUo  (a-nya-del'16).  A  village  in  the  pro  V- 
some  years  by  the  Huguenots.    Population  (1891^  7,389.       front  wall  is  standing,  close  to  the  railway-station.  j^gg  ^f  Cremona,  northern   Italy,  near  Lodi. 

Aged  P.     See  Wemmick.  AggersllUS(ag'gers-hos),orAKersnUS(a  kers-    Here,  May  14,  1509,  the  French,  under  Louis  XII.,  de- 

Ageladas  (a-jel'a-das).  [Ga.'AyeJMag.']  Flour-  hos).  An  amt  or  province  of  southeastern  feated  the  Venetians.  Forthebattleof  1705,  see  Cossojio. 
ished  520-460  B.  c.  A  Greek  sculptor,  a  native  Norway.  Area,  2,055  square  miles.  Population  Agnano,  Lago  d' (la'go  d' a-nya'no).  Formerly 
of  Argos,  kiiown  chiefly  as  the  instructor  of    (1891),  99,111.  a  small  lake,  now  an  open  crater,  5  miles  west 

the  three  great  sculptors  of  the  5th  century  B.C.,  Aggtelek.    See  Agtelek.  of  Naples,  noted  for  the  Grotta  del  Cane  (which 

Myron,  Phidias,  and  Polycleitus.  He  probably  Aghasura  (a-gha's6-ra).  ['The  Asura  or  de-  see).  It  was  drained  in  1870. 
represented  more  especially  the  severe  formulae  of  the  ^gn  Agha.']  In  Hindu  mythology,  an  asura  Agnes  (ag'nes  or  ag'nez).  Saint.  [Formerly 
Doric,Peloponnesian,orArgiveschoolwhiohdevoteditself  j^  .  general  of  Kansa,  king  of  Mathura,  Annes,  Annis,  Annice,  etc.,  F.  Agnis,  L.  Agnes; 
\°'^^^iTfrl^^^?°^^r,?L^y:^r^^v^l^i  and  seconi  cousin  of  Krishna.  Heigokthefo™  from  Gr  aj^ocla^b.]  A  Eoman  virgin  and 
loniTschoolalreadyfar  advanced  in  Asia  Minor  and  north-  of  ahuge8erpent,and  KrishnascompanionsthecOTrherds  martyr,  12  or  13  years  of  age,  beheaded  during 
em  Greece.  Nothing  now  remains  which  can  be  traced  entered  into  its  mouth, mistaking  it  for  a  cavern,  Krishna  ^he  reign  of  Diocletian.  She  is  said  to  have  been 
to  his  hand.    An  inscription  with  his  name  has  been  dis-     rescuing  them.  a   i  T,-t  '1*'"  ^'er  having  been  exposed  to  the  vilest  outrage 

covered  at  Olympia.  AgUabldeS.     tiee  AglaMteS.  in  a  brothel.    Her  festival  is  celebrated  on  Jan.  21  by  the 

Agelaus  (aj-e-la'us).     [Gr.  ayiAaof .]     In  Greek  Aghrerath  (agh're-rSth).     In  the  Shahnamah,     Greek,  Eoman,  and  Anglican  churches. 


Agnes 

Agnes.  1.  A  character  in  Moli^re's  "I/floole 
des  Fenunes,"  an  ingenue,  she  contrives  to  make 
extremely  snggestiTe  auuBione  while  speaking  with  the 
atmost  simplicity  of  mind.  Wycherley  took  his  "Coun- 
try Wife "  from  this  character.  The  name  has  become 
proverbial  for  a  person  of  tliis  land. 
2.  In  "ratal  Curiosity,"  a  tragedy  by  George 
Lillo,  the  wife  of  Wilmot  and  mother  of  Young 
■WUmot.   She  kills  her  son. —  3.  See  Wickfield. 

Agnes's  Eve,  Saint,  Celebrated  on  the  night 
of  Jan.  20.  it  was  especially  a  holiday  for  women. 
It  was  supposed  possible  by  various  forms  of  divination  for 
a  girl  on  this  night  to  see  the  form  of  her  future  husband. 

A^es'  Eve,  Saint.  A  poem  by  Tennyson,  pub- 
lished in  1842. 

Agnes,  Tlie  Eve  of  Saint.  Apoem.byEeats, 
written  in  1818. 

Agnes  Grey.  A  novel  by  Anne  BrontS,  pub- 
lished under  the  signature  of  "  Aeton  Bell"  in 
1847. 

Agnes  of  Austria.  Bom  1281:  died  1364. 
Daughter  of  the  German  king  Albert  I.,  and 
wife  of  Andrew  III.  of  Hungary,  notorious  for 
her  vengeance  on  all  connected  with  the  mur- 
derers of  her  father. 

Agnes  of  Meran.  A  German  countess  of  Orla- 
miinde,  said  to  have  lived  about  1300  and  to 
have  put  to  death  her  two  children.  Afterward 
as  the  "White  Lady"  she  was  popularly  supposed  to 
haunt  the  castles  of  the  Hohenzollerns.    See  White  Lady. 

Agnes  of  Poitou.  Died  Dec.  14, 1077.  Second 
consort  of  the  emperor  Henry  III.,  and 
daughter  of  William  v.,  duke  of  Aquitaine. 
At  the  death  of  Henry  IH.,  Oct.  5,  1056,  she 
became  guardian  of  her  son,  Henry  rV.  A  con- 
spiracy of  the  nobility  deprived  her  of  the  regency  in 
May.  1062,  when  the  young  king  was  abducted  from 
Kaiserswerth  to  Cologne  by  Anno,  archbishop  of  Cologne. 

Agnes  Sorel.    See  Sorel,  Agnes. 

Agnesl  (a-nya'ze),  Maria  Gaetana.  Bom  at 
Milan,  May  16,  1718:  died  at  Milan,  Aug.  4, 
1799.  An  Italian  lady,  appointed  professor  of 
mathematics  at  Bologna  in  1750,  noted  for  her 
acquirements  in  languages  and  science:  author 
of  "Instituzioni  Analitiohe"  (1745),  etc. 

Agnesl,  Maria  Theresa.  Bom  at  Milan,  1724 : 
died  about  1780.  An  Italian  composer  and 
pianist,  sister  of  M.  G.  Agnesi :  author  of  the 
operas  "Sofonisbe,"  "Giro  in  Armenia,"  "Ni- 
tocri,"  and  "Insubria  Consolato." 

Agnethlen  (ag'net-len).  A  town  in  Transyl- 
vania, about  25  miles  northeast  of  Hermann- 
stadt.    Population,  about  3,000. 

Agnew  (ag'nu),  Cornelius  Kea,  Bom  at  New 
York,  Aug.  8,  1830:  died  there,  April  18,  1888. 
A  noted  American  physician  and  surgeon, 
clinical  professor  of  diseases  of  the  ear  and  eye 
in  the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  New 
York  city  (1869). 

Agnew,  David  Hayes.  Born  in  Lancaster 
County,  Pennsylvania,  Nov.  24,  1818:  died  at 
Philadelphia,  March  22, 1892.  An  eminent  Am- 
erican surgeon,  appointed  in  1870  professor  of 
operative  surgery,  and  in  1871  of  the  principles 
and  practice  of  surgery,  in  the  University  of 
Pennsylvania. 

Agnew,  Patrick.  Born  1822 :  died  at  Multdn, 
India,  April  21, 1848.  An  English  Indian  civil 
servant,  murdered  with  his  companion,  Lieu- 
tenant W.  A.  Anderson,  by  the  retainers  of 
MulrAj,  dewan  or  governor  of  Mult&n.  This 
incident  led  to  the  second  Sikh  war. 

Agni(ag'ni).  [Skt.,=L.  i^»s,  fire.]  In  Hindu 
mythology,  the  god  of  fire,  in  the  Veda  he  is  the 
conveyer  of  the  sacrifice,  messenger  and  priest  of  men, 
their  protector  against  the  horrors  of  the  darkness,  the 
defender  of  the  home.  As  one  of  the  chief  divinities  of 
the  Yedas  great  numbers  of  hymns  are  addressed  to  him, 
more  than  to  any  other  god.  He  is  one  of  the  three  great 
deities  Agni,  Vayu  (or  Indra),  and  Surya,  who  preside  re- 
spectively over  earth,  air,  and  sky. 

Agni  Purana  (ag'ni  p6-ra'na).  APurana  (so 
named  as  supposed  to  have  been  communicated 
by  Agni  to  Vasishtha)  devoted  to  the  glorifica- 
tion of  Siva,  but  of  very  various  contents,  ritual, 
cosmical,  ethical^  military,  legal,  medical,  rhe- 
torical, grammatical,  taken  largely  from  earlier 
works.  It  is  quite  modem,  and  has  no  legiti- 
mate claim  to  be  regarded  as  a  Parana. 

Agni6.    See  Mohawh. 

Agniehronnon.    See  Mohawk. 

AgnoStse  (ag-no-e'te).  [Gr.  'AyvarjTai,  the  igno- 
rant ones.]  1.  A  Christian  sect  of  the  4th  cen- 
tury, which  denied  the  omniscience  of  the  Su- 
preme Being,  maintaining  that  God  knows  the 
past  only  by  memory,  and  the  future  only  by 
inference  from  the  present. — 2.  A  sect  of  the 
6th  century,  followers  of  Themistius,  deacon 
of  Alexandria,  who,  on  the  authority  of  Mark 
xiii.  32  ("But  of  that  day  and  that  hour  know- 
eth  no  man,  .  .  .  neither  the  Son,  but  the 


21 

Father"),  held  that  Christ,  as  man,  was  igno- 
rant of  many  things,  and  specifically  of  the 
time  of  the  day  of  judgment.  Also  Agnoitoe, 
Agnmtes. 

Agnolo  (a'nyo-lo),  Baccio  d'.  Bom  at  Florence 
about  1461 :  died  1543.    A  Florentine  architect. 

Aj;obard  (F.  pron.  ag-6-bar').  Born  779 :  died 
June  6, 840.  A  Prankish  theologian,  archbishop 
of  Lyons  816. 

Agora  (ag'o-ra),  The.  [Gr.  ayopa,  assembly, 
market-place.]  Alarge  irregular  areain Athens, 
entered  beneath  the  northeast  angle  of  the  Colo- 

•  nus  Agoreeus  hUl,  on  which  stands  the  so-called 
Thesenm,  by  the  broad  portico-borderedDromos 
street  runmng  to  the  Dipylon  Gate,  thence  pass- 
ing along  the  base  of  the  "  Theseum"  hill,  and 
extendiag  one  branch  north  of  the  Areopagus, 
and  another  around  the  western  end  of  the  Areo-; 
pagus,  and  between  the  Pnyx  and  the  Acropolis. 
This  last  portion  was  especially  the  political  agora,  while 
the  portion  north  of  the  Areopagus  was  more  particularly 
the  original  commercial  agora  or  market-place,  embra- 
cing as  well  a  number  of  religious  foundations,  the  famous 
porticos,  the  Basileios,  Eleutherios,  and  Poikile,  and  the 
Bouleuterion  or  senate-house.  The  position  of  the  new 
agora  or  oil-market  is  fixed  by  its  existing  Gate  of  Athena 
Archegetis :  much  of  its  inclosure  also  remains,  south  of 
the  Stoa  of  Hadrian,  and  further  east  than  the  old  agora. 
The  great  Stoa  of  Attains  II.  undoubtedly  faced  on  part 
of  the  commercial  agora,  and  the  so-called  Stoa  of  the 
giants  is  within  the  area  of  the  agora. 

Agoracritus  (ag-o-fak'ri-tus),  or  Agorakritos 
(-tos).  [Gr.  'Ayopa.KpLTo^.']  A  Greek  sculptor, 
a  native  of  Paros,  the  favorite  pupil  of  Phi- 
dias and  the  rival  of  Alcamenes.  His  most 
famous  statue  was  a  Nemesis,  probably  repre- 
sented by  a  little  statue  in  the  Lateran. 

Agordo  (a-gdr'do).  A  small  town  in  the  prov- 
ince of  Belluno,  northern  Italy,  situated  on 
the  Cordevole  14  miles  northwest  of  Belluno. 
There  are  important  mines  of  copper  and  other 
minerals  in  the  vicinity. 

Agosta  (a-gos'ta),  L.  Augusta  (a-gus'ta).  A 
seaport  in  the  province  of  Syracuse,  Sicily, 
about  13  miles  north  of  Syracuse,  it  was  over- 
thrown by  an  earthquake  in  1693.  Ifear  here,  April  22, 
1676,  the  French  fleet  defeated  the  Spanish  and  Dutch. 
Population,  about  12,000. 

Agostini  (a-gos-te'ne),  Leonardo.  Born  at 
Siena,  Italy:  lived  in  the  17th  century.  An 
Italian  antiquary,  appointed  inspector  of  an- 
tiquities by  Pope  Alexander  VII. :  editor  of 
a  new  edition  of  Paruta's  "  Sicilian  Medals," 
etc. 

Agostini,  Paolo.  Bom  at  Vallerano,  Campagna 
Romana,  Italy,  1593:  died  at  Kome,  1629.  A 
noted  Italian  composer,  chiefly  of  sacred  music, 
maestro  at  the  Vatican  Chapel  (1629). 

AgOStino  de  Duccio  (a-gos-te'nS  de  do'chio). 
Born  at  Florence,  1418:  died  at  Perugia,  1498. 
An  Italian  sculptor,  noted  for  his  reliefs  in 
glazed  terra-cotta.  in  1442  he  made  the  reliefs  on 
the  facade  of  the  Duomo  at  Modena,  Il'om  1446  to  1464 
he  lived  in  Simini.  From  Eimini  he  went  to  Perugia, 
where  his  beautiful  fa;ade  of  the  church  of  San  Bernar- 
dino, with  its  terra-cottas  and  party-colored  marbles,  forms 
one  of  the  most  charming  examples  of  polychromatic 
architecture  in  Italy. 

Agoult  (a-go'),  Comtessed'  (Marie  Catherine 
Sophie  de  Flavigny):  pseudonym  Daniel 
Stern.  Bom  at  Prankfort-on-the-Main,  Dec. 
81, 1805 :  died  at  Paris,  March  5, 1876.  A  French 
writer.  Her  works  include  "Esquisses  morales  et  poli- 
tiques  "  (1849),  "  Histoire  de  la  revolution  de  1848  "  (1851), 
"  N^lida, "  etc.  She  lived  for  a  time  with  Liszt,  and  of  her 
three  d  aughters  by  him  one  married  Von  Biilow  and  after- 
ward Wagner. 

AgOW(a-§ou').  Abranch  of  theEthiopian  family 
constituting  a  large  part  of  the  population  of 
Abyssinia.  They  inhabit  parts  of  Amhara  and 
Tigr6. 

Agra  (a'gra).  l.  A  division  of  the  Northwest- 
em  R:ovinces  of  British  India.  Area,  10,151 
square  miles.  Population  (1881),  4,834,064.-2. 
A  district  of  the  division  of  Agra,  intersected 
by  lat.  27°  N.,  long.  78°  E.  Area,  1,846  square 
miles.  Population  (1891),  1,003,796.-8.  The 
capital  of  the  division  and  district  of  Agra, 
situated  on  the  Jumna  about  lat.  27°  10'  N., 
long.  78°  E.  It  is  a  military  and  commercial  center, 
and  exports  raw  silk,  sugar,  and  indigo.  It  was  the  capi- 
tal of  the  Mogul  empire  during  the  last  part  of  the  16th 
and  the  first  part  of  the  17th  century,  and  was  captured 
by  the  British  in  1803.  The  English  in  Agra  were  besieged 
in  the  fort  by  the  mutineers,  Aug.-Oct.,  1867.  Popu- 
lation, including  cantonment  (1891),  168,662.  Among  the 
noted  buildings  of  Agra  are :  (1)  The  palace  of  Akbar, 
massively  built  of  red  sandstone,  richly  sculptured,  and 
exhibiting  in  its  lintel-construction  the  marks  of  Hindu 
influence  on  the  Indian-Saracenic  style.  (2)  Adjoining 
lies  the  palace  of  Shah  Jehan,  half  a  century  later  in  date, 
and  forming  a  strong  contrast  In  its  white  marble  archi- 
tecture, its  denteUated  arcades,  and  its  inlaid  work  of 
arabesques  and  flowers  in  colored  stone.  (3)  The  Pearl 
Mosque,  another  notable  foundation  of  Shah  Jehan.    The 


Agricola,  Johann  Friedrich 

entbc  size,  including  the  cloistered  court,  is  only  187  by 
234  feet,  but  the  buUding  is  a  gem  of  Mogul  artistic  de- 
sign and  execution.  (4)  The  tomb  of  Itimad  ud-Daulah, 
built  under  Jehangir,  in  the  early  17th  century.  By  its 
inlaid  work  in  stone,  possibly  of  Italian  derivation,  it 
marks  an  epoch  in  the  Indian-Saracenic  style.  The  ex- 
terior forms  a  single  story  with  octagonal  towers  at  the 
angles,  and  is  surmounted  by  a  square  central  pavilion 
with  three  arcades  to  a  side,  widely  projecting  bracketed 
cornice,  and  a  domical  roof.  All  the  openings  of  the 
monument  except  the  central  portal  are  closed  bymarble 
slabs  pierced  in  geometrical  patterns  of  marvelous  deli- 
cacy.   (6)  The  Taj-Mahal  (which  see). 

Agrae  (a'gre).  [Gr.  ai  'Aypal.)  A  suburb  of  an- 
cient Athens  extending  eastward  from  opposite 
the  temple  of  Olympian  Zeus  over  the  hills  on 
the  south  bank  of  the  Dissus.  In  it  lies  the 
Panathenaic  Stadium. 

Agram  (a'gram),  Slav.  Zdgrib  (zag'rSb).  1, 
A  county  in  the  northwestern  part  of  Croa- 
tia and  Slavonia.  Population,  483,259. —  2.  A 
royal  free  city,  capital  of  the  crownland  of 
Croatia  and  Slavonia,  Austria-Hungary,  situ- 
ated near  the  Save  about  lat.  45°  49'  N.,  long. 
15°  58'  E.  It  has  a  trade  in  wine  and  grain,  and  some 
manufactures,  and  is  the  seat  of  a  Homan  Catholic  arch- 
bishopric and  cathedral,  and  of  a  university.  The  latter 
was  opened  in  1874,  and  has  about  70  instructors  and  600 
students.  It  was  devastated  by  earthquakes  in  1880-81. 
Population  (1890),  37,529. 

Agramant  (a'gra-mant).  In  Boiardo's  "Or- 
lando Innamorato"  and  Ariosto's  "Orlando 
Furioso,"  the  young  king  of  Africa. 

Agramonte  y  Loinaz  (a^gra-mon'te  e  l6-e- 
naz'),  IgnaciO.  Bom  at  Puerto  Principe,  1841 : 
killed  at  the  encounter  of  Jimaguayli,  Jidy  1, 
1873.  A  Cuban  revolutionist,  one  of  the  leaders 
of  the  revolts  of  1867  and  1868,  commissioned 
major-general  by  Cespedes.  He  commanded  the 
insurgents  in  Camaguey,  and  subsequently  their  entire 
force. 

Agraulos.    See  Aglawos. 

Agravaine  (ag'ra-van),  Sir.  In  the  romances 
of  chivalry,  a  knight  of  the  Bound  Table,  sur- 
named  L'Orgueilleux  ('  The  Proud'). 

Agraviados  (a-gra-ve-a'9PH6s).  [Sp.,  'the  dis- 
contented.'] In  Spanish  history,  the  adherents 
of  the  Hapsburgs  in  Spain  in  the  18th  century, 
who  opposed  recognition  of  the  Bourbons ;  also, 
the  partizans  of  an  unsuccessful  absolutist  out- 
break in  1826-28. 

Agreda  (a-gra'THa).  A  small  town  in  the  prov- 
ince of  Soria,  Spain,  about  60  miles  northwest 
of  Saragossa. 

Agreda,  Maria  de.  Bom  at  Agreda,  Spain, 
1602 :  died  at  Agreda,  May  24, 1665.  A  Spanish 
mystic,  abbess  of  the  convent  of  the  Immacu- 
late Conception  at  Agreda.  she  wrote  a  life  of  the 
Virgin  Mary,  the  contents  of  which  she  asserted  had 
been  revealed  to  her.  It  was  charaeterized  by  Bossuet 
as  indecent,  and  was  censured  by  the  Sorbonne. 

Agreeable  Surprise,  The.  AfareebyO'Keefe, 
produced  in  1781.  It  contains  some  peculiarly 
felicitous  blunders  in  situation  and  character. 

A-Green.    See  George-a-Green. 

Agrib  (a'greb),  or  Jebel  Ghareb  (jeb'el  gha'- 
reb).  A  moimtain  in  middle  Egypt,  lat.  28° 
12'  N.,  long.  32°  42'  E.,  about  5,300  feet  high. 
Also  Agreeb,  Agarrib,  Jebel  Khareeb,  etc. 

Agricane  (a-gre-ka'ne).  In  Boiardo's  "Orlando 
Innamorato,"  a  king  of  Tatary  who  is  in  com- 
mand of  an  enormous  army,  but  is  killed  by 
Orlando  in  single  combat. 

Agricola  (a-grik'o-la),  Christoph  Ludwig. 
Bom  at  Ratisbon,  IsTov.  5, 1667 :  died  there,  1719. 
A  German  landscape-  and  portrait-painter. 

Agricola,  Cnseus  Julius.  Bom  at  Pomm  Julii 
(Fr6jus),  Jxme  13,  A.  d.  37 :  died  at  Rome,  Aug. 
23,  A.  D.  93.  A  Roman  soldier  and  statesman,  son 
of  the  senator  Julius  GrsBcinas,  and  the  father- 
in-law  of  Tacitus.  He  served  flrst  under  Suetonius 
Paulinus  in  Britain  ;  in  63  was  appointed  quaestor  in  Asia 
under  the  proconsul  Salvius  Titianus ;  in  70  was  raised  by 
Vespasian  to  the  command  of  the  20th  legion  in  Britain ; 
and  from  74  to  76  was  governor  of  the  province  of  Aqui- 
tania.  On  his  recall  he  was  elected  consul  and  assigned 
the  province  of  Southern  Britain.  In  seven  campaigns 
from  78  to  84  he  pacified  the  rest  of  Britain  as  far  as  the 
northern  boundary  of  Perth  and  Argyll.  He  was  recalled 
to  Home  in  84. 

Agricola  (originally  Bauer),  Georg.  Bom  at 
Glauohau,  Saxony,March  24, 1490 :  died  at  Chem- 
nitz, Saxony,  Nov.  21,  1555.  A  German  min- 
eralogist, author  of  a  treatise  on  metallurgy, 
"De  re  metaUica"  (1530),  etc. 

Agricola  (originally  Sneider),  Johann.  Bom 
at  Eisleben,  Germany,  April  20,  1492:  died  at 
Berlin,  Sept.  22,  1566.  A  German  Protestant 
theologian  and  reformer,  preacher  in  Eisleben, 
professor  in  Wittenberg,  and  later  court  preach- 
er in  Berlin.  He  was  a  leader  of  the  Antinomians.  He 
published  various  theological  works,  and  a  collection  of 
German  proverbs  (1529-48). 

Agricola,  Johann  Friedrich.    Bom  at  Dobit- 


Agricola,  Johann  Friedrich 

sohen,  Saxe-Altenburg,  Jan.  4,  1720 :  died  at 
Berlin,  Nov.  12, 1774.  A  German  organist  and 
composer,  director  of  the  Eoyal  Chapel  at  Ber- 
lin 1759-74. 

Agricola  (originally  Sohr  or  Sore),  Martin. 
Born  at  Sorau,  Brandenburg,  about  1486: 
died  at  Magdeburg,  June  10,  1556.  A  German 
musician  and  writer  on  musiCj  musical  director 
at  Magdeburg,  notable  for  his  attempt  to  im- 
prove musical  notation :  author  of  "Ein  Kurtz 
deutsche  Musica"  (1528),  "Musica  instrumen- 
talis  deudsch  "  (1529),  eto. 

Agricola,  Bodolplius  (Boelof  Huysmann). 
Born  at  Laflo,  near  Groningen,  in  1443 :  died 
at  Heidelberg  in  1485.  A  Dutch  scholar, 
painter,  and  musician,  lecturer  on  Greek  and 
Roman  literature  at  Worms  and  Heidelberg 
after  1482,  He  was  an  influential  promoter  of  classi' 
cal  studiea  His  principal  work  is  a  treatise  "  De  Inven- 
tione  Dialectica." 

Agri  Decumates.    See  Decumates  Agri. 

Agrigentum  (ag-ri-jen'tum).  The  ancient 
name  of  Girgenti :  the  Greek  Atragas  ('Aupdyag). 
It  was  founded  by  colonists  from  Gela  about  582  B.  c.  In 
the  middle  of  the  6th  century  B.  o.  it  was  ruled  by  the  tyrant 
Phalaris:  afterward  its  government  was  in  turn  oligarchic 
and  republican.  It  was  most  flourishing  in  the  6th  cen- 
tury B.  c,  when  it  was  a  great  commercial  center,  with 
nearly  1,000,000  (?)  inhabitants.  In  406  B.  0.  it  was  plun- 
dered by  Carthage,  and  was  rebuilt  and  received  a  Syra- 
cusan  colony.  In  the  Funic  wars  it  sided  with  Carthage, 
and  was  eventually  annexed  by  Rome,  and  became  of  little 
importance.    For  its  later  history  and  ruins,  see  GirgerUt 

Agrippa  (a-grip'a), Cornelius  Heinrich  (called 
Agrippa  of  Kettesheim).  Bom  at  Cologne, 
Prussia,  Sept.  14,  1486:  died  at  Grenoble, 
France,  Feb.  18, 1535.  A  German  philosopher 
and  student  of  alchemy  and  magic,  author  of 
"De  incertitudine  et  vanitate  seientiarum" 
(1527),  "De  occulta  philosophia"  (1510),  etc. 

Agrippa  I.,  Herod,  Bom  about  11  b.  o.  :  died 
at  (Sesarea,  Palestine,  44  a.  D.  A  grandson 
of  Herod  the  Great,  appointed  king  over,  the 
tetrarchies  of  northeastern  Palestine,  37  a.  d., 
and  in  41  A.  D.  over  Judea  also.  He  persecuted 
the  Christians,  44  A.  D.  (Acts  xii.),  and  is  said  to  have 
died  ib  a  horrible  manner.    Acts  xii.  23. 

Agrippa. II.,  Herod.  Bom  about  27  a.  d. : 
died  at  Bome,  91-93.  Son  of  Herod  Agrippa  I. , 
made  prince  of  Chalois  48  a.  d.,  and  king  over 
northern  Palestine  in  52.  He  sided  with  the  Romans 
in  the  conquest  of  Jerusalem.  It  was  before  him  that 
Paul  was  brought. 

Agrippa,  Marcus  Vipsanius.  Bom  at  Rome, 
63  B.  0. :  died  iu  Campania,  12  B.  c.  A  Eoman 
commander,  of  obscure  origin,  the  leading 
statesman  of  the  reign  of  Augustus.  He  served 
under  Octavius  in  the  Perusinian  war,  and  in  Gaul  and 
Germany;  defeated SextusPompey at MytoandNaulochus 
88  B.  0. ;  was  consul  37,  and  fedile  33  ;  served  at  Actium 
31 ;  dedicated  the  Pantheon  27 ;  was  governor  of  Syria  17 ; 
and  was  tribune  with  Augustus  18-13  B.  c.  He  was  the 
father  of  Vipsania,  first  wife  of  Tiberius  and  mother  ol 
Drusus.  His  third  wife  was  Julia,  the  daughter  of  Au- 
gustus and  Widow  of  Maroellus. 

Agrippa,  Menenius.  A  character  in  Shak- 
spere^  "  Coriolanus." 

Agrippa  Postumus.  Born  12  b.  C.  :  died  14 
A.  D.  A  posthumous  son  of  Marcus  Vipsanius 
Agrippa  by  Julia,  the  daughter  of  Augustus, 
adopted  by  Augustus  in  4  b  .  c. ,  and  murdered  in 
prison  on  the  accession  of  Tiberius,  probably  by 
the  order  of  Li  via. 

Agrippina  (ag-ri-pi'na).  Bom  about  13  B.  c. : 
died  at  Pandataria,  near  Naples,  33  a.  d.  The 
yoimgest  daughter  of  Marcus  Vipsanius  Agrippa 
and  Julia,  the  daughter  of  Augustus :  wife  of 
Germanicus  and  mother  of  Caligula,  she  in- 
curred the  hatred  of  Tiberius  and  Sejanus,  and  by  them 
was  banished  to  Pandataria,  where  she  died  of  voluntary 
starvation.    She  was  a  woman  of  lofty  character. 

Agrippina,  Julia.  Bom  at  Op^idum  Ubiomm 
(named  for  her  Colonia  Agrippina,  the  modem 
Cologne),  about  15  a.  d.  :  put  to  death  at  the 
Lucrine  Lake,  near  Baise,  60  or  59.  A  daughter 
of  Germanicus  and  Agrippina,  and  wife  of 
Domitius  Ahenobarbus  by  whom  she  was 
mother  of  Nero.  Later  she  married  CrispusPassienus, 
and,  49  A.  D.,  Claudius  whom  she  poisoned  64  A.  D.  She 
was  a  woman  of  scandalous  life  and  unbounded  ambition 
and  had  great  influence  in  the  early  part  of  Nero's  reign  : 
but  she  was  murdered  by  his  order.  There  is  a  fine  sit- 
ting portrait-statue  of  her  in  the  Museo  Nazionale,  Naples. 

Agtelek  (og'te-lek).  A  village  in  the  county 
of  Gomor,  Hungary,  noted  for  its  cavern  (or 
Baradla),  which  is,  after  the  Adelsberg,  the 
largest  stalactite  grotto  in  Europe. 

AgU  (a-g5'),  or  Aku  (a-ko').  An  old  Chaldean 
name  of  the  moon-god;  in  later  Babylonian  and 
Assyrian,  Sin  (which  see). 

Agua  (a'gwa),  or  Volcan  de  Agua.  [Sp., '  vol- 
cano of  water.']  A  conical  mountain  25  miles 
southwest  of  Guatemala,  12,197  feethigh.    It 


22 

discharges  water,  and  destroyed  old  Guatemala 
by  floods,  Sept.  8,  1541. 

Aguadilla  (a-gwa-THel'ya).  A  seaport  at  the 
northwestern  extremity  of  Porto  Rico.  Popu- 
lation (1899),  6,425. 

Aguado  (a--gwa'5Ho),  Juan  de.  A  Spaniard  who 
accompanied  Columbus  on  his  second  voyage 
to  America  (1493),  returned  to  Spain  next  year 
and  was  made  royal  commissioner  to  investi- 
gate the  affairs  of  Hispaniola.  He  arrived  there 
in  Oct.,  1496,  and  returned  to  Spain  1496.  Nothing  is 
known  of  his  previous  or  subsequent  history. 

Agua  Fria  (a'gwa  fre'a)  Creek.  A  tributary 
of  the  Gila  River  in  Arizona. 

Aguas  Calientes  (a'gwas  ka-le-en'tes).  [Sp., 
'hot  springs.']  A  state  of  Mexico,  bounded  by 
Zacatecas  on  the  west,  north,  and  east,  and  by 
Jalisco  on  the  south.  Area,  2,895  square  miles. 
Population  (1895),  103,645. 

Aguas  Calientes.  The  capital  of  the  state  of 
the  same  name,  about  lat.  21°  55'  N.,  long. 
101°  50'  W.  There  are  hot  springs  in  the  vicinity 
(whence  the  name).    Population  (1896),  31,619. 

Agiie-Cheek  (a'gu-chek).  Sir  Andrew.  A 
character  in  Shakspere's  comedy  "Twelfth 
Night,"  a  timid,  silly  but  amusing  eoimtry 
squire. 

Agliero  (a-gS-a'ro),  Crist6bal.  Bom  in  San 
Luis  de  la  Paz,  Michoacan,  1600 :  date  of  death 
not  recorded.  A  Mexican  Dominican  mission- 
ary, who  spent  the  greater  part  of  his  life  labor- 
ing among  the  Zapoteean  Indians.  He  left 
several  works  on  their  language. 

Agiiero,  Joaiiuin  de.  Bom  at  Puerto  Principe, 
Nov.  15,  1816:  died  there,  Aug.  12,  1851.  A 
Cuban  revolutionist.  He  was  a  planter  of  moderate 
fortune  and  exalted  ideas.  In  1843  he  freed  his  slaves  and 
took  measures  to  have  them  educated.  Later  he  endea- 
vored to  bring  white  immigrants  to  Cuba.  After  engaging 
in  the  insurrection  of  1861,  he  was  captured  and  shot. 

Agiiero,  Jos6  Biva.    See  Biva  Amiero,  JosS. 

Aguesseau  (a-ge-s6'),  Henri  Francois  d', 
or  Daguesseau.  Bom  at  Limoges,  France, 
Nov.  27,  1668:  died  at  Paris,  Feb.  9,  1751.  A 
French  jurist,  chancellor  of  France  1717-22  and 
1737-50.  His  complete  works  were  published 
1759-89. 

Aguilar  (a-ge-iar'),  Grace.  Bom  at  London, 
June,  1816:  died  at  Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
Sept.  16,1847.  An  English  novelist  and  writer 
on  Jewish  history.  She  was  the  daughter  of 
Jewish  parents. 

Aguilar,  Manuel.  Bom  in  Costa  Rica  about 
1800 :  died  at  Guatemala,  Jvme  6, 1846.  A  Cen- 
tral American  statesman.  He  occupied  various 
public  posts  in  Costa  Kica,  represented  that  state  in  the 
Assembly  of  1828,  and  was  elected  president  April  7, 1837. 
He  was  deposed  by  Carrillo,  May,  1838. 

Aguilar  de  la  Frontera  (a-ge-lar'  da  la  fron- 
ta'ra).  A  town  in  the  province  of  Cordova, 
Spain,  26  miles  southeast  of  Cordova.  Popu- 
lation (1887),  12,451. 

Aguilas  (a-ge'las),  or  San  Juan  de  las  Agui- 
las  (san  Hwan  da  las  a-ge'las).  A  seaport  in 
the  provtnee  of  Murcia,  Spain,  48  miles  south- 
west of  Murcia.  It  exports  lead,  esparto-grass, 
and  soda.    Population  (1887),  10,042. 

Aguilera  (a-ge-la'ra),  Francisco  Xavier.  Bom 
at  Santa  Cruz  de  la  Sierra  about  1775 :  died  at 
Valle  Grande,  Nov.  23,  1828.  A  royalist  guer- 
rilla chief  of  Charcas  (Bolivia),  notorious  for 
his  cruelty.     He  received  a  commission  as  brigadier- 

general.  and  for  a  time  was  military  commandant  of  Santa 
ruz.  In  1828,  with  a  small  force  he  captured  a  Spanish 
post,  and  proclaimed  Ferdinand  VII.  as  king.  He  was 
soon  captured  and  shot. 
Aguinaldo  (a-ge-nal'do),  Emilio,  Bom  about 
1868.  A  Filipino  leader  of  mixed  European 
and  native  descent.  He  took  a  leading  part  in  the 
rebellion  against  Spain  1896-98.  In  January  of  the  latter 
year  he  left  the  Philippines,  agreeing  not  to  return.  After 
the  battle  of  Manila,  May  1,  1898,  he  returned  with  the 
consent  of  the  American  authorities  and  establislied  a 
native  government,  of  which  he  became  the  head,  and 
collected  an  army.  On  Feb.  4, 1899,  he  began  hostilities 
against  the  American  forces  occupying  Manila.  He  was 
captured  in  March,  1901. 

Aguirre  (a-ger'ra),  Josef  Saenz  de.  Born  at 
Logrofio,  Spain,  March  24, 1630 :  died  at  Rome, 
Aug.  19,  1699.  A  Spanish  cardinal  and  theo- 
logian, author  of  "Defensio  cathedrss  S.  Pe- 
tri," etc.  (1682),  "Collectio  maxima  Concilio- 
rum"  (1693),  "Theologia  S.  Anselmi,"  etc._ 

Aguirre,  Lope  de.  Bom  at  Oflate,  Astmias, 
about  1508:  shot  Oct.  27, 1561.  A  Spanish  ad- 
venturer who  early  in  life  drifted  to  America, 
and  for  twenty  years  led  such  a  scandalous  life 
in  Peru  that  he  was  known  as  "Aguirre  the 
madman."  He  was  engaged  in  several  rebellions,  was 
outlawed,  and  joined  the  expedition  of  Pedro  de  Ursua  in 
search  of  El  Dorado  and  the  kingdoin  of  the  Omaguas  on 
the  upper  Amazon  (1669).    Ursua  and  his  lieutenant  Var- 


Ahava 

gas  were  murdered  by  Aguirre  and  others  at  MacUpBTo, 
near  the  present  site  of  Xabatlnga  on  the  upper  Amazoiv 
Jan.  1, 1B61,  and  Fernando  de  Guzman  (whom  Aguirre 
afterward  murdered)  was  made  general  with  Aguirre  as 
hlB  lieutenant.  From  this  time  the  expedition  became  a 
piratical  cruise  so  wild  that  it  bordered  on  insanity.  The 
band  declared  themselves  rebels,  or  maraiSones,  and  pro- 
ceeded down  the  Amazon,  plundering  Indian  Tillages, 
fighting  with  one  another,  ana  committing  every  horrible 
crime,  reaching  the  island  of  Margarita  July  20,  1561. 

'  There  Aguirre  murdered  the  governor  and  others,  robbed 
the  royal  treasury,  and  then  made  a  descent  on  the  main- 
land of  Venezuela.  He  was  captured  at  Barquisimeto, 
and  shot  by  his  own  marafiones. 

AgUlias  (a-g6'lyas).  Cape,  The  southern- 
most point  of  Africa,  in  lat.  34°  50'  S.,  long.  20° 
1'  E.,  100  miles  southeast  of  the  Cape  of  Good 
Hope. 

AgUStin  (a-gos-ten')  I,  The  title  of  Iturbide, 
emperor  of  Mexico.    See  Iturbide. 

Agustina  (a-gos-te'na).  Died  at  Cueta,  Spain, 
June,  1857.  The  "Maid  of  Saragossa,"  noted 
for  her  bravery  in  the  defense  of  that  city, 
1808-09. 

Agyia  (a-ji'ya).  A  town  in  Thessaly,  Greece, 
at  the  foot  of  Moim.t  Ossa.  Population  (1889), 
2,050. 

Ahab  (a'hab).  [Heb.  Achdb  (Gr.  "kxad?),  fa- 
ther's brother.]  King  of  Israel,  according  to 
the  traditional  reckoning,  918-896  b.  c,  but 
according  to  some  scholars  876-854  b.  c.  :  the 
son  and  successor  of  Omri.  He  married  Jezebel, 
daughter  of  Ethbaal,  king  of  Tyre,  and  permitted  the  wor- 
ship of  Baal  and  Astarte  in  Samaria,  iuongside  of  that  of 
Yahveh.  By  this,  as  well  as  by  his  luxury  and  wicked- 
ness in  the  matter  of  Naboth's  vineyard,  he  provoked 
the  anger  of  the  propheta,  more  especially  of  Elijah.  He 
engaged  in  a  war  with  Benhadad  of  Damascus,  whom  he 
defeated  in  his  second  campaign,  but  whose  life  he  spared. 
No  reason  for  this  is  given  in  the  Old  Testament,  and  the 
act  was  denounced  by  the  prophets.  The  reason  of  this 
act  is  found  in  the  cuneiform  inscriptions  where  we  find 
that  Shalmanezer  II.  In  854  B.  0.  fought  with  the  kings  of 
Damascus,  Haroath,  and  with  Ahaiiu  Sirla'a  who  is 
identified  by  most  scholars  with  iUiab  of  Israel.  The 
presence  of  the  common  enemy  Assyria  no  doubt  induced 
Ahab  to  make  peace  with  Benhadad  of  Damascus.  After 
the  disappearance  of  danger  from  Assyria  he  made  an 
alliance  with  Jehosaphat,  king  of  Judab,  and  carried  on 
another  campaign  against  Damascus,  but  was  kiUed  in  a 
battle  at  Ramoth  Gilead.  The  Old  Testament  contains 
considerable  information  concerning  this  period,  which 
is  supplemented  by  the  cuneiform  inscriptions  and  the 
Moabite  stone.  Ahab  continued  Samaria  as  the  capital  of 
Israel,  but  dwelt  in  Jezreel,  which  he  greatly  beautified. 

Ahaggar  (a -hag 'gar).  A  large  plateau  and 
mountainous  region  in  Sahara,  intersected  by 
lat.  23°-24°  N.,  long.  5°-6°  E.  The  chief  place 
in  it  is  Ideles. 

Ahala  (a-ha'la),  Cneius  Serrilius  Structus, 
A  Roman  patrician,  master  of  the  horse  439 
B.  c.  (according  to  the  common  chronology), 
and  slayer  of  the  popular  leader  Spurius  Mselins. 

Alialya  (a-hal'ya).  In  Hindu  legend,  the  wife 
of  the  Rishi  Gautama,  and  very  beautiful:  ac- 
cording to  the  Ramayana  the  first  woman 
made  by  Brahma  and  given  by  him  to  Gautama. 
She  was  seduced  by  Indra.  Gautama  expelled  Ahalya 
from  his  hermitage  and  deprived  her  of  her  preeminent 
beauty  or,  as  others  state,  made  her  invisible.  Riuna  re- 
stored her  to  her  natural  state  and  reconciled  her  to  her 
husband.  Kumaiila  Bhatta  explains  this  seduction  as  In- 
dra's  (the  sun's)  carrying  away  the  shade  of  night. 

Ahanta  (a-han'ta).  A  district  on  the  Gold 
Coast  of  Africa,  about  long.  2°-3°  W. 

Ahantchuyuk  (a-hant'cho-y8k).  A  division 
of  the  Kalapooian  stock  of  North  American  In- 
dians, formerly  on  and  about  Pudding  River, 
Oregon.  The  name  was  applied  to  them  by  the  Cala- 
pooya.  See  Kalapooian.  Also  called  Fremh  Prairie  In- 
dianSt  and  Pudding  River  Indians. 

Ahasuerus  (a-haz-H-e'rus).  [Heb.  Ahashve- 
rdsh,  Pers.  KJischjdrsJia  ('mighty'  and  'eye'f),] 
Xerxes,  who  ruled  486-465  b.  c,  mentioned  in 
Ezra  iv.  6  and  throughout  the  book  of  Esther. 
The  Ahasuerus  of  the  book  of  Daniel  (ix.  l),who  is  called 
the  father  of  Darius  the  Mede,  cannot  have  been  Xerxes; 
he  has  been  variously  identified  with  Astyages  and  Cy- 
axeres.    See  Xencee. 

Ahasuerus.  1.  A  name  given  to  the  legendary 
"Wandering  Jew"  (which  see). —  2.  A  prose 
drama  by  Edgar  Quinet,  published  in  1833, 
founded  on  the  legend  of  the  Wandering  Jew. 

Aliaus  (a'hous),  A  small  town  in  the  province 
of  Westphalia,  Prussia,  about  28  miles  north- 
west of  Miinster. 

Ahausen  (a'hou-zen),  or  Anhausen  (ou'hou- 
zen).  A  village  in  Bavaria,  12  miles  northeast 
of  Ndrdlingen.  Here  the  Protestant  Union  was 
formed  under  the  lead  of  the  elector  Frederick 
IV.  of  the  Palatinate  in  1608. 

Ahausaht  (a'hou-sat),  or  Ahovrsaht,  A  tribe 
of  North  American  Indians,  on  Clayoquaht 
Sound,  Vancouver  Island,  British  Columbia, 
numbering  296  (1884).    See  AM. 

Ahava  (a'ha-va).  The  name  of  a  place  and 
river  or  canal  in  Babylon  at  which  the  Jews 


Ahava  23  Aidln 

who  formed  the  second  expedition  which  re-  fessorof  orientallanguages,andlibrarian(1861-  Ahuizotl,  or  Ahultzotl  (a-ho'i-tsotl).  The 
turned  to  Jerusalem  with  Ezra  assembled.  Its  1865)  at  the  University  of  Greifswald.  He  has  chief  or  king  of  Tenochtitlan  (Mexico)  from 
exact  location  is  unknown.     Ezra  viii.  15.  published  "Uber  Poesie  nnd  Poetik  der  Araber"  (1866),     1486  until  his  death  in  1502.    He  made  war  on  the 

AhaZ  (a'haz).       [Heb.,  'possessor.']      King  of    /l'^™^"'  various  Arabic  works,  etc.  Zapotecas,  subdued  rebels  in  TIacopan,  and  saoriflced  an 

.Tn<1ah.  a.p.anTfiij\ir  t.n  snTno  TS-ii-TIS  ti  n     onnni-rl-  Jftjimea.  _  Bee  ACnmet.  Immense  number  of  cantives  to  celebrate  hia  comnletion 


Judah,  accordingto  some 735-715  B.C.,  accord- ■?^«?-.°r,f'"^|^.^..^„  .^       ,        ,      .  ..  -  ^ 

ing  to  others  734-728  or  742-727  B.C.    The  last  date  Anmeaapaa  (a-med-a-ba,d  ),  or  Ahmadabad    S?.*''?,^?'?.*,'.^'*^? '?,°'I?^.-    H.e_al80  built  an  aqueduct 


immense  number  of  captives  to  celebrate  liia  completion 

_ of  the  great  Aztec  temple.    He  also  built  an  aqueduct 

8temrmo8rOTobable?°HVw^~k'coXipora?y'^rthl     (S^inad-a-bad'").    A  distriot'in  Bombay,  Britiih    S°"iS^P,"i"'PT*°?^^l?)'°°''ff  ™"°' *"'lt^«<?Ject 
prophet  Isaia^,    On  his^^cls^on  TthTKl  which     India,  intersected  by  lat.  23»  N.,  long.  72°  E.     lTai°£^Lrd"h^',S"5"X"T7" '' '^'"'™"^  "^ 


_    _                                                   __  _  India,  intersected  by  lat.  23°  N.,  long.  72°  E.  Se Ta^Tcceeded  brMoX^ma n 

took  place  in  his  youth,  Kerin,  king  of  Syria,  and  Pekah,  Its  area  is  3,949  square  miles.     Population  Ai^adrca-o^ma'THa^^^ 

kingof  Israel,  iormed  a  conspiracy  against  him.  Contrary     /■iqqi\    001710  ^     """"  .naiumaud,  i,a  u  ma  Tua;,  iillKe  01  (JrearO  Wl- 

to  the  advice  ol  Isaiah  he  sought  the  assistance  of  the  .V       'J   C^  'j      mi.            -^  1     /.  x,.      j-  .  •  ^     .  ^°^'  *tarqu68  de  las  Amarillas).     Born  at  San 

Assyrian  king,  to  whom  he  paid  homage  and  tribute.  AHmeaaDaa.     Ihe  capital  of  the   district  of  Sebastian,  1788:  died  at  Madrid  May  17  1842 

This  latter  fact  is  mentioned  both  in  the  Bible  and  the  Ahmedabad,  situated  on  the  Sabarmati  in  lat.  A  Spanish  nolitieian  and  ffpnprnl   pTiipf  of  tha 

cuneiform  inscriptions.  In  the  latter  he  is  caUed7at4»(Bt,  23°  N     lonff    72°  32'  E    formerly  one  of  the  iTATii^ol  c,+off /^^^ +i,„  a,,„„;„X    ™L   '-   Ti:              i 

which  would  inSicate  that  his  name  is  shortened  froS  wflV  „  °fl°;ll  l^lnrtarTt  ^itfpi  nf  T^fl?n      t!  ?^^^^^^  ^       °^  *•    ■  °P*'"f'l  '^"^y  ^  ^^^  ^a'  O* 

Joahaz.   His  tribute  to  Assyria  had  the  desired  result,  laJ^gest  and  most  important  Cities  ot  India.    It  independence,  mmister  of  war  for  a  short  time 

Tiglath  Pileser  attacking  Rezin  and  Pekah.    This  policy  !l^J|?'"'?'*  ^L  ?,?,„£  iS,.«h  If  %  ^  1820,  member  of   the  »egeney  during  the 

culminated  in  the  entire  destruction  of  the  kingdom  of  ''{f'"'?!?!^  .IheJummaMusjid  of  Ahmedabad,  built  by  njinorii?sr  of  Isabella  and  a<raln  ministfiT  .&  war 

Israel.    Ahaz  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Hezekiahf  ^™?.^  Shah  in  the  early  15th  century,  is  one  of  the  most  J"™""'^  M  isaoeiia,  ana  again  minister  ot  war 

A*       •T./-V        -/••■,        rTT  T.      i        i   ■      J  ^  beautiful  of  mosques.  The  gross  dimensions  are  382  by  258  in  lodO. 

Anaziail  (a-ha-zi   a).      [Heb.,   'sustained  by     feet,  three  sides  of  the  court  being  surrounded  by  a  colon- Ajhumada  V  ViUalon  (a-6-ma'THa  e  vel-ya- 

yanven.']     bon  of  Ahab   and  king  of  Israel     naded  gallery,  and  the  sanctuary,  95  feet  deep,  occupying  \on'\  Aimstin  Hp  MarniiiSs  <1b  loa  Amninllna 

853-851  B.  C.  (896-894?)  one  end.    The  sanctuary  contains  260  columns,  which  S„ J' f?:°l:r  i^n^^J,.  ^'^.'1^?^ 

A-ha!7i-aTi      Snr,  nf  TpWarr.  ,-n^  ArtoHol,    or,/l  Support  three  rows  each  bf  five  domes,  the  centri  one  ot  ?o™  ^\°^  l^OO:  died  m  Mexico  City,  Feb.  6, 

Anazian.     oon  of  Jehoram  and  Athaliah,  and  ^^^  is  the  largest  and  highest,  and  is  flanked  by  two  1760.     A  Spanish  general  and  administrator. 

King  or  Juaau  044-04i>  B.  C.  (000-oo4T).  which  are  higherthan  the  other  twelve.    Thefronttoward  He  distinguished  himself  in  the  Italian  and  Peninsular 

AjlGnODarbUS   (a-he-no-bar'bus).     A  plebeian  the  court  is  formed  by  a  fine  screen,  with  three  noble  wars,  and  from  Nov.  10, 1756,  was  viceroy  of  Mexico. 

family  of  Rome,  gens'  Domitia,  to  which  the  pointed  arches,  flanked  on  each  side  by  a  lower  arcade.  Ahura  Mazda  (a-ho'ra  maz'da).     ['  The  Wise 

emperor  Nero  belonged.  Ahr^fAT^Zi^^^A^^'^^A^^^J^lV^^^^^A         '  Lord':    the    modem  Persian   Orraa^d.]     The 

Ahijah   (a-hi'ia),  or  Ahiah  (a-hi'a).     [Heb.,  Ahinednaga,r,  or  Ahmedn^gur  (a-med-nug  -  q^^^  g  i^jt  in  the  dual  system  of  Zoroaster. 

Mother  of  YaiVeh.']     In  Old  Testament  hisl  Ti"  ,1'^-i?*"''*  "^ Bombay,  British  India,  about  Angra Mfinyu,  -the  Spiritual BnLy •  (Persian  AhrinmnX 

torv  thfi  Tinrnp  nf  sBTroTnl  noranna  nf  wlimv,  +>.<.  '*'••  ^''    ^-  ^'^°  <=^l"d  Druj,  'deceit,'  is  in  eternal  conflict  with  him. 

^^ll  ^^to^l^    Ot  several  persons,  ot  "sviiom  the  Ahmednagar.  or  Ahmednuggnr.    The  capital  Both  have  existed  from  the  beginning  of  the  world.  Ahura 

most  notable  was  a  son  of  Ahitub  and  high  ^  the  district  of  AWd^alnrabont  lat    1Q°  "^^^^  «'"'■  however,  ultimately  triumph  and  the  good 

priest  in  the  reign  of  Saul  (1  Sam.  xiv.  3,  18) :  g,  -Jr    ,       "r?^o  JorS     *     ^  ^          •    ^^^\^^^  kmgdom,  vohukhshathra,  be  establishecf. 

probably  the  sEme  as  Ahimelech,  who  was  ^N.,  long.  74°  43' E.,  formerly  an  important  Ahwaste  (a-was'te).     A  tribe  of  North  Ameri- 

£igh  priest  at  Nob,  and  was  killed  by  Saul  for  Sif7er°USof  taisl-s.  '^"uTSTli^, ^l^esr '="  ^filo^^^r^^itf^t^  tfr^^,  °"  ^^"^  ^'^"- 
assisting  David.  » v»..j /••  _  j    ••  /\      a  i  iu      i  4.      ciseo  bay,  Galitornia.    See  Costanoan. 

AMmaal  (a-him'a-az).     [Heb.,  'brother  of  '^S??!']?,!^;  f^iSf  ^p„f;i°«L%n  (fnn         Ahwaz  (ah-waz').    A  village  in  the  province  of 
anger.']     1.  The  father  of  Ahiniam,  wife  of  ^i^^Jt  ^^I^jJ^^f'    ^oP^ilation,  30,000.  Khuzistan,  Persia,  situated  on  the  ifarun  about 

Saul.  lSam.xiv.50.— 2.  Ahighpriest,theson  -^S?®,!-  ^  To^o^^  -P,.,^,  T!«.„  «t  if^io  lat.  31°  12' N.,  long.  48°  45' E.,  an  ancient  resi- 
and  successor  of  Zadok.  He  distinguished  himseU  -^aneire  Pmfsta  De/l5^  1796 -Xd  at  Np^^^^^  ?®'"'®  of  the  Persian  kings,  and  a  flourishing 
by  his  services  to  King  David  during  the  revolt  of  Ab-  ^apeile,  ITussia,  l)ec.  15, 17bb .  died  at  N  euss,  town  under  the  Arabs  in  the  early  middle  ages, 
salom.    2Sam.xv.xviii.  Prussia,  Aug  21, 1865.    A  German  teacher  (at  ^i  (a'i).     [Heb.,  'ruin.']    In  biblical  geoSra- 

AMmelech  (a-him'e-lek).     [Heb.,  'brother  of    Aix-la-Chapelle  and  later  (1843-63)  at  Neuss)    pty,  a  city  of  the  Canaanites,  in  the  tirritory 
the  king.'   Compare  Assyrian  ^/w-miifci,  'bro-    and  grammarian,  noted  for  his  methods  of    of  Benjamin,  about  10  miles  north  of  Jerusalem, 
ther  of  counsel.']     1 .  Priest  of  Nob,  father  of    teaching  the  modern  languages.    He  published    conquered  by  Joshua. 
Abiathar,  the  friend  of  David     He  gave  to  David,     G™°DSh"'andTtlSL  ^Si^s*  '''"'"'^  ^"°°'''  W(i'as).  "^The  Greek  name  of  Ajax. 
S''^oZt£S?hTtal^^4a*^r'=^???hTil^^^^^^^^  Ahnen(a'nen),.Die.     [G.,' the  ancestors.']    A  ^t^'feUur^'^l'^iifTef  2? T7?t^di?dS 

a.  Son  of  Abiathar,  a  priest  in  David's  time:    f "««.  °*  historical  romances  by  Gustav  Frey-    ^„^^f  ^^^"ff  fgOT     Ivfe^a^'oom^'napr  th« 

fleTX'^^ir°'  ^'''-    '''''''  ^''"^  lllh.^r'T^llT^Zo'^TiX^^^l  f'Jrna^fhSo-rio\teX^o,'=rrZ^i^al 

ewfc/s,  X  v^ui.  ivui.  io.               TTT  -u    11,    XI.         J,  Nest  der  Zaunkonige,"   "Die  Bruder  voni   deutschen  conservatory  (Odeon)  m  Venice,  and  kapell- 

Anitnopnel  (a-hitH  o-fel).     lUeb.    brother  of  Hau3e,""Markus  Konig,"  "Die  Geschwister,"and  "Aus  meister  (1826)  to  the  king  of  Bavaria.    His 

folly,'  that  IS, 'fooli^.']    1.  A  Hebrew  poll-  einerkleinen  stadt"           .,,„,,          „   . ,  works  compose  masses,  re|uiems,  etc.,  and  an 

tioiau,  counselor  of  King  David  and,  later,  of  Ainield  (an'felt),  Arvid  Wolfgang  Nathan-  opera  "  Eodrigo  e  Ximene  " 

Absalom  in  his  revolt  against  his  father.    He  ael.  Bom  Aug.  16, 1845 :  died  Feb.  17, 1890.  A  Aicard  (a-kar^  Jean      Bom  at  Toulon  Feb 

was  famous  for  hia  political  wisdom,  and  his  defection  Swedish  iournaUst,  author  of  a  "History  of  4    IS4S        A    Frpriph    nnpf-    anrl    Tirnao  t^itp/ 

V^A^.^^rl^'^^^'^Zr^e^tr^^^'XTS,    ^Ll'^l^'roLt'tl"''^"  ^'''^''^'^^^  im'ongMs  wkfar'l  '^L^  .Wrcroyre's" 

his  home,  set  hia  affairs  in  order,  and  hanged  himself.     Other  encyclopedic  works.    ^      ^„  ,      ,  _  (1867),   "Les  rebellions  etles  apaisements" 

Thought  to  be  the  grandfather  of  Bathsheba.  AnoUDamaa  (a-nol-1-oa  ma).     [Heb., 'tent  of  (1871),   "  Po6mes  de  Provence "   (1874)     "La 

2.  A  character  in  Dryden's  poem  "Absalom    ^^  ^^S^  place.']      1.    One   of  the  wives  of  chanson  de  I'enf ant"  (1876),  "Miette  etNor6" 

and  Achitophel,"  intended  to  represent  the    Esau;  also,  the  name  of  anEdomite  tribe.— 2.  (I88O),  "Emilio,"  a  prose  drama  (1884),  "Le 

Earl  of  Shaftesbury  who  was  called  by  this    A  character  m  Byron's  "Heaven  and  Earth,"  p^re  Lebonnard,"  a  drama  in  verse  (1889), 

name  by  his  contemporaries:   a  treacherous    the  proud,  ambitious  granddaughter  of  Cam.  etc. 

friend  and  adviser.    Also  Achitophel.  Ahome  (a-ho'ma).  An  Indian  tribe  of  the  Piman  Aichach  (ioh'ach).    A  small  town  in  Upper 

Ahlden  (al'den).    A  small  town  27  miles  north    ^1°'^^  1?  °/'i.^l°.t"  ,™®>'  have  been  almost  complete^  Bavaria,  on  the  Paar  about  13  miles  northeast 

of  Hanover.    Princess  Sophia  Dorothea,  wife   ?i^^;^°i"£i  "'"'ol  j'  Z53j.°/      ' ''''''*''°''^^         •  of  Augsburg.    A  French  victory  was  gained 

of  George  I.  of  England,  was  kept  here  as  Ah?7a>T  A  riverlrtre  Rhine  Province  Pms  here  over  the  Austrians,  1805. 

prisoner.  1694^1726.  ^^  [^}\  ^  ™TiJo  Ll„  Z^^t  ^^^J^Z'-r^^I  -AJida  (a-e'da).    An  opera  by  Verdi,  first  given 

Alefelc^  (a'le-felt),   Frau  von  (Charlotte    at^?„^zwfL^XnT^^^^^^^^  at  Cairo,  Eg^t,Dec^27,  1871. 
Sophie  Luise  Wilhelmine  von  Seebach):    r  ^^i^^,^  (^^°J«  ^  Died  606.    A  king 

pseudonym  Elisa  Selbig.    Bom  at  Stedten,  Ahrtrxs   r^rens^^^lh       Born  at  Knie  °^  Scottish  Dalriada,  son  of  Gabran,  a  former 

near  Erfurt,  Germany,  Dee.  6,  1781:  died  at  "Xdt    near  S^lzktterSuska    18™8-  died  at  '^"^  °*  Dalriada,  and  successor,  according  to 

Teplitz,  Bohemia,  July  27,  1849.    A  German    I^Oi+w   A,,t  9  ibtI     A  r^^^^  the  law  of  tanistry,  to  his  relative  Conall.   He 

writer  of  sentimental  novels.  Salzgitter,  Aug.  2,  1874.   A  German  pMosoph-  ^^  downed  by  St.  Columba  in  the  island  ot  lona  in  674. 

Al,lI^llJ+ Ta']^  f^lfrPr,„„i-oaa  T-liVo  noin-.li-'.     '^al  writor   and  jurist,  professor   at  Brussels  in  576,  at  the  council  at  Drumceat,  he  declared  the  inde- 

AnieieittT,  Ca  le-ieic;,  ^ountess  iuza  l^aVlOia     1834.50    at  Gratz  1850-59,  and  at  Leipsic  1859.  pendence  of  his  kingdom,  which  had  been  formed  in  the 

Margaretna  von.     Born  m  liangeland.  Den-     g^  ^^^^  "Cours  de  psychologic  "  (1837-38),  "Cours  de  6th  oentury  by  emigrants  from  Irish  Dalriada,  and  which 

mark,  Nov.  17,  1790:  died  at  Berlin,  March  20,      droit  naturel"  (1838),    "Die  Rechtsphllosophie"  (1861),  had  hitherto  been  treated  as  an  Irish  dependency.    In603 

1855.  A  German  woman,  wife  of  Maior  von  Llit-     "Die  organischeStaatslehre"  (i860),  "Naturrecht"(1870-  he  led  a  force  of  Britons  and  Scots  against  ^thelfrith, 

zow(1810),fromwhomshewasseparated(1824),     isn),  "JuristischeEncyklopadie"  (1866-57),  ete.  king  of  Bernicia.  but  was  defeated.  i,.,  .  ,,.  ,  „^ 

living  then,  for  a  time,  with  the  author  liumer-  Ahrens.  Helnrich  Ludolph.    Born  at  Helm-  Aldan,  Saint.    Died  Aug.  31, 651.    First  bishop 

™„„        oL  i  J  y   u        .  •  .■      "   """'"'^        ,    ,^    4        f,  -lonq.  flipj  atTTanovfir  Sent  94  of  Lmdisfarne,  and  founder  of  the  Northum- 

mann.     she  was  noted  for  her  patriotism  (she  acoom-     steal,  June  o,  j.ou»  .  aiea  at  jaan over,  oepi.  .a*,  ,,  ■„„rii,„.„„v     '„  .,    .,  ,      .„..     _ 

panied  her  husband  to  the  field  and  caredfor  the  wounded,     1881.  A  German  philologist,  noted  as  a  student  P"an  *-MTOb.    He  was  sent  by  the  monks  of  Hu  or  lona, 

IRIS  ^i^<ln/^  hprlnvpof  1itj>riitiirB  «* +1 ri_„„i,  j'^i^^t™  m  answcr  to  the  request  of  King  Oswald,  to  Convert  his 

1813-U)  and  her  lo^e  of  htorature.  of  the  Greek  dialects.  heathen  subjects.    On  the  defeat  of  Oswald  by  Penda642. 

Ahlheide  (al  hi-de).     A  sterile  plain  in  the  Ahnman  (a'n-man).     See  Angra  Mamyu.  Aldan  joined  Oswiu,  king  of  the  Deirans. 

central  part  of  Jutland,  Denmark.  Ahrweiler  (ar'vi-ler).    A  small  town  in  the  Aide  (a-e-da'),   Hamilton.    Bom  in  Paris, 

AhlQLUist  (al'kvist),  August  Engelbert,  Bom    Rhine  Province,  Prussia,  situated  on  the  Ahr  France,  in  1829.    A  novelist  and  poet,  son  of 

at  Kuopio,  Finland,  Aug.  7, 1826 :  died  Nov.  20,     20  miles  south  by  east  of  Cologne.    Its  chief  an  Armenian  and  an  English  lady,  educated  at 

1889.  A  Finnish  philologist,  poet,  and  traveler    industry  is  the  making  of  wine.  the  University  of  Bonn,  and  for  a  time  an  oflfi- 

in  Russia  and  Siberia,  appointed  in  1862  pro-  Aht  (at).    A  division  of  the  Wakashan  stock  of  oer  in  the  British  army.    Among  his  works  are"Elea- 

fessor  of  the  Finnish  language  and  literature  at    North  American  Indians,  comprising  22  tribes,  nore  and  other  Poems "  (1856), "  Rita :  an  Autobiography '■ 

Helsingfors^^       ^^'  dwelling  chiefly  on  the  west  coast  of  Vancpu-  <i^l^^^X^'fi^l^X£^:  ^i^^^'^t^:^ 

Ahlwardt(al'vart),  Christian  Wllhelm.  Bom  ver  Island,  British  Columbia,  one  tribe  being  Music  "(1882),  "Passages  in  the  Life  of  a  Lady"  (1887),  etc. 
at  Greifswald,  Prussia,  Nov.  23,  1760:  died  near  Cape  Flattery,  Washington.  The  principal  Aidenn  (a'den).  [Ar.  Adn,  Eden.]  Para- 
there,  April  12,  1830.  A  German  philologist,  toihes  of  this  division  are  Nitiuaht  Tlaaaaht  or  Makah,  ^gg.  ^^  "Anglicized"  form  of  the  Arabic  for 
rectoi  successively  of  several  public  schools,  ^.'^"i^'atd^BSS^ahf '  TLTnu^b'^^teu^^S^e  r^"^  Edm,  used,  fo?  the  rime's  sake,  by  Edgar  Allan 
and  later  professor  of  ancient  literature  at  the    kashan.  Poe  in  "The  Raven." 

University  of  Greifswald.  His  work  was  chiefly  Ahtena  (a'te-na),  or  Atna  (at'na).    A  tribe  of  Aidin  (i-den').    A  city  in  Asiatic  Turkey,  situ- 

upon  the  Greek  poets  (edited  Pindar,  1820).         the  northern  division  of  the  Athapascan  stock  ated  near  the  Mendere,  about  55  miles  south- 

Ahlwardt,  Theodor  Wilhelm.  Bom  at  Greifs-    of  North  American  Indians,  sometimes  called  east  of  Smyrna,  near  the  ruins  of  ancient 

wald,  Prussia,  July  4,  1828.    A  German  orien-    Copper  Indians,  from  their  habitat  on  the  Atna  Tralles.    It  has  trade  in  figs,  cotton,  ete.   Popu- 

talist,  son  of  Christian  Wilhelm  Ahlwardt,  pro-    or  Copper  River,  Alaska.    See  Athapascan.  lation,  about  35,000. 


Aienai 

Aienai  (i-a-ni'),  or  loni  (I-o-ni').  A  tribe  of 
the  Caddo  Confederacy  of  North  American  In- 
dians.   See  Caddo. 

Aigai  (i'gi).  [Gr.  Aiyat'.]  A  town  in  ^olia, 
Asia  Minor,  the  modern  Nimrud-Kalessi.  On 
its  site  are  the  ruins  of  various  ancient  struc- 
tures. 

Aigina.    See  ^gina. 

Aigle  (a'gl),  G.  Aelen  (a'len).  A  small  town 
in  the  canton  of  Vaud,  Switzerland,  on  the 
Grande  Eau,  near  the  Rh6ne,  about  22  miles 
southeast  of  Lausanne. 

Aigle.  A  town  in  the  department  of  Orne. 
See  Laigle. 

Aignadel.    See  A^adello. 

Aignan.    See  Saint-Aignan. 

Aiguebelle  (ag-bel').  A  small  town  in  the  de- 
partment of  Savoy,  Prance,  about  17  miles  east 
of  Chamb6ry.  Here,  in  1742,  the  French  and 
Spaniards  defeated  the  Sardinians. 

Aiguebelle,  Paul  Alexandre  Neveue  d'. 
Bom  Jan.  7, 1831:  died  at  Paris,  Feb.  21, 1875. 
A  French  naval  of&oer,  in  the  Chinese  service 
during  the  Taiping  rebellion,  1862-64. 

Aigueperse  (ag-pers').  A  town  in  the  depart- 
ment of  Puy-de-D6me,  France,  19  miles  north- 
east of  Clermont-Ferrand.    Population  (1891), 

2;341. 

Aigues-Mortes,  or  Aiguesmortes  (ag-m6rt'). 
A  town  in  the  department  of  Gard,  France, 
near  the  Mediterranean,  22  miles  southwest  of 
Nlmes,  founded  by  St.  Louis  1246.  From  here 
lie  embarked  on  tbe  Crusades,  1248  and  1270.  It  has 
salt-works  and  fisheries.  Its  fortifications  (constructed 
by  Philip  III.  1270-85)  are  from  an  archseological  point  of 
view  among  the  most  remarkable  in  jPrance.  Population 
(1891),  3,981. 

Aiguille  d'Argentifere  (a-giiey'  dar-zhon'te- 
ar').  [F.  aiguUle,  needle:  in  this  special  use, 
'needle-like  peak.']  An  Alpine  peak,  12,832 
feet  high,  northeast  of  Mont  Blanc. 

Aiguille  de  la  Grande-SasBi^re  (a-gtiey'  d6  IS 
grond'sas-se-ar').  One  of  the  chief  peaks  of 
the  Tarentaise  Alps,  France,  on  the  Italian 
border.     Height,  12,325  feet. 

Aiguille  du  Midi  (a-guey' du  me-de').  1.  An 
Alpine  peak,  12,605  feet  high,  northeast  of 
Mont  Blanc. — 2.  A  peak  in  the  Alps  of  Oisans, 
Is6re,  France,  about  11,025  feet  high. 

Aiguille  Verte  (a-giley' vert).  An  Alpine  peak, 
13,540  feet  high,  northeast  of  Mont  Blanc. 

Aiguillou  (a-giie-y6n').  A  town  in  the  depart- 
ment of  Lot-et-Garonne,  France,  on  the  Lot 
near  its  junction  with  the  Garonne,  16  miles 
northwest  of  Agen.  Population  (1891),  com- 
mune, 3,119. 

Aiguillon,  Due  d'  (Armand  Vignerot  Du- 
plessis  Eichelieu).  Bom  1720:  died  1782. 
A  French  politician,  minister  of  foreign  affairs 
under  Louis  XV.  1771-74. 

Aiguillon,  Due  d'  (Armand  de  Vignerot  Du- 
plessis  Bichelieu).  Born  1750:  died  at  Ham- 
burg, May  4,  1800.  A  son  of  the  preceding, 
noted  during  the  early  days  of  the  Prenen 
Revolution  for  his  republican  tendencies.  He 
was  one  of  the  first  to  renounce  the  privileges  of  his 
rank.  In  1792,  however,  he  fell  under  suspicion  and  es- 
caped to  England. 

Aigun  (i'gon).  A  town  in  Manchuria,  Chinese 
Empire,  on  the  Amur  about  lat.  50°  5'  N., 
long.  127°  28'  E.  It  is  a  naval  station.  Pop- 
ulation, about  15,000. 

Aiken  (a'ken).  The  capital  of  Aiken  County, 
South  Carolina,  about  lat.  33°  34'  N.,  long.  81° 
40'  W.,  noted  as  a  winter  health-resort.  Pop- 
ulation (1900),  3,414. 

Aiken,  William.  Bom  at  Charleston,  South 
Carolina,  1806:  died  at  Plat  Eock,  North  Caro- 
lina, Sept.  7,  1887.  An  American  politician, 
member  of  the  South  Carolina  legislature 
1838-43,  governor  1844,  and  representative  in 
Congress  1851-57.  He  opposed  nullification  and  se- 
cession.  In  1866  he  was  reelected  to  Congress,  but  was 
not  admitted  to  a  seat. 

Aikin  (a'kin),  Arthur.  Born  at  Warrington, 
Lancashire,  England,  May  19,  1773:  died  at 
London,  April  15, 1854.  An  English  chemist 
and  mineralogist,  son  of  John  Aikin.  He  pub- 
lished a  "Dictionary  of  Chemistry  and  Mineralogy" 
(1807-14),  a  "  Manual  of  Mineralogy  "  (1814),  etc. 

Aikin,  John.  Born  at  Kib worth,  England,  Jan. 
15,  1747 :  died  at  Stoke  Newington,  England, 
Dec.  7, 1822.  An  English  physician.  Hewasthe 
author  of  a  translation  of  the ' '  Germania  "  and  "  Agricola  " 
of  Tacitus,  "Biographical  Memoirs  of  Medicine  in  Great 
Britain,"  "Biographical  Dictionary"  (1799-1816),  "Even- 
ings at  Home  "  (1792-95,  written  in  conjunotion  with  his 
sister  Mrs.  Barbauld),  etc. 

Aikin,  Lucy.  Born  at  Warrington,  Lancashire, 
England,  Nov.  6,  1781:   died  af  Hampstead, 


24 

England,  Jan.  29,  1864.  An  English  writer, 
daughter  of  John  Aikin.  she  wrote  "lorimer,  a 
Tale^'  (1814),  "  Memoirs  of  the  Court  of  Queen  Elizabeth  " 
(1818),  "Memoirs  of  the  Court  of  James  I."  (1822),  "Me. 
m  oirs  of  the  Court  ol  Charles  I. "  (1883),  "  Life  of  Addison  " 
(1843),  etc. 

Aikman  (ak'man),  William.  Born  at  Caemey, 
Forfarshire,  Oct.  24,  1682:  died  at  London, 
June  7,  1731.    A  Scottish  portrait-painter. 

Aillon,  Lucas  Vasquez  de.    See  Ayllon. 

Ailly  (i-e'),  or  Ailli,  Pierre  d'.  Bom  1350: 
died  at  Avignon,  France,  1420  (?).  A  French 
cardinal  and  theologian,  sumamed  the  "Ham- 
mer of  Heretics"  and  the  "Eagle  of  the  Doe- 
tors." 

Ailxed  of  Bievaulx,    See  Ethelred. 

Ailsa  Craig  (al'sa  krag).  A  rocky  island  of 
Ayrshire,  Seotlanoi,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Firth 
of  Clyde.  It  is  conical  in  shape,  and  rises  to  a 
height  of  1,139  feet. 

Aimard  (a-mar'),  Gustavo.  Bom  at  Paris, 
Sept.  13,  1818:  died  there,  June  20,  1883.  A 
French  novelist  and  traveler  in  the  United 
States,  Mexico,  Spain,  Turkey,  and  the  Cauca- 
sus: author  of  "Les  Trappeurs  de  1' Arkansas" 
(1858)  and  numerous  other  works  in  the  style  of 
Cooper.    He  died  insane. 

Aimon.     See  Aymon. 

Aimon,  Jacques.    A  pseudonym  of  Voltaire. 

Aimores  (i-mo-res'),  or  Aymor6s,  or  Aimures. 
An  Indian  tribe  of  eastern  Brazil,  now  known 
as  Botooudos. 

Aimores,  Serra  dos.    See  Serra  dos  Avmor4s. 

Aimwell  (am'wel).  1.  In  Parquhar's  comedy 
"The  Beaux'  Stratagem," a  young  gentleman 
of  a  romantic  temperament,  who  has  dissipated 
his  fortune  and  who,  with  his  cooler-headed 
friend  Archer  disguised  as  his  servant,  person- 
ates a  rich  lord,  with  a  view  to  retrieving  their 
losses  by  a  rich  marriage  for  either  or  both, 
making  a  journey  from  one  town  to  another, 
and  taking  turns  in  being  master  and  man — a 
stratagem  which  is  successful. —  2.  In  Shirley's 
play  "The  Witty  Fair  One,"  a  gentleman,  the 
lover  of  Violetta. 

Ain  (an).  A  river  of  eastern  Prance,  about  100 
miles  long,  which  joins  the  Rh6ne  17  miles  east 
of  Lyons.    It  is  narrow  in  its  lower  course. 

Ain.  A  department  of  France,  bounded  by 
Sa6ne-et-Loire  and  Jura  on  the  north,  Haute- 
Savoie  and  Savoie  (from  both  of  which  it  is 
separated  by  the  Rh6ne),  with  Switzerland,  on 
the  east,  Isfere  (separated  by  the  Ehfine)  on  the 
south,  and  Rh6ne  and  8a'6ne-et-Loire  (from 
both  of  which  it  is  separated  by  the  Sa6ne)  on 
the  west.  It  is  mountainous  (Jura)  in  the  east  and  a 
table-land  in  the  west,  and  is  rich  in  iron,  asphalt,  and 
building  and  lithographic  stones.  Its  capital  is  Bourg, 
its  area  2,239  square  miles,  and  its  population  (1891) 
356,907.  It  was  formed  from  the  ancient  Bresse,  Bugey, 
Dombes,  Valromey,  and  the  "Pays  de  Gex." 

Ainad  (i-nad').  A  trading  town  in  Hadramaut, 
Arabia,  about  lat.  16°  N.,  long.  48°  E. 

Ain  Hersha  (in  her'sha).  A  village  in  Syria. 
It  contains  a  Roman  temple  in  antis,  practically  complete 
except  the  root.  The  cella  is  surrounded  on  the  interior 
by  a  cornice,  and  ha£  four  engaged  Ionic  columns  at  the 
west  end.  The  exterior  west  wall  bears  in  relief  a  female 
bust  with  small  horns,  and  the  door  is  richly  sculptured. 
The  plan  measures  26  by  39  feet. 

Ainmiller  (in'mil-er),  Max  Emanuel.    Bom 

at  Munich,  Feb.  14, 1807:  died  at  Munich,  Dec. 
8,  1870.  A  German  painter  of  architectural 
subjects  and  on  glass. 

Ainos  (i'noz),  or  Aino  (i'no),  or  Ainu  (i'no). 
A  small  tribe  (about  50,000  in  number)  of  non- 
Japanese  (perhaps  Mongolian)  race  and  lan- 
guage, representing  the  primitive  population  of 
Japan,  living  in  Yesso^  parts  of  Saghalin,  the 
Kuriles,  and  on  the  adjacent  coast.  The  type  is 
somewhat  European  as  compared  with  other  Asiatics. 
The  abundance  of  hair  on  the  head  and  body  is  especially 
notable,  and  gave  the  Ainos  the  early  name  of  "hairy 
Kuriles." 

Ainslie  (anz'li).  Hew.  Bom  in  the  parish  of 
Dailly,  Ayrshire,  Scotland,  April  5, 1792:  died 
at  Louisville,  Ky.,  March  11, 1878.  A  Scottish- 
American  poet,  author  of  a  "Pilgrimage  to  the 
Land  of  Bums"  (1820),  etc.  He  emigrated  to 
America  in  1822,  and  resided  for  a  short  time  in  Robert 
Owen's  community  at  New  Harmony,  Indiana.  The  rest 
of  hia  life  was  devoted  to  the  business  of  brewing. 

Ainsworth  (ans'werth),  Henry.  Bom  at  Pleas- 
ington,  Lancashire,  England,  1571:  died  at 
Amsterdam  about  1622.  An  English  separa- 
tist clergyman,  controversialist,  and  rabbinical 
scholar.  He  was  driven  from  England  by  the  persecu- 
tion of  the  Brownists  (Independents),  with  whom  he  was 
connected,  became  porter  to  a  bookseller  in  Amsterdam 
about  1693,  teacher  of  Francis  Johnson's  church  there, 
1596;  and  1610-22  pastor  of  a  new  congregation. 

Ainsworth,  Robert.    Born  at  Woodyale,  near 


Aisne 

Manchester,  England,  Sept.,  1660:  died  at  Lon- 
don, April  4,  1743.  An  English  teacher  and 
lexicographer,  author  of  a  Latin-English  dic- 
tionary (1736). 

Ainsworth,  William  Francis.  Born  at  Exe- 
ter, England,  Nov.  9,  1807:  died  at  Hammer- 
smith, London,  Nov.  27, 1896.  An  English  geol- 
ogist and  traveler.  He  has  published  "Eesearohe* 
m  Assyria,  Babylonia,  etc."  (1838X  "Travels  and  Re- 
searches in  Asia  Minor,  Mesopotamia,  etc."  (1842),  "Trav- 
els in  the  Track  of  the  10,000  Greeks ''  (1844),  "  A  Personal 
Narrative  of  the  Euphrates  Expedition"  (1888),  etc. 

Ainsworth,  WilUam  Harrison.  Born  at  Man- 
chester, England,  Feb.  4, 1805:  died  atReigate, 
England,  Jan.  3,  1?.82.  An  English  novelist. 
His  works  include  "  Rookwood  "  (1834), ' '  Crichton  "  (IS.^?), 
"Jack  Sheppard"(1839),  "Tower  of  London"  (1840),  "The 
Flitch  of  Bacon,  or  the  Custom  of  Dunmow  "  (1864), "  Tower 
Hill"  (18?1),  "Beau  Nash"  (1880),  etc. 

Aintalj  (in-tab').  A  town  in  the  vilayet  of 
Aleppo,  Asiatic  Turkey,  on  the  Sajur  about 
lat.  37°  4'  N.,  long.  37°  25'  E.  it  has  some  trade 
and  manufactures,  and  is  a  missionary  center.  Popula- 
tion (estimated),  20,000. 

Air  (a-er'),  or  Asben  (as-ben').  A  mountain- 
ous oasis  in  the  Sahara,  Africa,  lat.  16°-20°  N., 
long.  6°-10°  B.,  having  an  area  of  about  20,000' 
square  miles,  and  a  population  estimated  at 
60,000.  Its  capital  is  Agades,  and  chief  town, 
TinteUust.    Also  AUr. 

Airavata  (i-ra'va-ta).  In  Hindu  mythology, 
the  prototype  of  the  elephant,  produced  at  the 
churning  of  the  ocean:  the  world-elephant  of 
the  East,  and  Indra's  beast  of  burden. 

Airay  (ar'a),  Henry.  Bom  at  Kentmere, 
Westmoreland,  about  1560:  died  Oct.  6,  1616. 
An  English  Puritan  divine,  vice-chancellor  of 
Oxford,  1606,  and  author  of  a  "Commentary  oa 
Philippians"(1618). 

Aircastle  (ar'kas'l).  A  character  in  Foote's 
comedy  ' '  The  Cozeners,"  played  in  an  amus- 
ingly prolix  and  digressive  manner  by  Foote- 
himself,  burlesquing  Gahagan,  a  highly  edu- 
cated young  Irish  gentleman  who  was  hung  in 
1749  for  "filing  or  diminishing  the  current  coin 
of  the  realm." 

Aird  (ard),  Thomas.  Bom  at  Bowden,  Rox- 
burghshire, Scotland,  Aug.  28,  1802:  died  at 
Dumfries,  April  25, 1876.  A  Scottish  poet  and 
journalist.  He  was  editor  of  the  "  Edinburgh  Weekly 
Journal"  (1833),  and  the  "Dumfriesshire  and  Galloway 
Herald"  (1835-63),  and  author  of  "The  Old  Bachelor  in 
the  Scottish  Village"  (1846),  "Poetical  Works"  (1848), etc. 

Airdrie  (ar'dre).  A  town  in  Lanarkshire,  Scot- 
land, 10  miles  east  of  Glasgow.  Population  of 
parliamentary  burgh  (1891),  15,133. 

Aire  (ar).  A  river  in  Yorkshire,  England, 
which  joins  the  Ouse  18  miles  southeast  of 
York.  Its  length  is  about  75  miles,  and  it  is 
navigable  from  Leeds. 

Aire.  A  small  river  in  eastern  France,  which 
joins  the  Aisne  in  the  department  of  Ardennes. 

Aire-SUr-l'Adour  (ar'siir'la-dor').  A  town 
in  the  department  of  Landes,  Prance,  on  the 
Adour  about  lat.  43°  14'  N.,  long.  0°  14'  W, 
It  is  an  old  town,  the  seat  of  a  bishopric. 
Population  (1891),  commune,  4,551. 

Aire-sur-la-Lys  (ar'silr'la-les').  A  fortified 
town  in  the  department  of  Pas-de-Calais, 
France,  situated  on  the  Lys  30  miles  southeast 
of  Calais.    Population  (1891),  commune,  8,409. 

Airlie  Castle  (ar'li  kas'l).  A  residence  of  the 
Earl  of  Airlie,  near  Meigle,  Scotland,  it  was 
plundered  and  destroyed  by  the  eighth  Earl  of  Argyle 
1689-40  as  a  result  of  Airlie's  attachment  to  the  cause  of 
Charles  I.  This  raid  forms  the  subject  of  the  old  ballad 
of  "The  Bonnie  House  of  Airlie."  Allan  Cunningham 
has  transferred  it  to  the  18th  century, 

Airola  (i-ro'la).  Asmall  town  in  the  province  of 
Benevento,  Italy,  23  miles  northeast  of  Naples. 

Airolo  (i-ro'16),  G.  Eriels  (er'i-elz).  A  small 
town  in  the  canton  of  Tieino,  Switzerland,  at 
the  southern  entrance  of  the  St.  Gotthard  rail- 
way tunnel,  on  the  Tieino  about  38  miles  south- 
east of  Lucerne. 

Airy  (ar'i),  Sir  George.  The  successful  lover 
of  Miranda  in  Mrs.  Centlivre's  comedy  "  The 
Busybody." 

Airy,  Sir  George  Biddell.  Bom  at  Alnwick, 
Northumberland,  July  27, 1801:  died  at  Green- 
wich, Jan.  2, 1892.  A  noted  English  astronomer. 
He  was  appointed  Lucasian  professor  at  Cambridge  in 
1826,  Plumian  professor  and  director  of  the  Cambridge- 
Observatory  in  1828,  director  of  the  Greenwich  Observa- 
tory and  astronomer  royal  in  1836,  and  president  of  the 
Royal  Society  1871-73.  He  resigned  his  position  as  astron- 
omer royal  in  1881. 

Aisne  (an).  A  department  of  France,  capital 
Laon,  bounded  by  Nord  and  Belgium  on  the 
north,  by  Ardennes  and  Marne  on  the  east,  by 
Seine-et-Mame  on  the  south,  and  by  Oise  ana 


Aisne 

Somme  on  the  west :  formed  fromparts  of  an- 
cient Koardy,  Brie,  and  lle-de-Franee.  Its 
area  is  2,839  square  miles,  and  its  population 
(1891),  545,493. 

Aisne.  A  river  in  northern  France,  about  150 
miles  long  and  navigable  for  75  miles,  it  rises  in 
the  department  of  Meuae,  flows  through  the  departments 
of  Mame,  Ardennes,  Aisne,  and  Oise,  and  joins  the  Oise 
near  Compi^gne.  On  it  are  Bethel  and  Soissons.  Its 
chief  affluents  are  the  Aire  and  Yesle,  and  it  communicates 
by  canals  with  the  Meuse  and  Marne. 

AIss6  (a-e-sa'),  MUe.  Bom  1694:  died  at  Paris, 
1733.  A  daughter  of  a  Circassian  chief,  carried 
off  when  a  child  by  Turkish  rovers  and  sold  at 
Constantinople  to  the  French  ambassador,  M. 
de  Ferriol,  who  took  her  to  Paris  and  educated 
her.  She  gained  celebrity  at  court  for  her  beauty  and 
accomplishments.  Her  letters  to  her  lover  Chevalier 
d'Aydie  have  been  published. 

Aistulf  (is'tulf ),  or  Astolf  (as'tolf).  King  of 
the  Lombards,  749-756.  His  conquest  of  the 
exarchate  of  Ravenna  (752)  was  wrested  from 
him  by  Pepin  the  Short  in  755. 

Aitareya  (i-ta-ra'ya).  [Skt.,  'descendant  of 
Itara.']  To  him  a'  Brahmana,  an  Aranyaka, 
and  an  TJpanishad,  which  bear  his  name, 
were  supposed  to  have  been  revealed. 

Aitken  (at'ken),  Robert.  Bom  at  Crailing, 
near  Jedburgh,  Jan.  22,  1800:  died  suddenly 
in  the  railway-station  at  Paddington,  July  11, 
1873.  A  clergyman  of  the  Church  of  England 
(from  which  he  temporarily  withdrew  1824- 
1840),  leader  of  the  Aitkenites. 

Altkenites(at'ken-its).  Apartyinthe  Church 
of  England,  led  by  Robert  Aitken,  a  Wesleyan 
minister  who  became  a  High-churchman  (vicar 
of  Pendeen  1849-73).  Its  object  was  to  in- 
graft certain  Methodist  practices  and  views 
upon  the  Anglican  Church. 

Ajtolia.    See  Mtolia. 

Alton  (a'ton),  William.  Bom  near  Hamilton, 
Scotland,  1731:  diedatKew,  near  London,  Feb. 
2, 1793.  A  Scottish  botanist  and  gardener,  ap- 
pointed director  of  the  Royal  Botanical  Garden 
at  Kew  1759.  He  published  "Hortus  Kewen- 
sis"  (1789). 

Aitutaki  (i-t5-ta'ke),or  Altutake  (i-to-ta'ke). 
One  of  the  chief  islands  of  the  group  called 
"  Cook's  Islands,"  in  the  Pacific  Ocean. 

Aivalik  (i'va-lek),  or  Aivali  (i'va-le).  A 
seaport  in  the  vilayet  of  Khodovendikyar,  Asi- 
atic Turkey,  situated  on  the  Gulf  of  Adramyt- 
tium  66  miles  northwest  of  Smyrna. 

Aivazovski  (i-va-zof'ske),  Gabriel.  Bom  at 
Peodosia,  Crimea,  Russia,  May  22,  1812.  An 
Armenian  historian. 

Aivazovski,  Ivan.  Born  at  Peodosia  in  the 
Crimea,  July  7,  1817:  died  there,  May  2,  1900. 
An  Armenian  painter,  brother  of  the  preceding, 
professor  in  the  Imperial  Academy  of  the  Pine 
Arts  at  St.  Petersburg. 

Aix  (a).  A  small  island  off  the  western  coast 
of  Prance,  11  miles  south  of  La  Rochelle,  the 
scene  of  several  encounters  between  the  French 
and  British. 

Aix  (as).  [L.  Aguie  Sexties,  Springs  of  Sextius 
(C.  Sextius  Calvinus,  a  Roman  proconsul,  its 
founder).]  A  city  in  the  department  of  Bou- 
ches-du-Rh6ne,  Prance,  about  lat.  43°  33'  N., 
long.  5°  25'  E.  it  is  the  seat  of  an  archbishopric, 
and  has  a  cathedral,  a  museum,  an  academy,  and  baths.  It 
was  colonized  by  the  proconsul  C.  Sextius  Calvinus  123 
B.  0.,  and  became  renowned  for  its  baths.  In  its  vicinity 
Marins  defeated  the  Teutones  and  their  allies  with  great 
slaughter  102  B.  c.  It  became  the  capital  of  Provence, 
and  a  famous  literary  center,  and  was  the  temporary  resi- 
dence of  the  emperor  Charles  V.  in  1538.  Prior  to  the 
Kevolution  it  had  one  of  the  chief  provincial  parliaments. 
It  has  an  extensive  trade  in  olive-oil  and  fruits,  and  manu- 
factures of  silks,  etc.  Aix  contains  a  cathedral,  of  very 
early  foundation,  with  Romanesque  nave  and  later  aisles 
and  choir.  The  curious  porch  has  antique  columns,  and 
cedar-wood  doors  of  1504,  very  delicately  sculptured.  A 
baptistery  of  the  6th  century  opens  on  the  south  aisle :  it 
has  eight  Boman  columns.    Population  (1891),  22,924. 

Air,  or  Aix-les-Bains  (as-la-ban').  A  town 
in  the  department  of  Savoie,  Prance,  the  an- 
cient AquK  GratiansB  or  AqusB  AUobrogum, 
situated  near  Lake  Bourget,  8  miles  north  of 
Chamb^ry,  renowned  since  Roman  times  for 
its  hot  sulphur  springs.  It  has  an  arch  of 
Campanus.  Population  (1891),  commune,  6,296. 

Aix-la-Ohapelle  (aks-la-sha-pel'),  G.  Aacnen 
(a'chen).  [Named  from  its  mineral  springs 
(L.  aquas),  known  from  the  time  of  Charle- 
magne, and  the  chapel  (P.  chapelle)  of  the 
palace.]  A  city  in  the  Rhine  Province, 
Prussia,  about  lat.  50°  46'  N.,  long.  6°  5'  E., 
an  important  commercial  and  railway  center. 
It  has  large  manufactures  of  cloth,  needles,  cigars,  ma- 
chinery, etc.,  and  a  noted  cathedral,  a  Kathhaus,  famous 
hot  sulphur  springs,  and  a  museum  (the  Suermondt). 


25 

It  was  founded  by  the  Eomans  as  a  watering-place,  was 
a  favorite  residence  and  the  northern  capital  of  Charles 
the  Great  (who  died  here),  and  became  a  free  imperial 
city.  From  Louis  the  Pious  to  Ferdinand  I.  it  was  the 
crowning-place  of  the  German  emperors  (hence  called 
the  "seat  of  royalty,"  etc.),  and  it  was  also  the  seat 
of  numerous  diets  and  councils.  It  was  captured  by 
the  French  in  the  revolutionary  period,  and  was  granted 
to  Prussia  in  1815.  The  Cathedral  of  Aix-la-Chapelle  con- 
sists of  the  famous  polygonal  monument  founded  by 
Charlemagne  in  796,  and  a  beautiful  Pointed  choir  of  the 
14th  century.  Charlemagne's  structure  was  inspired  by 
San  Yitale  at  Kavenna  and  similar  Italian  buildings.  It 
is  16-sided,  about  105  feet  in  exterior  diameter,  with 
a  dome  104  feet  high<and  48  in  diameter  over  the  central 
portion.  The  eight  gables  around  the  dome  are  13th- 
century  additions.  The  dome  is  supported  by  eight  mas- 
sive piers,  and  the  surrounding  ambulatory  is  two-storied. 
The  marble  throne  of  Charlemagne,  in  which  his  body 
sat  for  over  350  years,  is  now  in  the  upper  gallery.  The 
mosaic  on  gold  ground  in  the  dome  is  modern.  The  choir 
is  of  light  and  elegant  proportions ;  it  is  ornamented  with 
medieval  statues  of  Charlemagne,  the  Virgin,  and  the 
apostles,  and  with  good  modern  glass.  The  chapels  are 
interesting,  and  there  is  a  line  late-Pointed  cloister.  The 
bronze  doors  of  the  west  portal,  which  opens  between  two 
low  cylindrical  towers,  date  from  804.  The  Rathhaus,  or 
town  hall,  is  a  structure  of  the  14th  century,  interesting 
as  incorporating  what  remains  of  the  palace  of  Charle- 
magne, including  the  lower  part  of  the  west  tower.  The 
Eaisersaal,  a  great  vaulted  hall  extending  the  entire 
length  of  the  upper  story,  contains  eight  historical  fres- 
cos designed  by  Bethel,  which  rank  among  the  finest 
examples  of  their  class.  The  council-chamber  is  adorned 
.with  imperial  portraits.  Population  (1900),  commune, 
135,286. 

Aix-la-Chapelle.  A  governmental  district  of 
the  Rhine  Province,  Prussia.  Population  (1890), 
564,577. 

Aix-la-Chapelle,  Confess  of.  A  congress  of 
the  sovereigns  of  Russia,  Austria,  and  Prussia, 
assisted  by  the  ministers  Castlereagh  and  Wel- 
lington from  Great  Britain,  Richelieu  from 
France,  Metternich  from  Austria,  Nesselrode 
and  Kapodistrias  from  Russia,  and  Harden- 
berg  and  Bemstorff  from  Prussia.  The  conven- 
tion signed  Oct.  9, 1818,  provided  for  the  immediate  with- 
drawal of  the  army  of  occupation  from  France.  The  con- 
gress expressed  the  reactionary  purposes  of  the  Holy 
Alliance,  and  received  France  into  the  European  concert. 

Aix-la-Chapelle,  Peace  of.  1.  A  treaty  (May 
2, 1668),  between  the  Triple  AUianee  (England, 
the  Netherlands,  and  Sweden)  on  one  side,  and" 
France  on  the  other,  acceded  to  by  Spain,  by 
which  Prance  returned  Franche-Comt6  to  Spain 
and  received  twelve  fortified  towns  on  the  bor- 
der of  the  Spanish  Netherlands,  among  them 
Lille,  Tournay,  and  Oudenarde. — 2.  A  treaty 
(Oct. ,  1748)  which  ended  the  war  of  the  Austrian 
succession.  The  basis  of  peace  was  the  mutual  restitu- 
tion of  conquests,  except  in  the  case  of  Austria,  which 
ceded  Parma,  Piacenza,  and  Guastalla  to  the  Spanish  in- 
fant Don  Philip  and  confirmed  Prussia  in  the  possession  of 
Silesia.  The  pragmatic  sanction  was  confirmed  in  Austria. 

Aizani.    See  Azani. 

Aja  (aj'a).  In  Hindu  mythology,  a  prince  of 
the  solar  race,  the  son  of  Raghu  or  of  Dilipa, 
son  of  Raghu. 

Ajaccio  (a-ya'cho).  A  seaport,  the  capital  of 
the  department  of  Corsica,  France,  situated  on 
the  western  coast  of  Corsica  on  the  Gulf  of 
Ajaccio,  lat.  41°  55'  N.,  long.  8°  44'  E.,  cele- 
brated as  the  birthplace  of  Napoleon  Bona- 
parte. It  has  a  considerable  trade,  and  a  ca- 
thedral.    Population  (1891),  commune,  20,197. 

Ajalon  (aj'a-lon),  or  Aijalon  (aj'a-lon).  In 
biblical  geography,  a  town  of  Palestine,  the 
modern  Y41o,  14  miles  northwest  of  Jerusalem. 

Ajan  (a'jan),  or  Ajam  (a'jam).  A  district  in 
Somali  Land,  eastern  Africa,  on  the  coast  south 
of  Cape  Guardafui. 

Ajatasatru  (a-ja-ta-sat'r5).  A  king  of  Kasi 
(Benares),  mentioned  in  the  Upanishads,  who 
was  very  learned  and,  though  a  Kshatriya, 
taught  the  Brahman  Gargyabalaki. 

Ajax  (a'jaks).  [Gr.  Aiaf.]  In  Greek  legend: 
(o)  The  son  of  Telamon  and  half-brother  of 
Teucer,  and  one  of  the  leading  Greek  heroes  in 
the  Trojan  war,  famous  for  his  size  and  physi- 
cal strength  and  beauty.  According  to  Homer  he 
was,  next  to  Achilles,  the  bravest  of  the  Grecian  host. 
He  several  times  engaged  in  single  combat  with  Hector 
and  gained  the  advantage  over  him,  and  was  always  a  ter- 
ror to  the  Trojans.  There  are  various  accounts  of  his  ex- 
ploits after  the  war  and  of  his  death.  According  to  the 
common  poetical  tradition,  he  died  by  his  own  hand. 
The  decision  of  Agamemnon  (on  the  advice  of  Athena)  to 
award  the  arms  of  Achilles  to  Odysseus  drove  Ajax  mad, 
and  in  his  insanity  he  furiously  attacked  and  slew  the 
sheep  of  the  Greeks,  imagining  them  to  be  his  enemies. 
Shame  for  this  conduct  drove  him  to  suicide.  According 
to  other  accounts  he  was  murdered.  From  his  blood  was 
said  to  have  sprung  up  a  purple  flower  bearing  on  its 
leaves  the  letters  ai,  the  first  letters  of  his  name  and  also 
an  exclamation  of  woe.  His  story  was  dramatized  by 
Sophocles.  (6)  A  Locrian  legendary  Mng,  son 
of  Oileus,  and  one  of  the  heroes  in  the  Trojan 
war:  often  called  the  Lesser  Ajax. 

Ajax,  Sir.    See  the  extract. 


Akbar 

Sir  Ajax  seems  to  have  been  a  title  imposed  on  Sir  John 
Harrington,  for  a  very  meritorious  attempt  to  introduce 
cleanliness  into  our  dwellings.  ...  In  1596,  he  pub- 
lished, under  the  name  of  Mlsacmos,  a  little  treatise 
called,  "A  new  discourse  of  a  stale  subject,  or  the  Meta- 
morphosis of  Ajax,"  of  which  the  object  was  to  point  out 
the  propriety  of  adopting  something  like  the  water-closets 
of  the  present  day.  As  the  nature  of  his  subject  led  him 
to  lay  open  the  interior  of  our  palaces  and  great  houses, 
oSence  was  taken  at  his  freedom  :  he  lost,  at  least  for  a 
time,  the  favour  of  Elizabeth  (his  godmother),  and  was 
banished  from  court.  His  gains,  from  his  well-timed  la- 
bours, were  apparently  confined  to  the  honour  of  contrib- 
uting to  the  merriment  of  the  wits,  Shakspeare,  Jonson, 
Nabbes,  and  many  others,  who  took  advantage  of  his  own 
pun  (a-jakes),  and  dubbed  him  a  knight  of  the  stool ;. 
under  which  title  he  frequently  appears  in  their  pages. 
Gifford,  Note  to  Jonson's  "The  Silent  Woman,"  I.  447. 

Ajigarta  (a-je-gar'ta).  The  poor  Brahman 
Bishi  who  sold  his  son  Sunahsepa  to  Rohita 
to  be  a  substitute  for  Rohita,  Eling  Harischan- 
dra  having  vowed  that  if  he  obtained  a  son 
he  would  sacrifice  him  to  Varuila,  and  Rohita 
having  been  the  son  given. 

Ajmir,  or  Ajmere  (aj-mer').  A  province  in 
Rajputana,  British  India,  intersected  by  lat. 
26°  20'  N.,  and  long.  74°  30'  E.  it  is  under  the 
supervision  of  the  governor-general  of  India,  and  was 
ceded  to  the  British  in  1818.  Area,  2,711  square  miles. 
Population  (1891),  542,368.    Also  Ajmeer. 

Ajmir,  or  Ajmere.  The  capital  of  the  province 
of  Ajmir,  about  lat.  26°  29'  N.,  long.  74°  40'  E. 
The  Mosque  of  Ajmir  was  founded  in  the  early  13th  century, 
and  is  one  of  the  first  established  in  India.  It  occupies  the 
spacious  square  court  of  a  Jain  temple,  whose  old  colon- 
nades of  graceful  and  well-carved  columns  remain  in  place 
around  the  walls  and  support  a  series  of  low  domes.  The 
great  beauty  of  the  monument  lies  in  the  screen  of  seven 
keel-shaped  Mohammedan  arches  carried  across  the  west 
side  of  the  court  in  front  of  the  colonnade.  This  screeQ 
is  covered  with  bands  of  Cuflc  and  Togra  inscriptions  sepa- 
rated by  diaper- work,  admirable  in  decorative  motive,  and 
cut  with  great  delicacy.    Population  (1891),  68,843.    Also 


Ajodhya  (a-j6dh'ya).  A  suburb  of  Faizabad, 
Oudh,  British  India,  on  the  site  of  an  impor- 
tant ancient  city. 

Ajunta  (a-jun'ta),  or  Adjunta.  A  small  place 
in  the  Nizam's  dominions,  India,  about  55  miles 
northeast  of  Aurangabad,  celebrated  for  its 
cave-temples.  The  Buddhist  vihara,  or  monastery,  is 
known  as  Cave  No.  16.  It  is  rock-cut,  in  plan  a  rectan- 
gular hall  about  65  feet  square,  with  a  hexastyle  por- 
tico preceding  the  portal.  At  the  back  is  a  rectangu- 
lar pillared  shrine,  in  which  is  an  enthroned  figure  of 
Buddha.  The  sides  are  bordered  by  16  small  cells  for  the 
recluses.  The  hall  has  an  interior  peristyle  of  20  fine  col- 
umns, with  cubical  corbeled  capitals.  The  columns  and 
fiat  ceiling  are  carved  with  rich  arabesques,  and  the  walls 
are  covered  with  interesting  paintings  of  Buddhist  scenes. 
The  monument  dates  from  the  5th  century  A.  D.,  and  is 
typical  of  a  large  class  of  similar  viharas.  Sometimes,  as 
in  the  Great  Vihara  at  Bagh,  a  shala  or  school,  in  form  a 
pillared  hall  separate  from  the  main  foundation,  is  at- 
tached to  the  vihara. 

Akabah  (a-ka-ba').  A  haven  in  Arabia  Petrsea, 
at  the  head  of  the  Gulf  of  Akabah,  about  lat. 
29°  33'  N.,  long.  35°  24'  E.  Near  it  were  the 
ancient  Elath  (iElana)  and  Ezion  Geber. 

Akabah,  Gulf  of.  The  northeastern  arm  of 
the  Bed  Sea,  the  ancient  Sinus  .^lanites,  about 
100  miles  long. 

Akakia  (a-ka-ke-a')  (Martin  Sans-Malice). 
[Ahakia  (aKaKia)  is  a  Greek  translation  of  the 
French  name  sans-malice.']  Bom  at  Ch3,lons-sur- 
Marne :  died  1551.  A  French  physician,  lec- 
turer at  the  College  de  France,  founded  by 
Francis  I.  He  published  several  medical  works. 

Akakia,  Le  docteur.  A  pseudonym  of  Vol- 
taire, borrowed  from  the  preceding,  it  was  used 
by  Voltaire  in  his  "  Diatribe  du  Docteur  Akakia,"  a  lam- 
poon on  Maupertuis,  published  about  1752.  A  supple- 
ment appeared  later.  The  book  was  burned  by  the  pub- 
lic executioner  on  the  Place  Gendarmes,  Dec.  24,  1762, 
but  a  copy  was  saved  by  Voltaire,  who  republished  it. 

Akansa.    See  Kwapa. 

Akarnania.    See  Acarnania. 

Akassa  (a-kas'sa).  The  seaport  of  the  Niger, 
West  Africa.    See  Idzo. 

Akbar,  or  Akber  (ak'ber;  Hindu  pron.  uk'- 
b6r),  or  Akhbar,  originally  Jel-al-eddin  Mo- 
hammed (je-lal'ed-den'  mo-ham'ed).  [Ar., 
'  very  great.']  Bom  at  Amarkote,  Sind,  India, 
Oct.  14, 1542:  died  at  Agra,  India,  Oct.  13, 1605. 
A  great  Mogul  emperor  in  India,  1556-1605. 
He  was  born  during  the  exile  of  his  father  Humayun. 
After  twelve  years  Humayun  recovered  the  throne  of 
Delhi,  but  died  within  a  year,  when  in  1666  Akbar  succeed  ed 
him,  ruling  at  first  under  the  regency  of  Bairam  Khan. 
In  his  eighteenth  year  he  threw  oil  this  yoke.  By  war 
and  policy  he  consolidated  his  power  over  the  greater 
part  of  India.  He  put  an  end  to  the  confiict  between 
Afghan  and  Mogul,  and  sought  to  reconcile  Hindu  and 
Moliammedan.  Heinterested  himself  in  various  religions, 
Brahmanism,  Buddhism,  Mazdaism,  and  Christianity,  and 
even  sought  to  establish  a  religion  of  his  own.  He 
sought  to  better  his  subjects  by  measures  of  tolera- 
tion and  improved  social  laws.  He  permitted  the  use 
of  wine,  but  punished  intoxication ;  tried  to  stop  widow- 
burning  ;  permitted  the  marriage  of  Hindu  widows ;  for- 
bade the  marriage  of  boys  before  sixteen  and  of  girlp 


Akbar 

before  fourteen ;  to  gratify  his  Hindu  subjects  prohibited 
the  slaughter  of  cows;  had  his  lands  accurately  surveyed 
and  statistics  taken ;  constructed  roads ;  established  a  uni- 
form system  of  weights  and  measures  ;  and  introduced  a 
vigorous  poMce.  He  was  sometimes  harsh  and  cruel,  and 
is  charged  with  poisoning  his  enemies.  The  rebellion  of 
his  son  Selim,  later  known  as  Jahangir,  was  a  Mohamme- 
dan uprising  against  Akbar's  apostasy.  The  rebellion  was 
suppressed,  and  Akbar  returned  to  the  faith.  He  was 
probably  poisoned  at  the  instigation  of  Jahangir. 

Akbar,  Tomb  of.    See  Secundra. 

Ake  (a'ke).  1.  See  Acre.'— 2.  One  of  the  princi- 
pal mined  cities  of  Yucatan,  situated  about  30 
miles  east  of  Merida,  noted  for  its  pyramid. 

Akeman  Street  (ak'mau  stret).  [So  called  from 
AS.  Acemannes  hurh,  sick  man's  town,  a  name 
of  Bath:  AS.  xce,  ece,  ake  (now  spelled  ache), 
pain.]  An  ancient  Roman  road  in  England 
connecting  Bath,  through  Speen  and  Walling- 
f  ord,  with  London. 

Aken,  or  Acken  (a'ken).  A  town  in  Prussian 
Saxony,  on  the  Elbe  25  miles  southeast  of 
Magdeburg.    Population  (1890),  6,109. 

Akenside  (a'ken-sld),  Mark.  Born  at  New- 
eastle-on-Tyne"  Nov.  9,  1721:  died  at  London, 
June  23, 1770.  An  English  poet  and  physician, 
author  of ' '  Pleasures  of  the  Imagination"  (1744) . 
He  was  the  son  of  a  butcher.  He  studied  theology  and 
then  medicine  at  Edinburgh;  went  to  London  in  1743 
a,nd  to  Leyden  in  1744,  where  he  completed  his  medical 
studies ;  and  returned  to  England  in  1744,  beginning  the 
practice  of  his  profession  in  Northampton,  and  removing 
in  1746  to  London.  In  1761  he  became  physician  to  the 
queen.  The  best  edition  of  his  poetical  works  (with  a 
biography)  is  that  published  by  Dyce  in  1834. 

Akerbas.    See  Acerbas. 

Akerblad  (a'ker-biad),  Joban  David.  Bom 
in  Sweden,  1760 :  died  at  Rome,  Feb.  8,  1819. 
A  Swedish  Orientalist  and  diplomatist,  author 
of  works  on  oriental  inscriptions. 

Akennan  (a'ker-man),  or  Akyerman,  or  Ak- 
kerman.  A  seaport  in  the  government  of  Bes- 
sarabia, Russia,  situated  on  the  estuary  of  the 
Dniester  about  lat.  46°  15'  N.,  long.  30°  15'  E. 
It  is  probably  on  the  site  of  the  ancient  Milesian  colony 
Tyras,  and  was  occupied  by  the  Venetians  and  Genoese  in 
the  later  middle  ages.    Population,  43,943. 

Akerman,  Convention  of.  A  treaty  concluded 
between  Russia  and  Turkey,  Oct.  6,  1826,  by 
which  Russia  secured  the  navigation  of  the 
Black  Sea,  and  various  agreements  were  en- 
tered into  concerning  Moldavia,  Wallachia,  and 
Servia.  The  non-fulfilment  of  the  treaty  by 
Turkey  led  to  the  war  of  1828-29. 

Akerman  (ak'6r-man),  Amos  Tappan.  Bom  in 
New  Hampshire,  l8'23 :  died  at  Cartersville,  Ga. , 
Deo.  21, 1880.  An  American  lawyer,  a  graduate 
of  Dartmouth  College,  1842.  He  settled  in  Elberton, 
Georgia,  1850,  followed  his  adopted  State  in  secession, 
1861,  became  a  Republican  andreconstructionist  after  the 
war,  and  was  attorney-general  under  Grant,  1870-72. 

Akerman,  Jobn  Yonge.  Bom  at  London, 
June  12,  1806:  died  at  Abingdon,  England, 
Nov.  18, 1873.   An  English  numismatist. 

Akers  (a'kerz),  Benjamin  Paul.  Bom  at  Sao- 
carappa,  Maine,  July  10,  1825:  died  at  Phila- 
delphia, May  21, 1861.  An  American  sculptor. 
Among  his  best  works  are  "Una  and  the  Lion,  "St. 
Elizabeth  of  Hungary,"  "The  Dead  Pearl-Diver,"eto.  See 
AUen,  Elizabeth  Chase. 

Akersbem,  Miss  Sopbronia.  See  Lammle, 
Mrs.  Alfred. 

Akersbus.    See  Aggershus. 

Akhal  Tekke  (a'khai  tek'ke).  An  oasis  in 
central  Asia,  north  of  Persia,  inhabited  \>Y 
Turkomans,  annexed  by  Russia  in  1881.  It 
is  traversed  by  the  Transeaspian  railway. 

Aklialzikb(a-khal-zekh' ) .  Atown  in  the  govern- 
ment of  Tiflia,  Caucasus,  Russia,  about  lat.  41° 
40'  N.,  long.  43°  1'  E.  It  is  the  ancient  capital  of  Turk- 
ish Georgia,  and  was  captured  by  the  Russians  under  Pas- 
kevitch,  Aug.  27, 1828.  A  Turkish  attack  upon  it  was  re- 
pulsed in  March,  1829,  and  near  it  a  Russian  victory  was 
gained  Nov.  26, 1853.    Population  (1891),  16,116. 

Akbissar  (a-khis-sar' ) .  A  to  wn  in  Asiatic  Tur- 
key, the  ancient  Thyatira,  about  58  miles  north- 
east of  Smyrna.  Population  (estimated),10,000. 

AkMssar  (in  Albania).    See  Kroia. 

Akhlat  (akh-laf).  A  town  in  the  vilayet  of 
Erzrum,  Asiatic  Turkey,  on  Lake  Van  about 
lat.  38°  45'  N.,  long.  42°  13'  E.  Near  it  are  the 
ruins  of  the  ancient  Khelat. 

Akbmim  (akh-mem'),  or  Ekhmim  (ekh-mem'). 
A  town  in  Egypt,  the  ancient  Khemmis  orPan- 
opolis,  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Nile  between 
Assiut  and  Thebes,  it  was  the  seat  of  the  cult  of 
Ammon  Khem,  and  its  ancient  necropolis  was  discovered 
by  Maspero  in  1884.    Population  (1897),  27,963. 

Akbtuba  (akh't5-ba).  An  arm  of  the  Volga, 
which  branches  from  the  main  stream  near 
Tsaritsyu,  and  flows  parallel  with  it  to  the 
Caspian  Sea. 

Akbtyrka  (akh-ter'ka).  A  town  m  the  gov- 
ernment of  KharkofE,  Russia,  about  lat.  50°  18' 


26 

N.,  long.  34°  59'  E.  It  has  a  cathedral.  Popu- 
lation, 25,870. 

Akib,  Le  rabbin.  A  pseudonym  used  by  Vol- 
taire in  1761. 

Akiba  (a-ke'ba)  ben  Joseph  ('Akiba  son  of 
Joseph'),  or  simply  Babbi  Akiba.  Executed 
132  (?)  A.  D.  The  most  distinguished  Jewish 
personage  in  the  2d  century.  There  are  many 
legends  about  him.  He  introduced  a  new  method  of  in- 
terpreting the  oral  law  (Halacha)  and  reduced  it  to  a 
system  (Mishna).  He  took  an  active  part  in  the  rebellion 
which  broke  out  against  Hadrian  under  the  leadership  of 
Bar-Cochba  (132  A.  D.)  and  suffered  death  by  torture  for 
his  share  in  this  unsuccessful  uprising. 

Akita  Ken  (a-ke'ta  ken).  A  ken  in  the  north- 
western part  of  the  main  island  (Hondo)  of 
Japan.  Its  chief  town  is  Akita.  The  population 
of  the  town  is  about  30,000. 

Akka  (ak'ka).  A  tribe  of  pygmies  discovered 
by  Miani  and  Schweinfurth  in  central  Africa, 
between  the  Nepoko  and  Aruwimi  rivers.  Their 
average  height  is  1. 33  meters,  complexion  light  brown,  hair 
scanty  and  woolly,  head  large,  nose  flat>  arms  long,  legs 
short,  and  hands  well  formed,  but  not  the  feet.  They  are 
expert  hunters,  live  in  temporary  grass  huts  of  beehive 
shape,  and  keep  no  domestic  animals,  save  chickens.  Also 
called  Tikke-Tikke,  or,  in  Bantu  speech,  TTam&itti. 

It  seems  possible,  therefore,  that  at  an  epoch  when  the 
Sahara  was  still  a  fertile  land,  and  the  Delta  of  Egypt  an 
arm  of  the  sea,  a  race  of  men  allied  to  the  Bushmen 
ranged  along  the  southern  slopes  of  the  Atlas  mountains, 
and  extended  from  the  shores  of  the  Atlantic  on  the  one 
side  to  the  banks  of  the  Nile  on  the  other.  Of  this  race 
the  brachycephalic  Akkas  and  other  dwarf  tribes  of  Cen- 
tral Africa  would  be  surviving  relics.  They  were  driven 
from  their  primitive  haunts  by  the  negro  invasion,  and 
finally  forced  into  the  extreme  south  of  the  continent  by 
the  pressure  of  the  B&n-tu  or  Kaffir  tribes. 

Sayce,  Races  of  the  0.  T.,  p.  148. 

Akkad,  or  Accad  (ak'kad  or  ak'ad).  One  of 
the  foxir  cities  of  Nimrod's  empire  ((Jen.  x.  10) 
in  Shinar  or  Babylonia:  in  the  cuneiform  in- 
scriptions it  is  usually  the  name  of  a  region. 
The  kings  of  Babylonia  and  those  of  Assyria  who  conquered 
Babylonia  call  themselves  "king  of  Sumer  and  Akkad," 
whence  it  is  usually  assumed  that  Sumer  denominated 
southern  Babylonia  and  Akkad  northern  Babylonia.  The 
boundaries  of  this  district  are  not  certain,  but  it  seems 
to  have  lain  between  the  Tigris  and  the  Elamitic  and  Me- 
dian mountains,  its  northern  limit  being  the  upper  Zab. 
The  name  of  a  city,  Agada,  was  discovered  in  an  inscrip- 
tion of  Nebuchadnezzar,  which  is  held  by  some  to  be 
identical  with  the  city  of  Akkad.  Agade  was  the  resi- 
dence of  the  earliest-known  Babylonian  king,  Sargon  I. 
(about  3800  B.  c).  Cyrus  mentions  this  city  as  still  exist- 
ing in  his  time.  Eriedrich  Delitzsch  considers  it  part  of 
the  city  of  Sepharvaim ;  other  scholars,  however,  doubt 
the  identification.  Akkadian  is  the  name  given  to  the 
people  and  dialect  of  Akkad.  The  people  were  supposed 
to  be  a  non-Semitic  tribe  and  their  language  agglutina^ 
tive ;  the  literature  in  this  dialect  consisted  chiefly  of 
magical  incantations.  This  theory  has  been  strongly  de- 
fended by  Oppert  and  Haupt.  Joseph  Hal^vy  and  others 
hold  that  this  non-Semitic  people  and  language  never  ex- 
isted and  that  the  writing  is  simply  a  cryptography  or 
secret  writing  invented  by  the  priests  to  lend  a  greater 
mystery  to  their  sacred  writings.  The  most  recent  theory 
is  that  the  so-called  Akkadian  dialect  is  simply  an  older 
form  of  Sumerlan  and  should  be  called  Old  Sumerian. 
(See  Swrneria.)  Akkadist  is  the  name  given  to  a  person 
who  believes  in  the  real  existence  of  the  Akkadian  dialect 
and  people  :  the  opponents  of  this  school  are  called  anti- 
Akkadists. 

Akko.    See  Acre. 

Akmolinsk,  or  AkmoUinsk  (ak-mo-linsk' ) .  A 
Russian  province  in  the  government  of  the 
Steppes,  Russian  central  Asia,  organized  in 
1868.  It  is  level  in  the  north,  hilly  in  the  center,  and  a 
desert  steppe  in  the  south.  Area,  229,609  square  miles. 
Population  (1897),  683,721. 

Akmolinsk.  The  capital  of  the  government 
of  Akmolinsk,  situated  on  the  Ishim  about  lat. 
51°  30'  N.,  long.  71°  30'  E.  Tt  is  a  caravan  cen- 
ter.    Population  (1889),  5,447. 

Akoklak.    See  Kitunahan. 

Akola  (a-ko'la).  A  district  in  West  Berar, 
Hyderabad  Assigned  Districts,  British  India, 
intersected  by  lat.  21°  N.,  long.  77°  B.  Area, 
2,660  square  miles.    Population  (1891),  574,782. 

Akola.  The  capital  of  the  district  of  Akola, 
British  India,  about  lat.  20°  40'  N.,  long.  77°  E. 
Population  (1891),  21,470. 

Akpotto  (ak-pot'to).    See  Igtira. 

Akra  (ak-ra' ),  formerly  Accra.  A  Nigritic  tribe 
of  the  Gold  Coast,West  Africa,  subject  to  Eng- 
land. It  occupies  the  triangular  area  between  the  sea^ 
coast,  the  Volta  River,  and  the  Ashantl  Mountains.  The 
Akra  language  has  monosyllabic  roots  and  makes  a  great 
use  of  musical  tones.  Ga  (Gah)  and  Adampi  are  its  two 
principal  dialects. 

Akra,  formerly  Accra.  A  town  on  the  Gold 
Coast,  West  Africa,  about  80  miles  west  of  the 
Volta  river.  It  had,  in  1890,  20,000  inhabitants,  a  few 
only  being  white.  It  Ijecame  English  in  1850,  and  is  the 
largest  town  of  the  Gold  Coast.  Since  1876  the  governor 
has  resided  in  the  neighboring  Christiansborg. 

Akrabbim  (a-krab'im).  [Heb.,  'scorpions.'] 
In  biblical  geography,  a  group  of  hills  south  of 
the  Dead  Sea,  variously  identified. 


Alabama,  The 

Akragas.  See  Agrigentum. 
Akron  (ak'ron).  The  capital  of  SummitCounty, 
Ohio,  36  miles  south  of  Cleveland,  it  has  consid- 
erable manufactures  of  flour,  woolen  goods,  matches,  agri- 
cultural implements,  etc,  Population  (1900),  42,728. 
Akrura  (a-kro'ra).  In  Hindu  mythology,  a 
Yadava  and  uncle  of  Krishna,  chiefly  noted  as 
the  liolder  of  the  Syamantaka  gem.  See  Sya- 
mantaka. 

Aksakoff  (ak-sSj'kof),  or  Aksakov  (ak-sa'kof), 
Constantine.  Born  at  Moscow,  April  10, 1817 : 
died  in  the  island  of  Zante,  Greece,  Dec,  1860. 
A  Russian  poet  and  prose-writer,  son  of  Sergei 
Aksakofl. 

Aksakoff,  or  Aksakov,  Ivan.  Bom  Oct.  8, 
1823:  died  Feb.  8, 1886.  A  Russian  Panslavist, 
son  of  Sergei  Aksakoff. 

Aksakoflf,  or  Aksakov,  Sergei.  Bom  at  Ufa, 
Russia,  Oct.  1,  1791 :  died  at  Moscow,  May  12, 
1859.  A  Russian  writer,  author  of  "Family 
Chronicles"  (1856),  etc. 

Akserai  (ak-se-n').  A  town  in  the  vilayet  of 
Konieh,  Asiatic  Turkey :  the  ancient  Archelais. 
Population  (estimated),  10,000. 

Aksha  (ak'sha).  In  Hindu  mythology,  the 
eldest  son  of  Ravana,  slain  by  Hanuman. 

Akshebr  (ak'shenr).  A  small  town  in  the  vila- 
yet of  Konieh,  Asiatic  Turkey,  about  lat.  88° 
22'  N.,  long.  31°  17'  E.,  on  the  site  of  the  ancient 
Thymbrium  or,  more  probably;  of  Philomelion, 
the  scene  of  the  victory  of  Frederick  Barba- 
rossa  over  the  Seljuks,  May  18, 1190.  Bajazet 
I.  died  here  1403.    Also  Ak-Sheher. 

Aksu  (ak-s6'),  or  Ak-sai  (ak-si').  A  northern 
tributary  of  the  Tarim  in  eastern  Turkestan, 
about  300  miles  long.  It  rises  in  the  Tian-Shan. 

Aksu  (ak-s8').  A  city  in  eastern  Turkestan, 
about  lat.  41°  7'  N.,  long.  80°  30'  E.,  important 
as  a  commercial  center  and  strategical  point. 
It  has  manufactures  of  cotton  goods.  Popula- 
tion (estimated),  40,000. 

Akupara  (ak-ij-pa'ra).  In  Hindu  mythology, 
the  tortoise  which  upholds  the  world. 

Akurakura  (a-k(5-ra'ko-ra).  A  small  African 
tribe,  settled  on  the  bend  of  Cross  River,  West 
Africa,  in  the  region  -wthere  the  Bantu  and  Ni- 
gritic languages  meet  and  blend. 

Akureyri  (a-kS-ra'ri).  A  small  seaport  on  the 
northern  coast  of  Iceland,  the  second  largest 
place  on  the  island. 

Akwapim  (ak-wa-pem').    See  Ashanti. 

Akyab  (ak-yab').  A  district  in  the  division  of 
Arakan,  British  Burma,  intersected  by  lat.  21° 
N.  and  long.  93°  B.  Area,  5,535  square  miles. 
Population  (1891),  416,305. 

Akyab.  A  seaport,  capital  of  the  district  of 
Akyab,  and  chief  port  of  the  Arakan  division 
of  British  Burma,  lat.  (old  temple)  20°  8'  53"  N., 
long.  92°  52'  40"  E.    Population  (1891),  37,938. 

Ala  (a'la).  A  town  in  Tyrol,  Austria-Hun- 
gary, on  the  Adige  23  miles  southwest  of 
.Trent.     Population  (1890),  3,161. 

Ala.    See  Igara. 

Alabama  (al-a-ba'ma).  [Ind.,  'here  we  rest,' 
or  'place  of  rest'(?5.]  A  river  in  the  State 
of  Alabama,  which  is  formed  by  the  Coosa  and 
Tallapoosa,  above  Montgomery,  and  unites 
with  the  Tombigbee  to  form  the  Mobile,  about 
32  miles  north  of  Mobile.  Its  chief  tributary  is  the 
Cahawba.  Its  total  length  is  312  miles,  and  it  is  navigable 
to  Montgomery. 

Alabama.  One  of  the  Southern  States  of  the 
United  States,  capital  Montgomery,  bounded 
by  Tennessee  on  the  north,  Georgia  (partly 
separated  by  the  Chattahoochee)  and  Florida 
(separated  by  the  Perdido)  on  the  east,  Florida 
and  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  on  the  south,  and  Missis- 
sippi on  the  west,  and  extending  from  lat.  30° 
13'  to  lat.  35°  N.,  and  from  long.  84°  53'  to  long. 
88°  35'  W. :  one  of  the  Gulf  States,  it  is  moun- 
tainous  in  the  north,  hilly  and  rolling  in  the  center,  and 
low  in  the  south;  and  Is  traversed  by  the  Tennessee 
river  in  the  north,  and  by  the  Alabama  and  Tombigbee 
systems  from  north  to  south.  It  is  rich  in  coal  and  iron 
in  the  mountainous  region,  and  was  the  fourth  State  in  the 
production  of  pig-iron  in  1900.  It  has  67  counties,  9 
representatives  in  Congress,  and  11  electoral  votes.  It 
was  settled  by  the  Ereiich  in  1702.  The  territory  north 
of  lat.  31"  N.  was  ceded  to  Great  Britain  in  1763,  and  to 
the  United  States  in  1783 ;  and  the  remaining  territory 
was  ceded  by  Spain  to  the  United  States  in  1819.  It  was 
admitted  to  the  Union  in  1819,  seceded  Jan.  11, 1861,  and 
was  readmitted  July,  1868.  Area,  62,260  square  miles. 
Population  (1900),  1,828,607. 

Alabama,  The.  A  wooden  steam-sloop  of  1,040 
tons  built  for  the  Confederate  States  at  Birken- 
head, England.  Her  commander  was  Captain  Semmes 
of  the  Confederate  navy.  (See  Semmea.)  Her  crew  and 
equipments  were  English.  She  cruised  1862-64,  destroy- 
ing American  shipping,  and  was  sunk  by  the  Kearsarge, 
off  Cherbourg,  June  19, 1864. 


Alabama  claims 

Alabama  claims.  Claims  for  damages  pre- 
ferred by  the  United  States  against  Great 
Britain  for  losses  caused  during  the  Civil  War 
by  the  depredations  on  American  commerce  of 
vessels — the  chief  of  which  was  the  Ala- 
bama— fitted  out  or  supplied  in  British  ports 
under  the  direction  of  the  Confederate  gov- 
ernment. The  adjustment  of  these  clauns  was  provided 
for  by  the  treaty  of  Washington,  concluded  May  8, 1871, 
which  referred  them  to  a  tribunal  of  arbitration  to  he 
composed  of  five  members,  named  respectively  by  the 
governments  of  the  United  States,  Great  Britain,  Italy, 
Switzerland,  and  Brazil.  The  tribunal  assembled  in  Ge- 
neva, Switzerland,  Dec.  15, 1871,  and  was  composed  of  the 
following  arbitrators :  Count  Federigo  Sclopis,  of  Italy ; 
Baron  Itajuba,  of  Brazil ;  Jacques  Staempfli,  of  Switzer- 
land ;  Charles  Francis  Adams,  of  the  United  States ;  and 
Lord  Chief  Justice  Sir  Alexander  Cockbum,  of  Great 
Britain.  The  agent  for  Great  Britain  was  Lord  Tenter- 
den,  the  counsel  Sir  Boundell  Palmer ;  the  agent  for  the 
United  States,  J.  C.  Bancroft  Davis,  the  counsel  William 
M.  Bvarts,  Caleb  Cushiiig,  and  Morrison  K.  Waite.  Count 
Sclopis  was  elected  president,  and  Alexandre  Favrot,  of 
Switzerland,  secretary.  After  having  received  the  cases 
of  the  contending  parties,  the  tribunal  adjourned  till 
June  15, 1872.  The  United  States  claimed,  in  addition  to 
direct  damages,  consequential  or  indirect  damages ;  while 
Great  Britain  contended  against  any  liability  whatever, 
and  especially  against  any  liability  for  indirect  damages. 
Sept.  14, 1872,  the  decision  of  the  tribunal  was  announced, 
a  gross  sum  of  $15,500,000  in  gold  being  awarded  the 
United  States  in  satisfaction  for  all  claims.  The  Geneva 
tribunal  is  of  importance  in  the  history  of  international 
law  on  account  of  the  rules  relating  to  neutrals  which  it 
adopted  to  guide  its  action. 

Alabama  Claims  Commission.  A  commission 
of  representatives  of  Great  Britain  and  the 
United  States,  for  the  settlement  of  the  Ala- 
bama claims.  Its  members  were  Earl  de  Grey  and 
Kipon,  Sir  Stafford  Northcote,  Sir  Edward  Thornton, 
Sir  John  Maodonald,  and  Professor  Montague  Bernard,  for 
Great  Britain ;  and  Hamilton  Fish,  Kobert  C.  Schenck, 
Samuel  Nelson,  Ebenezer  R.  Hoar,  and  George  H.  Wil- 
liams, for  the  United  States.  They  concluded  the  treaty 
of  Washington,  May  8, 1871.  See  treaty  qf  Waehington,  and 
Alaiama  claims  (above). 

Alabanda  (al-a-ban'da).  An  ancient  city  of 
Caria,  Asia  Minor,  on  "the  site  of  the  modem 
Hissar. 

Alabaster  (al'a-bas-t6r),  William.  Born  at 
Hadleigh,  Suffolk,  England,  1567:  died  in  April, 
1840.  An  English  poet  and  divine,  a  gradu- 
ate and  fellow  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge, 
author  of  a  Latin  tragedy,  "Eoxana"  (acted 
at  Cambridge  University  about  1592,  printed 
1632),  and  of  various  learned  works.  He.began 
an  epic  poem,  in  Latin,  in  praise  of  Elizabeth,  the  first 
book  of  which  remains  in  manuscript  in  the  library  of 
Emmanuel  College,  Cambridge.  In  1696  he  went  to  Cadiz 
as  chaplain  to  the  Earl  of  Essex. 

Alacoque  (a-la-kok'),  Marguerite  Marie.  Bom 

at  Lauthecour,  Sa&ne-et-Loire,  France,  July 
22, 1647:  died  at  Paray-le-Monial,  France,  Oct. 
17,  1690.  A  French  nim,  fouiider  of  the  wor- 
ship of  the  Sacred  Heart  of  Jesus. 

Alacranes  (a-la-kra'nes).  A  group  of  coral 
islets  in  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  in  lat.  22°  30'  N., 
long.  89°  40' W. 

Ala-Dagh  (a'la-daG').  A  range  of  the  Taurus 
in  the  southeastern  part  of  Asia  Minor,  north 
of  Adana,  a  continuation  of  the  Bulgar-Dagh. 

Ala-Dagh,  or  Allah  Dagh.  A  mountain-range 
in  the  northern  part  of  Asia  Minor,  intersected 
by  long.  32°  E. 

Ala-Dagh.  A  mountain-range  in  Turkish  Ar- 
menia, north  of  Lake  Van,  about  11,000  feet 
high,  the  source  of  the  eastern  Euphrates. 

Aladdin  (a-lad'in).  In  the  story  of  "  Aladdin 
or  the  Wonderful  Lamp,"  in  the  "Arabian 
Nights'  Entertainments,"  the  son  of  a  poor  wid- 
ow in  China,  who  becomes  possessed  of  a  ma^c 
lamp  and  ring  which  command  the  services 
of  two  terrific  linns.  Learning  the  magic  power  of 
the  lamp,  by  accidentally  rubbing  it,  Aladdin  becomes 
rich  and  marries  the  Princess  of  Cathay  tlu-ough  the 
agency  of  the  "slave  of  the  lamp  "  who  also  builds  in  a 
night  a  palace  for  her  reception.  One  window  of  this 
p^ace  was  left  unfinished,  and  no  one  could  complete  it 
to  match  the  others.  Alaldin  therefore  directs  the  jinns 
to  finish  it,  which  is  done  m  the  twinkling  of  an  eye  (hence 
the  phrase  "to  finish  Aladdin's  window";  that  is,  to  at- 
tempt to  finish  something  begun  by  a  greater  man).  After 
many  years  the  original  owner  of  the  lamp,  a  magician, 
in  order  to  recover  it,  goes  through  the  ciiy  offering  new 
lamps  for  old.  The  wife  of  Aladdin,  tempted  by  this 
idea,  exchanges  the  old  rusty  magic  lamp  for  a  brand-new 
useless  one  (hence  the  phrase  "  to  exchange  old  lamps  for 
new  "),  and  the  magician  transports  both  palace  and  prin- 
cess to  Africa,  but  the  ring  helps  Aladdin  to  find  them.  He 
kills  the  magician,  and,  possessing  himself  of  the  lamp, 
transports  the  palace  to  Cathay,  and  at  the  sultan's  death 
succeeds  to  the  throne. 

Aladfar  (al-ad-far').  [Ar.]  A  name,  not  much 
used,  for  the  star  j?  Lyrse. 

Aladja-Dagh  (a-ia'ja-dao').  A  mountain  near 
Ears,  Eussian  Armenia,  the  scene  of  a  vic- 
tory of  the  Eussians  under  Grand  Duke  Michael 
over  the  Turks  under  Mukhtar  Pasha,  Oct.  IS- 
IS, 1877. 


27 

Ala-ed-Din  (a-la'ed-den'),  or  Ala-eddin,  or 
Aladdin.  An  Ottoman  statesman,  son  of 
Othman  the  founder  of  the  Ottoman  empire. 
On  the  death  of  Othman,  Orchan,  Ala-ed-Din's  elder 
brother,  offered  to  share  the  empire  with  him,  but  he 
would  accept  only  the  revenues  from  a  single  village  and 
the  post  of  vizir.  He  organized  the  corps  of  janizaries, 
at  the  head  of  which  he  gained  a  victory  over  the  em- 
peror Andronicus  in  1330,  and  took  Nicsea,  the  chief  de- 
fense of  the  Greek  empire  in  Asia. 

Alaghez  (S-ia-gez').  An  extinct  volcano  30 
miles  northwest  of  Erivan,  Transcaucasia, 
Russia,  13,436  feet  high.    Also  AU-Ghez. 

Alagdas  (a-la-go'as).  A  state  of  eastern 
Brazil,  capital  Macei6,  bounded  by  Pernam- 
buco  on  the  north  and  northwest,  the  Atlantic 
on  the  southeast,  and  Sergipe  on  the  southwest. 
Its  chief  products  are  cotton,  sugar,  and  to- 
bacco. Area,  22,583  square  miles.  Population 
(1890),  648,009. 

Alagoas.  A  tovm  in  the  state  of  Alag6as, 
situated  near  the  coast  in  lat.  9°  45'  S.,  long. 
35°  50'  W. :  formerly  the  capital  of  the  province. 
Population,  about  15,000. 

Alai,  or  Alay,  Mountains.    See  Trans-Alai. 

Alain  de  LiUe  (a-lan'  de  lei);  Latinized  Ala- 
nus  ab  Insulis  (a-la'nus  ab  m'su-lis).  Born 
1114:  died  at  Citeaux,  France,  1203  (?).  A 
monk  and  celebrated  scholar,  sumamed  "Doc- 
tor Universalis,"  author  of  an  encyclopedic 
poem,  treating  of  morals,  the  sciences,  and  the 
arts,  entitled  "Anticlaudianus"  (published  in 
1536),  etc. 

Alais  (a-la').  A  town  in  the  department  of 
Gard,  Prance,  situated  on  the  Garden  25  miles 
northwest  of  Nlmes.  It  has  a  fort  built  by  Louis 
XIV.  to  intimidate  the  Huguenots.  Population  (1891), 
24,366. 

Alais,  Peace  of.  A  peace  (1629)  which  termi- 
nated the  last  of  the  religious  wars  in  France, 
in  which  (1628)  La  RocheUe,  the  stronghold  of 
the  Huguenots,  was  taken  by  Eiehelieu,  and 
the  Huguenots  were  compelled  to  disband  as  a 
political  party. 

Alajuela  (a-la-Hwa'la).  A  town  of  Costa  Eioa, 
about  lat.  9°  55'  N.,  long.  84°  20'  W.  Popula- 
tion (estimated,  1893),  12,000. 

Alaka  (a'la-ka).  In  Hindu  mythology,  the 
capital  of  Kuvera  and  the  abode  of  the  gan- 
dharvas  on  Mount  Meru. 

Ala-kill  (a-la-kol').  A  lake  in  Asiatic  Russia, 
about  lat.  46°  N.,  near  the  Chinese  frontier, 
without  outlet. 

Alaman  (a-la-man'),  Lllcas.  Bom  at  Guana- 
juato, Oct.  18,  1792:  died  in  Mexico,  June  2, 
1853.  A  Mexican  historian  and  statesman. 
Ho  traveled  extensively  in  Eurojpe,  1814-22,  and  was  dep- 
uty in  the  Spanish  Cortes  for  his  native  province.  He- 
turning  to  Mexico,  he  held  various  important  offices,  being 
secretary  of  the  interior  for  the  provisional  government 
1823-25,  foreign  minister  under  Bustaraente,  and  again 
under  Santa  Anna  until  his  death.  Many  Important  public 
works  are  due  to  him,  including  the  Mexican  museum. 
He  is  best  known  for  his  "  Historia  de  M^jico  "  and  "  Dis- 
ertaciones  sobre  la  historia  de  la  Eepdblica  Mejicana," 
works  published  during  the  ten  years  before  his  death. 

Alamanni  (al-a-man'i),  less  correctly  Ale- 
manui  (al-e-nian'i).  ['All  men,'  that  is, 
'  men  of  all  nations.']  A  German  race  of  Sue- 
vie  origin,  which  occupied  the  region  from  the 
Main  to  the  Danube  in  the  first  part  of  the  3d 
century  A.  D.  Their  territory  extended  later  across 
the  Rhine,  including  Alsace  and  part  of  eastern  Switzer- 
land. They  were  defeated  by  Clovis  496.  (See  SwaUa.) 
'The  Alaraannic  is  the  German  dialect  in  old  Alamannic 
territory  in  the  region  of  the  upper  Rhine,  approximately 
coincident  with  modem  Alsace,  the  southern  half  of 
Baden  and  of  Wiirtemberg,  Swabiaj  and  Switzerland. 
With  Bavarian  it  forms  the  group  specifically  called  High 
German.  It  is  the  typical  form  of  Old  High  German, 
which  exists  in  literature  from  the  8th  to  the  end  of  the 
11th  century. 

Alamanni  (a-la-man'ne),  or  Alemanni  (a-le- 
man'ne),  Luigi.  Born  at  Florence,  1495:  died 
at  Amboise,  France,  1556.  An  Italian  poet,  au- 
thor of  eclogues,  hymns,  satires,  elegies,  a  di- 
dactic poem  "La  Coltivazione "  (1546),  an  epic 
poem  "Girone  il  cortese"  (1548),  etc.  He  con- 
spired against  Glulio  de'  Medici  and  escaped  to  Venice : 
thence  he  went  to  Genoa,  and  in  1623  to  the  court  of 
Francis  I.  where,  after  returning  to  Florence  for  a  short 
time  (1527-30),  he  spent  most  o£  his  after  life.  Through 
Wyatt,  who  imitated  him,  he  exerted  considerable  in- 
fluence upon  English  poetry. 

Alamannia  (al-a-man'i-S,),  or  Alemannia 
(al-e-mari'i-a).  "A  division  of  ancient  Ger- 
many, whiefi  first  appears  about  the  end  of  the 
3d  century,  it  lay  in  the  southwestern  part  of  Ger- 
many and  adjoining  parts  of  Switzerland  and  Tyrol,  the 
region  settled  largely  by  the  Alamanni  (ancestors  of  the 
Swabians,  German  Swiss,  etc.).  For  the  duchy  of  Ala- 
mannia, see  SwaMa. 

Alamannic  (al-a-man'ik),  or  Alemannic  (al-f- 
man'ik),  Federation.    A  federation  of  several 


Al  Araf 

German  tribes,  ohiefiy  Suevi  {Alamawni  =  all 
men,  i.  e.j  men  of  all  nations),  which  appeared 
on  the  Mam  the  3d  century  after  Christ.  Caracalla 
engaged  in  war  with  them  in  214.  Under  Aurelian  they 
invaded  the  empire,  hut  were  defeated  in  three  battles  In 
271.  In  366  and  367  they  were  defeated  by  Julian ;  in  368 
by  Jovinus ;  and  in  496  they  were  completely  subjugated 
by  Clovis. 

Alamans.    See  Alamanni. 

Alambagh  (a-lam'bao),  or  Alumbagh  (a-lum'- 
bae).  A  fortification  near  Lucknow,  India. 
It  was  held  by  Outram  against  the  Sepoys  from 
Nov.,  1857,  until  March,  1858. 

Alameda  (a-ia-ma'da).  [Sp.,  'a  grove  or  row 
of  poplar-trees.'  The  name  is  now  applied  very 
generally  in  Spanish  America  to  any  large 
pleasure-ground  or  park.]  A  town  in  Spain,  I 
about  50  miles  northwest  of  Malaga.  Popu- 
lation, about  4,500. 

Alameda.  A  city  in  Alameda  County,  Califor- 
nia, situated  on  San  Francisco  bay  9  miles 
east  of  San  Francisco.  Population  (1900), 
16,464. 

Alameda.  Up  to  1681,  a  pueblo  of  the  Tigua 
Indians,  9  miles  north  of  Albuquerque  on  the 
Rio  Grande  in  central  New  Mexico.  In  1681 
the  Indian  pueblo  was  burnt  by  Governor  Oter- 
min  on  his  expedition  into  New  Mexico. 

Alamillo  (a-la-mel'yo).  [Sp.]  A  small  settle- 
ment on  the  Atchison,  Topeka  and  Santa  F6 
Railroad,  in  New  Mexico,  south  of  Albuquer- 
que and  on  the  Rio  Grande.  Up  to  1680  it  was  the 
site  of  a  considerable  village  of  the  Piros  Indians.  The 
ruins  of  the  village  are  still  visible. 

Alaminos  (a-la-me'nos),  Anton  or  Antonio. 

A  Spanish  navigator  whose  name  is  associated 
with  many  early  expeditions  in  the  Gulf  of 
Mexico.  It  appears  that  he  was  with  Columbus  in 
1499  and  1602,  and  he  was  chief  pilot  of  the  successive  ex- 
peditions  of  Cordova,  Grijalva,  and  Cortes  to  Mexico,  1617 
to  1620.    He  discovered  the  Bahama  channel  in  1520. 

Alamo  (a'la-mo).  A  mission  building,  founded 
in  1744  at  San  Antonio,  Texas.  UntU  1793  it  was 
used  as  a  parish  church,  and  subsequently  as  a  fort,  being 
surrounded  with  strong  walls.  In  Feb.,  1836,  it  was  oc- 
cupied by  Colonel  W.  B.  Travis  with  about  160  men  in  re- 
volt against  the  government  of  Mexico.  After  withstand- 
ing a  terrible  siege,  it  was  taken  by  assault  on  March  6,  and 
the  garrison  (including  David  Crockett  and  Colonel  Bowie) 
killed.    One  man  had  previously  made  his  escape. 

Alamos  (a'la-mos),  Los.  A  town  in  the  state 
•of  Sonora,  Mexico,  about  lat.  27°  25'  N.,  long. 
109°  W.    Population  (1894),  5,808. 

Alamos  de  Barrientos  (a'la-mos  de  bar-re-en'- 
tos),  Balthazar.  Bom  at  Medina  del  Campo, 
Spain,  1550:  died  about  1635.  A  Spanish  phi- 
lologist. 

Alan,  William.    See  Allen. 

Aland  Islands  (&'land  i'landz).  An  archi- 
pelago at  the  entrance  of  tli'e  Gulf  of  Bothnia, 
inthe  government  of  Abo-Bjorneborg,  Finland, 
conquered  by  Russi^i  from  Sweden  in  1809. 
The  chief  island  is  Aland  (population,  9,000). 
It  was  occupied  by  tie  Allies  in  1854. 

Alani  (a-la'ni).  A  people  of  Scythian  origin, 
dwelling  originally  in  the  Caucasus.  With  the 
Huns  they  defeated  the  East  Goths  about  375  A.  D.,  and 
they  invaded  Gaul  with  the  Suevi  and  Vandals  in  406, -and 
Spain  in  409.  They  were  defeated  by  the  West  Goths  about 
418,  and  disappeared  as  a  nation  in  the  6th  century. 

The  Alani  are  a  puzzling  race,  our  accounts  of  whom 
are  somewhat  contradictory,  but  who  may  perhaps  be 
most  safely  set  down  as  a  non- Aryan,  or,  at  any  rate,  a 
non-Teutonic  people,  who  had  been  largely  brought  under 
Gothic  influences.  But  early  in  the  flf th  oentuiy  they 
possessed  a  dominion  in  central  Spain  which  stretched 
from  sea  to  sea.  Freeman,  Hist.  Geog.,  p.  89. 

Alans,    See  Alani. 

Alantika  (a-lan'ti-ka).  A  mountain-range  of 
Adamawa,  central  Africa,  from  7,000  to  9,000 
feet  high. 

Alanus  ab  Insulis.    See  Alain  de  lAlle. 

Alaotra  (a-la-6'tra),  Lake.  The  largest  lake  of 
Madagascar,  north  of  Tamatave,  30  miles  long 
and  5  wide. 

Alapalli,  or  AUapalli  (a-la-pal'le),  or  AUeppi 
(a-lep'i).  A  seaport  in  Travancore,  India,  in 
lat.  9°  80'  N.,  long.  76°  20'  E. 

Alapayevsk  (a-la-pa-yevsk').  A  town  in  the 
government  of  Perm,  Russia,  situated  on  the 
Neiva  about  70  miles  northeast  of  Tekaterin- 
burg.  It  has  large  iron-foundries.  Population, 
8,384. 

Al  Araf  (al  a'raf).  [Ar.,  from  'arafa  (?),  to  dis- 
tinguish.] In  Mohammedan  theology,  a  par- 
tition between  heaven  and  hell  (described  in 
the  Koran,  Surah  vii.  44)  on  which  are  those 
who  have  not  yet  entered  into  heaven  but 
desire  to  do  so.  It  is  regarded  by  some  as  a  limbo  for 
the  patriarchs  and  prophets,  or  other  holy  persons,  and 
by  others  as  a  place  of  abode  for  those  whose  good  and 
evil  works  are  about  equally  balanced.  Bvghes,  Diet,  of 
Islam. 


Alarbus 

Alarbus  (a-lar'bus).  In  Shakspere's  (!)  "Titus 
Andronicus,"  a  son  of  Tamora,  queen  of  the 
Goths. 

Alarcon  (a-lar-kon').  A  small  town  in  the 
province  of  Cuenca,  Spain,  situated  on  a  rock 
in  the  Jiiear,  43  mUes  south  of  Cuenca.  it  was 
an  important  medieval  fortress,  and  was  the  scene  of  a 
Moorish  victory  over  the  Castilians  in  1195. 

Alarcon  (a-lar'kon).  In  Tasso's  "Jerusalem 
Delivered,"  the  King  of  Barca  who  fought 
against  the  Crusaders  with  the  Egyptians. 

Alarcon  (a-lar-kdn'),  Hernando  de.  Lived 
about  1540.  A  Spanish  navigator,  sent  by  the 
viceroy  of  New  Spain  to  support  by  sea  the 
expedition  of  Francisco  Vasquez  de  Coronado 
to  the  mythical  Seven  Cities  in  the  interior  of 
Mexico.  He  set  sail  May  9, 1540,  and  by  penetrating  the 
Gulf  of  California  proved  that  California  was  not  an  island. 
He  made  two  attempts  to  ascend  the  Colorado  in  boats, 
and  planted  a  cross  at  the  higliest  point  he  reached,  bury- 
ing a  writing  at  its  foot,  which  was  subsequently  found 
by  Melchor  Diaz.  His  report  of  this  expedition  is  printed 
in  Hakluyt's  "Voyages." 

Alarcon,  Pedro  Antonio  de.  Born  at  Guadix, 
Spain,  March  10,  1833:  died  at  Madrid,  July 
20,  1891.  A  Spanish  poet,  novelist,  journalist, 
and  politician.  He  accompanied  the  Spanish  army  to 
Morocco  as  a  newspaper  correspondent  in  1859,  and  in 
1864  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Cortes  from  Cadiz.  In 
1868  he  fought  on  the  side  of  the  revolutionists  in  the 
battle  of  Alcolea.  He  published  "  Diarlo  de  un  testigo  de  la 
gnerra  de  Africa  "  (1859),  "  Poeslas  serias  y  hnmoristicas  " 
(1870),  "El  sombrero  de  tres  picos"  (1874),  "El  Hijo 
Prbdigo"  (ISSQ.  etc 

Alarcon  7  Mendoza  (a-lar-kon'  e  man-dd'tha), 
Juan  Ruiz  de.  Bom  in  Tasco,  Mexico,  about 
1588 :  died  in  Cordova,  Spain,  Aug.  4, 1639.  A 
Spanish  dramatic  poet.  He  was  graduated  doctor  of 
laws  in  Mexico  in  1606.  Afterward  he  went  to  Spain,  had 
a  subordinate  position  under  the  Council  of  the  Indies, 
and  began  to  publisli  his  comedies  in  1628.  They  are  re- 
garded by  some  judges  as  the  finest  in  the  Spanish  lan- 
guage. Perhaps  the  best- known  is  "La  Yerdad  sospe- 
chosa,"  which  was  imitated  byCorneillein  ''LeMenteur." 

Alarcos.     See  Alarcon. 

Alardo  (a-lar'do).  The  younger  brother  of 
Bradamant  in  Ariosto's  "Orlando  Purioso." 

Alaric  (al'a-rik).  [Goth.  *Alareiks,  from  al, 
all,  and  reilcs,  ruler.  Cf .  Genseric,  Theodoric, 
etc.]  Born  on  the  island  of  Peuce,  in  the 
Danube,  376  (?)  a.  d.  :  died  at  Cosentia,  Italy, 
410.  A  celebrated  king  of  the  West  Goths, 
395(?)-410,  a  member  of  the  princely  family 
of  Baltha.  He  served  under  Theodosius  as  commander 
of  the  Gothic  auxiliaries  in  the  war  against  Eugenius 
and  Arbogastes  in  394 ;  left  the  Roman  service  on  the 
death  of  Theodosius,  being  elected  king  of  the  West 
Goths  about  the  same  time ;  invaded  Greece  in  396,  and 
was  compelled  by  Stilicho  to  retire  to  Epirus  in  397 ; 
was  appointed  prefect  of  eastern  Hlyricum  by  Arcadius ; 
invaded  Italy  in  400,  and  fought  a  drawn  battle  at  Pol- 
lentia  in  402  or  403  with  Stilicho,  who  allowed  him  to 
escape  to  Hlyricum ;  waa  made  prefect  of  western  Hlyri- 
cum by  Honorius ;  invaded  It^y  a  second  time  in  408 ; 
and  after  twice  besieging  Home  captured  and  sacked  it 
Aug.  24,  410.  He  died  while  preparing  to  invade  Sicily 
and  Africa,  and  was  buried,  with  a  vast  treasui'e,  in  the 
bed  of  the  river  Buaento. 

Alaric  II.  DiednearPoitiers,  France,  507  a.  d. 
A  king  of  the  West  Goths,  484-507,  defeated 
and  slain  by  Clovis.  He  ordered  the  compilation  of 
the  code  "Breviarum  Alaricianum"  or  "Corpus  Theodo- 
Bii "  (so  named  from  the  six  books  of  the  Theodosian  code 
which  it  contains). 

Alaric  Cottin.    See  CotUn. 

Alarodians  (al-a-ro'di-anz).     See  the  extract. 

In  Tubal  and  Meshech  we  must  see  representatives  of 
the  so-called  Alarodian  race,  to  which  the  modem  Geor- 
gians belong.  This  race  was  once  in  exclusive  possession 
of  the  highlands  of  Armenia,  and  the  cuneiform  inscrip- 
tions found  there  were  the  work  of  Alarodian  princes  who 
established  a  kingdom  on  the  shores  of  Lake  Van.  About 
B.  c.  600  Aryans  from  Phrygia  entered  Armenia,  overthrew 
the  old  monarchy,  and  imposed  their  rule  upon  the  in- 
digenous population.  The  bulk  of  the  Armenians,  how- 
ever, still  belong  to  the  older  race,  though  the  language 
they  have  adopted  was  that  of  their  invaders.  The  Ala- 
rodian is  a  family  of  inflectional  languages,  of  which  the 
Georgian  in  theCaucasus  is  the  chief  living  representative. 
Sayce,  Kaoes  of  the  0.  T.,  p.  50. 

Alarum  for  London,  or  The  Siege  of  Ant- 
werp. An  anonymous  play  acted  about  1599 
(published  in  1600),  attributed  to  Lodge. 

AlascanS  (a-las'kanz).  A  name  given  to  the 
foreign  Protestants  in  London  during  the  reign 
of  Edward  VI.,  from  the  superintendent  of  the 
foreign  (German,  French,  etc.)  churches  in 
London,  John  Laski,  a  Polish  refugee  and  fol- 
lower of  Zwingli.    See  Laski. 

Alasco  (a-las'ko).  An  old  astrologer  in  Scott's 
novel  "Eenilworth,"  secretly  in  the  employ  of 
Eichard  Vamey.  Also  called  Dr.  Demetrius 
Doboobie. 

Alasco,  John.    See  Laslci. 

Alashenr  (a-la-shenr').  A  town  in  Asiatic  Tur- 
key, the  Philadelphia  of  Scripture,  situated  on 
the  slope  of  Tmolus  about  80  miles  east  of 


28 

Smyrna,  on  the  railway  from  Smyrna,  it  has 
considerable  trade,  and  is  the  seat  of  a  Greek  archbishopric. 
Population  (estimated),  8,000. 

Alaska  (arlas'ka),  formerly  Russian  America. 

A  territory  of  tlte  United  States,  capital  Sitka, 
bounded  by  the  Arctic  Ocean  on  the  north, 
British  America  on  the  east,  the  Pacific  Ocean 
on  the  south,  and  the  Pacific  and  Arctic  oceans, 
Bering  Strait,  and  Bering  Sea  on  the  west,  it 
Inchides  many  islands.  The  highest  point  is  Mount  St. 
Elias,  which  lies  near  the  boundary.  Chief  river,  the  Yu- 
kon, It  has  valuabl  e  fisheries,  fm -trade,  and  extensive  for- 
ests, ~and  is  supposed  to  have  large  mineral  deposits.  By 
act  of  Congress,  1884,  it  constitutes  a  civil  and  judicial  dis- 
trict, with  a  governor,  clerl^  judge,  attorney,  and  marshal. 
It  was  discovered  by  the  Russians  in  1741,  and  was  settled 
by  them  in  1801.  It  was  purchased  by  the  United  States 
from  Eussia  for  $7,200,000,  by  treaty  of  March  SO,  1867,  rat- 
ified by  the  United  States  Senate  June  20, 1867.  Area, 
590,884  square  miles.    Population  (19001,  63,692. 

Alaska  Peninsula.  A  peninsula  in  the  terri- 
tory of  Alaska,  extending  into  the  Pacific,  and 
partly  inclosing  Bering  Sea,  traversed  by  a  vol- 
canic range. 

Alaska  Strait.  A  sea  passage'  between  the 
mainland  of  Alaska  and  Eodiak  Island. 

Alasnam  (a-las'nam).  In  the  "Arabian 
Nights'  Entertainments,"  a  man  who  became 
possessed  of  eight  magnificent  golden  statues, 
and  on  searching  for  the  ninth,  which  was  more 
singular  and  precious  still,  discovered  it  in  the 
person  of  a  beautiful  woman,  whom  he  married. 

Alassio  (a-las'se-6).  A  small  seaport  in  the 
province  of  Genoa,  Italy,  situated  on  the  Gulf 
of  Genoa  about  48  miles  southwest  of  Genoa. 
It  is  a  bathing-place  and  winter  health-resort. 

Alastor  (a-las'tor).  1.  In  Greek  mythology, 
a  surname  of  Zeiis  as  the  avenger:  also  applied 
to  any  avenging  deity  or  demon. — 3.  In  medi- 
eval demonology,  a  spirit  of  evil,  the  executor 
of  the  sentences  of  the  king  of  hell. — 3.  A 
poem  by  Shelley,  published  in  1816,  named 
from  its  chief  character,  "Alastor  or  the  Spirit 
of  Solitude." 

The  poet's  self-centred  seclusion  was  avenged  by  the 
Furies  of  an  irresistible  passion  pursuing  him  to  speedy 
ruin.  Prtiface  to  the  Poem,  Dec.  14, 1816. 

Alatau  (a-la-tou'),  or  Sungarian  (sung-gar'- 
i-an)  Alatau.  A  mountain-range  in  Semi- 
ry  etohensk,  Asiatic  Russia,  on  the  boundary  be- 
tween that  government  and  the  Chinese  prov- 
ince of  Hi,  about  lat.  44°  46'  N.  It  reaches 
a  height  of  about  13,000  feet. 

Alatau,  or  Kusnetzky  (koz-net'ske)  Alatau. 
A  range  of  mountains  in  the  governments  of 
Tomsk  and  Yeniseisk,  Siberia,  extending  about 
northeast  and  southwest. 

Alatau,  or  Trans-Ili  (tranz-e'le)  Alatau.  A 
mountain  system  in  Semiryetehensk,  Asiatic 
Russia,  south  of  the  river  Ili.  It  reaches  a 
height  of  over  15,000  feet. 

Alatheus  (a-la'thf-us),  or  Odotheus  (o-do'thf- 
iis).  Died  386  A.D.  An  Ostrogothic  general. 
On  the  death  of  Vithimir,  376,  he  became  with  Saphrax 
the  guardian  of  Vithericus,  king  of  the  Greuthungi,  the 
chief  tribe  of  the  Ostrogoths.  Alatheus  and  Saphrax 
fought  under  the  Visigoth  Fridigern  at  the  battle  of 
Adrianople  in  378. 

Alatri  (a-la'tre).  A  town  in  the  province  of 
Rome,  Italy,  about  45  miles  east  by  south  of 
Rome :  the  ancient  Alatrium.  There  is  an  ancient 
temple  beyond  the  Porta  San  Pietro,  prostyle,  with  two 
Tuscan  columns  before  the  antae,  in  plan  26  by  47  feet.  At 
some  time  subsequent  to  its  construction,  aposticum  was 
added,  of  similar  disposition  to  the  pronaos.  Population, 
about  5,000. 

Alatyr  (a-la-ter').  A  town  in  the  government 
of  Simbirsk,  Russia,  on  the  Sura  about  lat.  54° 
53'  N.,  long.  46°  30'  E.  Population,  10,092. 
Also  Alateer. 

Alava  (a'la-va).  One  of  the  Basque  provinces 
in  Spain,  capital  Vitoria,  bounded  by  Biscay 
and  Guipiizcoa  on  the  north,  Navarre  on  the 
east,  Logrofio  on  the  south,  and  Burgos  on  the 
west.  Area,  1,205  square  miles.  Population 
(1887),  92,893. 

Alava,  Miguel  Bicardo  de.  Bom  at  Vitoria, 
Spain,  1771:  died  at  Barfeges,  France,  1843.  A 
Spanish  politician  and  general.  He  fought  under 
Wellington  in  the  Peninsular  campaign,  at  the  close  of 
which  he  had  obtained  the  rank  of  brigadier -general ;  was 
president  of  the  Cortes  May,  1822 ;  fought  in  the  same  year 
under  Ballasteros  and  Murillo  in  support  of  the  Cortes 
against  the  rebels ;  went  into  exile  1823,  on  the  restoration 
of  Ferdinand  by  French  intervention ;  espoused  the  cause 
of  Maria  Christina  against  Don  Carlos  on  the  death  of  Ferdi- 
nand ;  was  ambassador  to  London  1834,  and  to  Paris  1835 ; 

^d  retired  to  France  after  the  insurrection  of  La  Granja. 

Alava  y  Navarete  (a'la-va  e  na-va-ra'ta),  Ig- 
nacio  Maria  de.  Bom  at  Vitoria,  Spain,  about 
1750 :  died  at  Chiclana,  near  Cadiz,  May  26, 1817. 
A  Spanish  admiral  and  explorer.  He  is  best  known 
for  his  voyage  of  circumnavigation  of  the  globe,  com- 
menced in  1794,  in  which  he  e^ored  the  coasts  of  South 


Albanian 

America  and  the  East  Indies,  and  added  largely  to  geo> 
graphical  knowledge.  He  commanded  a  squadron  at  Tra. 
falgar,  and  in  1816  was  made  grand  admiral  and  chief  of 
marine.  .         .      m 

Alazan  (a-la'zan).  A  nver  m  Transcaucasia, 
about  150  miles  long,  a  northern  tributary  of 
the  Knr. 

Alb,  or  Alp.    See  Swdbian  Jura. 

Alba  (al'ba).  Ancient  Scotland  north  of  the 
Forth  and'<31yde. 

Alba  (al'ba).  A  town  in  the  province  of  Cuneo, 
Italy,  on  the  Tanaro  about  31  miles  southeast 
of  Turin :  the  ancient  Alba  Pompeja.  It  has  a 
cathedral.    Population,  about  9,000. 

Alba,  Duke  of.    See^Zw. 

Alba  de  Liste,  Count  of.  See  Hermquez  de 
Guzman,  Luis. 

Albacete  (al-ba-tha'ta).  A  province  in  the  tit- 
ular kingdom  of  Murcia,  Spain,  bounded  by 
Cuenca  on  the  north,  Valencia  and  Alicante  on 
the  east,  Murcia  and  Granada  on  the  south, 
and  Jaen  and  Ciudad  Real  on  the  west.  It  is 
mountainous  in  the  west,  and  elsewhere  a  table-land. 
Area,  5,972  square  miles.    Population  (1887^  229,492. 

Albacete.  The  capital  of  the  province  of  Al- 
bacete, about  lat.  38°  58'  N.,  long.  1°  55'  W. 
It  manufactures  and  exports  cutlery.  Popula- 
tion (1887),  20,794. 

Alba  de  Tormes  (al'ba  da  tor'mas).  A  small 
town  in  the  province  of  Salamanca,  Spain,  sit- 
uated on  the  Tormes  17  miles  south  of  Sala- 
manca. Here,  1809,  the  French  defeated  the 
Spaniards. 

Alba  Longa  (al'ba  long'ga).  In  ancient  geog- 
raphy, a  town  in  tatium,  Italy,  15  miles  south- 
east of  Rome,  the  ancient  center  of  the  Latin 
League,  its  foundation  is  traditionally  ascribed  to 
Ascanius  and  its  destruction  to  Tullus  HostHias. 

Alban  (al'ban,  or  41'ban)  Saint.  Protomartyr 
of  Britain,  303.  He  is  said  to  have  been  a  native  of 
Vemlamium  where  he  was  put  to  death  with  the  sword. 
The  famous  monastery  of  St.  Alban  was  founded  in  his 
honor  by  King  Offa  about  795.  His  festival  is  celebrated 
in  the  Koman  Church  June  22,  and  in  the  Anghcan  Church 
on  June  17. 

Alban  Lake.    See  Albano. 

Alban  Mountains  (al'ban  moun'tanz),  It. 
Monti  Laziali.  A  mountain  group  southeast 
of  Rome,  near  Albano.  Its  highest  point  is 
Monte  Cavo. 

Albanenses  (al-ba-nen'sez).  A  small  medieval 
sect,  named  from'  the  city  of  Alba  in  Piedmont, 
which  professed  Maniehsean  doctrines.  They 
were  closely  allied  to  the  Albigenses. 

Albani  (ai-ba'ne),  or  Albano  (-no),  Francesco. 
Bom  at  Bologna,  Italy,  March  17,  1578 :  died 
there,  Oct.  4,  1660.    A  noted  Italian  painter. 

Albani  (al-ba'ne),  Mme.  (Marie  Louise  Ce- 
cilia Emma  Lajeunesse).  Bom  at  Chambly, 
near  Montreal,  1850.  A  distinguished  soprano 
singer,  of  French-Canadian  parentage.  Her  fam- 
ily removed  to  Albany,  New  York  (from  which  she  took 
her  assumed  name),  in  1864.  She  studied  in  Paris  nnder 
Duprez,  and  in  Milan  under  Lamperti,  and  made  her  A6- 
but  as  an  opera-singer  in  Messina  in  1870.  She  married 
Ernest  Gye  in  1878. 

Albani,  Villa.  A  palace  in  the  northern  part 
of  Rome,  celebrated  for  its  art  collections. 

Albania  (al-ba'ni-a).  [Gr.  'A7i.l3avUi.^  In  an- 
cient geogra,phy,  a  country  of  Asia,  lying  west 
of  the  Caspian,  north  of  Armenia,  and  east  of 
Iberia,  and  corresponding  nearly  to  the  modem 
Baku  and  southern  Daghestan  in  Russia.  It  was 
part  of  the  Assyrian  empire,  and  the  theater  of  some  of 
the  wars  of  Sargon  and  Sennacherib. 

Albania.  [NL.  Albania,  Alb.  Shkyperi,  Turk. 
Arnautlik,  F.  Albanie,  G.  Albanien."]  A  region  in 
the  western  part  of  European  Turkey,  bounded 
by  Montenegro  and  Novi-Bazar  on  the  north, 
Macedonia  (with  a  vague  frontier)  and  Thessaly 
on  the  east,  Greece  and  the  Gulf  of  Arta  on  the 
south,  and  the  Ionian  Sea,  the  Strait  of  Otranto, 
and  the  Adriatic  on  the  west,  corresponding  in 
general  to  the  vUayets  Skutari,  Janina,  and 
part  of  Monastir,  and  largely  to  the  ancient 
Illyria  and  Epirus.  It  was  occupied  by  the  Turks  in 
the  fli'st  part  of  the  16th  century,  revolted  under  Scan- 
derbeg  1443-67,  and  was  subdued  by  the  Turks  in  1478. 
Several  rebellions  against  the  Turks  occurred  about  the 
beginning  of  the  19th  century.  Albania  resisted  the 
treaty  of  Berlin  (1878)  and  the  cession  of  territory  to 
Montenegro  in  1880.  Population  (estimated),  J,500,000  (?),• 
2,000,000  (7),  principally  Amauts. 

Albania,  or  Albany.  An  ancient  name  of  the 
Scottish  Highlands,  fancifully  derived  from  the 
mythical  Albanaet,  son  of  Brute. 

Albanian  (al-ba'ni-an).  The  language  of  the 
Albanians.  It  is  now  commonly  regarded  as  a  member 
of  the  Aryan  family.  It  e^cjsts  only  in  modern  dialecte^ 
but  is  supposed  to  be  the  descendant  of  the  ancient  Illy- 
rian  of  which  no  records  are  extant.  Also  called  SHpetar, 
from  the  native  name  of  the  people  (SMypetdr,  'high- 
landers'). 


Albanian  Gates 

Albanian  Gates.  The  defile  of  Deibeiid  be- 
tween the  Caucasus  and  the  Caspian  Sea. 

Albano  (al-ba'no).  A  town  in  the  province  of 
Eome,  Italy,  situated  on  the  slope  of  the  Alban 
Mountains,  14  miles  southeast  of  Eome,  on  the 
site  of  Pompey's  Villa:  the  Eoman  Albanum. 
It  passed  to  the  Papal  States  in  1697.  It  contains  the  ruins 
of  a  pretorian  camp  built  by  Domitian,  a  large  fortified 
inclosure,  quadrilateral  in  plan.  The  walls  are  built  of 
huge  but  rather  thin  blocks  of  stone.  One  of  the  gates 
remains.     Population,  about  6,000. 

Albano,  Lake  of,  or  Lago  di  Castello,  or  Al- 
ban Lake.  A  small  lake  near  Albano,  Italy, 
noted  for  its  picturesque  scenery,  occupying 
the  crater  of  an  extinct  volcano. 

Albano,  Mount.    See  Monte  Cavo. 

Albany  (fil'ba-ni).    Same  as  Breadalbane. 

Albany.  The  capital  of  the  State  of  New  York 
and  of  Albany  County,  situated  on  the  west 
bank  of  the  Hudson  in  lat.  42°  39'  50"  N.,  long. 
73°  44'  56"  W.  (Dudley  Observatory),  near  the 
head  of  navigation,  it  is  an  important  commercial 
city,  the  terminus  of  lines  of  steamers  to  New  York  and 
other  river-ports,  and  of  the  Erie  and  Champlain  canals, 
and  a  center  of  extensive  systems  of  railroads.  Besides 
the  State  Capitol,  it  contains  the  law  and  medical  depart- 
ments and  the  (Dudley)  Observatory  of  Union  University. 
It  was  settled  by  the  Dutch  in  1614,  fortified  (Fort  Orange) 
in  1624,  obtained  a  city  charter  in  1686,  was  the  seat  of  a 
convention  (under  the  lead  of  Franklin)  to  form  a  colonial 
union  in  1754,  and  became  the  permanent  capital  of  the 
State  in  1797.    Population  (1900),  94,151. 

Albany.  The  capital  of  Dougherty  County, 
Georgia,  situated  on  Flint  Eiver,  at  the  head 
of  navigation,  90  miles  southwest  of  Macon. 
Population  (1900),  4,606. 

Albany.  The  capital  of  Linn  County,  Oregon, 
situated  on  the  Willamette  63  miles  southwest 
of  Portland.     Population  (1900),  3,149. 

Albany.  A  small  seaport  in  western  Austraflia, 
situated  on  King  George  Sound  about  lat.  35° 
8.  It  is  a  station  of  the  Peninsular  and  Oriental 
Steamship  Company. 

Albany,  Countess  of  (Louise  Marie  Earo- 
line  von  Stolberg-Gedern).  Born  1753  -.  died 
at  Florence,  Jan.  29, 1824.  A  German  princess, 
daughter  of  Gustavus  Adolphus,  prince  of  Stol- 
berg-Gedern, and  wife  (married  March  28, 1772) 
of  the  "Young  Pretender"  (Duke  of  .Albany), 
and  later  the  mistress  of  Alfieri. 

Albany,  Duke  of.  See  Leopold  George  Dun- 
can Albert. 

Albany,  Duke  of.  A  character  in  Shakspere's 
"King  Lear,"  the  husband  of  Goneril,  Lear's 
eldest  daughter. 

Albany  Regency.  A  name  given  to  a  clique 
of  New  York  politicians  who  controlled  the 
machinery  of  the  Democratic  party  in  the  State 
of  New  York  from  about  1820  to  about  1854. 
Among  its  members  were  Van  Buren,  Marey, 
Wright,  and  Dix. 

Albany  River.  A  river  in  Canada,  about  500 
miles  in  length,  flowing  into  James  Bay. 

Albasin  (al'ba-sen>,  or  Yaksa  (yak'sa).  A 
former  fortified  town  in  the  Amur  Territory, 
Siberia,  on  the  northern  bend  of  the  Amur :  a 
center  of  Eussian  colonization  in  the  17th  cen- 
tury. 

Albategnius  (al-ba-teg'ni-us),  Mohammed 
ben  Jabir.  Bom  in  Mesopotamia  about  850: 
died  929.  A  noted  Arabian  astronomer.  He 
discovered  the  motion  of  the  sun,  and  introduced  into 
mathematical  calculation  the  use  of  the  sine,  in  place  of 
the  entire  chord  of  the  arc  which  had  previously  been  em- 
ployed. Among  his  works  are  commentaries  on  Ptolemy's 
"Almagest,"  a  treatise  on  astronomy  and  geography,  etc. 
One  of  his  astronomical  works  was  translated  into  Latin, 
under  the  title  "  De  Scientia  Stellarum  "  (Nuremberg,  15S7). 

Albay  (al-bi').  A  town  of  Luzon,  one  of  the 
Philippine  Islands.    Population  (1887),  11,986. 

Albe  (al'be).  The  ancient  Alba  Pucentia,  now 
a  small  village  near  Avezzano,  in  central  Italy. 
It  contains  an  ancient  amphitheater  of  the  usual  Eoman 
elliptical  plan,  114  by  305  feet,  estimated  to  have  seated 
20,000  people.    The  arena  measures  68  by  159  feet. 

Al-Beladori(al-bel"a-d6'ri),Abul  Hassan  Ah- 
med. Died  at  Bagdad  about  895.  An  Arabian 
historian,  author  of  a  history  of  the  conquest 
of  Syria,  the  island  of  Cyprus,  Mesopotamia, 
Armenia,  Egypt,  Africa,  Spain,  Nubia,  and  the 
islands  of  the  Mediterranean  by  the  Arabs. 
He  describes  the  condition  of  the  conquered 
countries  and  various  towns  founded  by  the 
Moslem  s,  among  them  Bagdad.  MsoAlbeladory. 

Albemarle  (al-be-marl').    See  Aumale. 

Albemarle.    See  Albeviarle  Island, 

Albemarle,  Duke  of.    See  MonTc. 

Albemarle,  Earl  of.    See  Keppel. 

Albemarle  Club.  A  London  club,  established 
in  1874,  composed  of  ladies  and  gentlemen. 
Headquarters,  13  Albemarle  street.  Member- 
ship, 750. 


29 

Albemarle  Island.  The  largest  of  the  Gala- 
pagos Islands,  in  the  Pacific.  Area,  1,650  square 
miles. 

Albemarle  Point.  The  early  name  of  Charles- 
ton, South  Carolina. 

Albemarle  Sound.  A  shallow  body  of  water, 
about  55  miles  long,  in  the  northeastern  part 
of  North  Carolina,  separated  from  the  Atlantic 
by  san d  beaches,  and  communicating  with  Pam- 
lico Sound  on  the  south  through  Croatan  and 
Koanoke  Sounds,  it  receives  the  Roanoke  Paver,  and 
is  connected  with  Chesape£^e  Bay  by  the  Chesapeake 
and  Albemarle  Canal  and  the  Dismal  Swamp  Canal. 

Albemarle,  The.  A  Confederate  iron-clad  ram, 
built  on  the  Eoauoke  Eiver  about  30  miles 
below  Weldon,  North  Carolina,  during  1863. 
She  did  much  damage  to  Union  steamers  during  the 
spring  of  1864,  but  was  destroyed  by  Lieutenant  W.  B. 
Cushing  during  the  night  of  Oct.  27  of  that  year.  He 
attacked  her  in  a  small  launch  carrying  a  torpedo.  For- 
cing his  way  within  the  chain  of  logs  which  formed  part 
of  her  defense,  he  exploded  the  torpedo  under  the  ram's 
overhang.  She  was  afterward  raised,  towed  to  Norfolk, 
and  in  1867  stripped  and  sold. 

Albendorf  (al'ben-ddrf).  A  village  and  fre- 
quented place  of  ^Igrimage  (to  the  sanctuary 
of  the  New  Jerusalem),  in  the  province  of 
Silesia,  Prussia,  on  the  Glatzer  Neisse,  north- 
west of  Glatz. 

Albenga  (al-beng'ga).  A  seaport  in  the  prov- 
ince of  Genoa,  Italy,  the  Eoman  Albingaunum, 
situated  on  the  Gulf  of  Genoa  44  miles  south- 
west of  Genoa,  it  contains  a  cathedral,  an  early 
Pointed  church  with  sculpture  of  E,unic~  type  about  the 
doorways.  The  baptistery  is  octangular,  of  the  10th  cen- 
tury, with  Corinthian  columns,  some  early  mosaics,  and 
a  curious  tomb.  The  bridge  over  the  Centa,  the  Ponte 
Lungo,  between  the  railway-station  and  the  town,  is  Ro- 
man, All  the  piers  of  its  ten  arches,  and  much  of  the  upper 
work,  are  antique.  There  are  also  medieval  waUs.  The 
town  contains  a  gymnasium  and  an  episcopal  seminary, 

Alb^res  (al-bar').  The  eastern  ramification  of 
the  Pyrenees,  between  Spain  and  the  depart- 
ment of  Pyr6ndes-0rientales,  Prance. 

Alberic  (al'ber-ik)  I.  Slain  by  the  Eomans 
about  925  at  Orta,  Italy.  A  Lombard  noble- 
man, patrician  (also  called  senator,  consul, 
and  prince)  of  the  Eomans  and  duke  of  Spoleto, 
expelled  from  Eome  by  Pope  John  X.  He 
married  Marozia,  daughter  of  Theodora. 

Alberic  II,  Died  954.  A  patrician  and  senator 
of  the  Eomans,  son  of  Alberic  I.  and  Marozia. 

Alberoni  (al-ba-ro'ne),  Giulio.  Bom  near 
Piacenza,  Italy,  May  31,  1664:  died  June  16, 
1752.  A  statesman  and  cardinal,  resident  of 
the  Duke  of  Parma  at  the  Spanish  court,  nego- 
tiator of  the  marriage  of  Philip  V.  and  Eliza- 
beth Farnese,  and  prime  minister  of  Spain, 
1714  (or  1715)  to  1719.  His  foreign  policy  led 
to  the  Quadruple  Alliance  and  a  war  disastrous 
to  Spain. 

Albers  (al'berz),  Johann  Friedrich  Hermann. 
Born  at  Dorsten,  Westphalia,  Nov.  14,  1805: 
died  at  Bonn,  May  12,  1867.  A  German  physi- 
cian and  professor  at  Bonn,  author  of  "Atlas 
der  pathologischen  Anatomic"  (1832-62),  etc. 

Albert  (al'bert),  G.  Albrecht  (al'brecht),  sur- 
named  "The  Bear,"  from  his  heraldic  emblem. 
Bom  at  Ballenstadt,  Germany,  about  1100 
(1106  ?) :  died  at  Ballenstadt,  Nov.  18, 1170.  Mar- 
grave of  Brandenburg,  son  of  Otto  the  Eich, 
count  of  Ballenstadt.  He  received  a  grant  of  Lusatia 
1125  (retaining  it,  however,  but  a  few  years),  and  of  the 
Nordmark  1134 ;  obtained  the  duchy  of  Saxony  1138,  which 
he  soon  lost ;  attacked  the  Wends  1136-37  and  later,  and 
conquered  a  large  part  of  their  territory ;  and  assumed  the 
title  of  margrave  of  Brandenburg  1150. 

Albert,  G.  Albrecht,  sumamed  "  The  Proud." 
Born  1158 :  died  June  25,  1195.  Margrave  of 
Meissen  from  1190  to  1195.  in  attempting  to  oi)press 
his  younger  brother  Dietrich,  who  had  inherited  Weissen- 
fels,  he  incurred  the  enmity  of  the  emperor  Henry  VI,, 
and  died  by  poison,  administered,  it  is  said,  by  an  agent 
of  the  emperor. 

Albert,  G.  Albrecht,  sumamed  "The  Tall." 
Born  1236:  died  Aug.  15,  1279.  Duke  of  Brans- 
wick-Liineburg,  son  of  the  first  duke.  Otto  the 
Child.  He  was  captured  by  the  sons  of  the  margraveHenry, 
Oct.  27, 1263,  in  the  war  of  the  Thuringian  succession,  and 
was  released  in  1264,  on  the  payment  of  8,000  marks  in 
silver  and  the  cession  of  the  Guelph  cities  and  castles  on 
the  Werra. 

Albert,  G.  Albrecht,  sumamed  "The  Bad," 
Died  1314.  Landgrave  of  Thuringia  after  1265, 
and  margrave  of  Meissen  from  1288  to  1293.  By 
his  second  wife,  Cnnegonde  of  Eisenberg,  he  was  per- 
suaded to  exclude  his  sons  by  liis  first  marriage  from  the 
succession  in  Thuringia  in  favor  of  Apitz,  his  son  by  Cune- 
gonde.  A  war  followed,  in  which  he  was  taken  captive  by 
his  son  Frederick,  and  forced  to  sign  a  disadvantageous 
treaty  at  Rochlitz,  Jan,  1, 1289, 

Albert  I.,  G.  Albrecht.  Bom  about  1250: 
slain  by  a  conspiracy  at  Windisch  on  the  Eeuss, 
Switzerland,  May  1,  1308.    The  eldest  son  of 


Albert 

Eudolf  I.  of  Hapsburg,  duke  of  Austria  1282, 
and  German  king  1298-1308.  He  overthrew  and 
killed  his  rival,  Adolf  of  Nassau,  at  the  battle  of  GoU- 
heim,  July  2, 1298. 

Albert  II.,  G,  Albrecht.  Boin  1298:  died  1358. 
Duke  of  Austria  and  son  of  Albert  I,  of  Ger- 
many, He  ruled  the  Austrian  lands  in  common  with 
his  brother  Otto  from  1330,  and  after  1339  alone. 

Albert  III.,  G,  Albrecht.  Died  1395.  Son  of 
Albert  II,  of  Austria.  He  ruled  alone  as  duke 
of  Austria  from  1379. 

Albert  I.,  G.  Albrecht.  Bom  about  1317: 
died  Feb.  18,  1379.  The  founder  of  the  reign- 
ing house  of  Mecklenburg,  created  duke  of 
Mecklenburg  by  the  emperor  Charles  IV.  in 
1348.  He  came  into  possession  ot  the  duchy  of  Schwe- 
rin  in  13S8  by  the  extinction  of  the  ducal  house,  and  se- 
cured the  election  of  his  second  son  Albert,  by  his  first 
wife  Euphemia  of  Sweden,  as  king  of  Sweden  in  1363. 

Albert  II.,  G.  Albrecht.  Died  1412.  Son 
of  Albert  I,  of  Mecklenburg,  elected  king  of 
Sweden  in  1363.  He  was  defeated  by  Queen  Margaret 
ot  Denmark  and  Norway  (widow  of  Haakon)  at  the  battle 
of  Falkoping,  Sept,  21,  1389,  and  taken  prisoner.  In  1396 
he  was  released  and  renounced  the  throne  ot  Sweden, 

Albert,  G.  Albrecht,  sumamed  Achilles,  and 
also  Ulysses,  from  his  valor  and  sagacity.  Bom 
at  Tangermiinde,  Prussia,  Nov.  9,  1414 :  died  at 
Frankfort-on-the-Main,  March  11,  1486.  An 
elector  of  Brandenburg,  third  son  of  Frederick 
I.  on  whose  death  (1440)  he  succeeded  to  the 
principality  of  Ansbach.  He  inherited  the  princi- 
pality of  Baireuth  in  1464  from  his  brother  John,  and  re- 
ceived the  electorate  of  Brandenburg  in  1470  from  his  bro- 
ther Frederick  II.,  whose  hearing  had  been  destroyed  by 
the  discharge  ot  a  cannon.  He  carried  on  successful  ware 
with  Mecklenburg  and  Pomerania,  and  resisted  the  at- 
tempt of  the  Teutonic  Knights  to  repossess  themselves  of 
Neumark.  He  was  the  author  ot  the  "Dispositio  Achil- 
lea," a  family  ordinance  providing  for  the  separation  of 
Brandenburg  and  Ansbach-Baireuth,  and  establisliing 
primogeniture  in  each,  according  to  Hallam  the  first  in- 
stance of  the  legal  establishment  ot  the  custom  of  primo- 
geniture. 

Albert,  G.  Albrecht.  Bom  at  Ansbach,  May 
16,  1490 :  died  March  20,  1568.  Margrave  of 
Brandenburg-Ansbaoh,  last  grand  master  of 
the  Teutonic  Knights,  and  first  duke  of  Prussiar: 
younger  son  of  Frederick  of  Ansbach,  who  was 
the  second  son  of  Albert  Achilles,  elector  of 
Brandenburg.  He  was  elected  grand  master  Feb.  13, 
1511;  made  his  entry  into  Kttnigsberg  Nov,  22,  1512; 
carried  on  war  with  his  suzerain,  the  king  of  Poland,  1519- 
1525,  in  at  utile  attempt  to  reg£iin  the  independence  of  Prus- 
sia, the  Ordensland  of  the  Teutonic  Knights  ;  secured  by 
the  treatypt  Cracow,  April  8, 1825,  the  conversion  of  Prussia 
into  a  secular  duchy,  hereditary  in  his  family ;  and  for- 
mally introduced  the  Reformation  July  6, 1526,  He  was 
aided  in  his  political  and  ecclesiastical  reforms  by  the  ad- 
vice of  Luther, '  He  was  the  founder  of  the  University  of 
Konigsberg  (1644),  the  third  Protestant  university, 

Albert,  G.  Albrecht,  sumamed  "The  Bold," 
Bom  July  17,  1443:  died  at  Emden,  Prussia, 
Sept.  12,  1500.  Duke  of  Saxony,  younger  son 
of  Frederick  the  Gentle,  and.  founder  of  the 
Albertine  Saxon  line.  In  the  division  of  the 
Saxon  dominions  in  1485  he  received  Meissen. 

Albert  IV.,  G.  Albrecht,  sumamed  "The 
Wise."  Born  Dee.  15, 1447:  died  March  18, 1508. 
Duke  of  Bavaria,  third  son  of  Albert  in.  After 
the  death  of  his  oldest  brother  John  he  became  (1465)  co- 
regent  with  the  second  brother  Sigismund,  and  later  (1467) 
sole  ruler. 

Albert,  G.  Albrecht.  Bom  June  28, 1490 :  died 
at  Aschaffenburg,  Sept.  24, 1545.  The  youngest 
son  of  the  elector  Johannes  Cicero  of  Bran- 
denburg, archbishop  of  Magdeburg  1513,  arch- 
bishop and  elector  of  Mainz  1514,  and  cardinal 
1518.  To  him  was  intrusted  the  sale  ot  indulgences  in 
one  district  ot  Germany,  and  Tetzel  acted  as  his  commis- 
sioner.   See  Tetiel,  Luther. 

Albert,  G.  Albrecht,  sumamed  Alcibiades. 

Bom  at  Ansbach,  March  28, 1522:  died  at  Pforz- 
heim, Jan,  8,  1577.  A  margrave  of  Branden- 
burg, partizan  and  later  opponent  of  the  em- 
peror Charles  V.  He  was  defeated  by  Mairrice 
of  Saxony  at  Sieversha,usen,  in  Luneburg,  July 
9  1553 

Albert,'  G.  Albrecht  or  Albert.  Born  Nov.  13, 
1559 :  died  July,  1621.  An  archduke  of  Austria, 
sixth  son  of  the  emperor  Maximilian  II.  He 
was  educated  for  the  church,  and  became  a  cardinal  1577, 
and  archbishop  of  Toledo  1584.  From  1584  to  1596  he 
was  viceroy  of  Portugal,  and  was  appointed  governor  of  the 
Spanish  Netherlands  in  1596.  In  1600  he  was  defeated  by 
Maurice  of  Nassau  at  Nieupoort,  and  concluded  an  ar- 
mistice ot  12  years  with  the  Netherlands  in  1609. 

Albert,  Count  of  Geierstein.  A  character  in 
Sir  Walter  Scott's  novel  "Anne  of  Geierstein,"a 
restless  intriguer  and  head  of  the  Vehmgericht. 
Pursued  by  Charles  of  Burgundy,  he  takes  refuge  in  a 
monastery  and  is  known  as  the  "Black  Priest  ot  St, 
Paul's."  By  order  of  the  Vehmgericht  he  kills  Charles 
of  Burgundy  in  battle. 

Albert.  In  Goethe's  "Sorrows  of  Werther,"  a 
yoimg  farmer   who    marries    Charlotte,  with 


Albert 

whom  Werther  is  in  love.   He  represents  Kest- 

ner,  one  of  Goethe's  friends.    See  Werther. 

Albert  (al-bar')  (original  name,  Alexandre 
Martin).  Bom  April  27,  1815:  died  May,  1895. 
A  French  mechanic,  noted  as  a  revolutionist 
and  follower  of  Louis  Blanc.  He  was  a  member  of 
the  provisional  government  Feb.,  1848,  and  of  the  Con- 
stituent Assembly  (convened  May  4) ;  was  sentenced  to 
deportation  for  complicity  in  the  riot  of  May  15, 1848 ; 
and  recovered  his  liberty  by  the  amnesty  of  1859.  In  1870 
he  took  a  prominent  part  in  the  defense  of  Paris. 

Albert  (al'bert).  In  Sheridan  Knowles's  play 
"  The  Blind  Beggar  of  Bethnal  Green,"  the  real 
Lord  Wilfrid,  appearing  as  the  Blind  Beggar. 

Albert  (al-har'),  formerly  Ancre  (ankr).  A 
town  in  the  department  of  Somme,  France,  on 
the  Anore  28  miles  northeast  of  Amiens.  Pop- 
ulation (1891),  commune,  6,169. 

Albert  (al'b6rt),  G.  Albrecht  (al'brecht), 
Frie(McIi  Heinrich.  Bom  Oct.  4, 1809:  died 
Oct.  14, 1872.  Prince  of  Prussia,  fourth  son  of 
Frederick  "William  IH.  He  commanded  in  the  fourth 
cavalry  division  in  the  Franco- Prussian  war,  and  partici- 
pated in  the  battles  of  Sedan,  Artenay,  and  Orleans. 

Albert,  G.  Albrecht,  Friedrich  Rudolf.  Bom 
at  Vienna,  Aug.  3, 1817 :  diedat  Arco,  Tyrol,  Feb. 
18,  1895.  Archduke  of  Austria,  eldest  son  of 
Archduke  Charles,  noted  as  a  soldier  and  mili- 
tary writer.  He  served  in  Italy  1848-49,  and  as  com- 
mander of  the  army  of  the  sonth  gained  the  victory  of  Cus- 
tozza  June  24,  1866.  (See  Cusiozza.)  The  same  year  lie 
was  made  commander-in-chief  of  the  Austrian  army. 

Albert  Francis  Augustus  Charles  Emman- 
uel. Born  at  the  Rosenau,  near  Coburg,  Ger- 
many, Aug.  26,  1819:  died  at  Windsor  Castle, 
England,  Deo.  14, 1861.  Prince  Consort  of  Eng- 
land, second  son  of  the  Duke  of  Saxe-Coburg- 
Gotha.  He  married  Queen  Victoria  Feb.  10,  1840,  and 
was  made  prince  consort  June  25,  1857. 

Albert,  G.  Albrecht,  Kasimir.  Bom  at  Mor- 
itzburg,  near  Dresden,  July  11,  1738:  died  at 
Vienna,  Feb.  11, 1822.  Duke  of  Saxe-Tesohen, 
an  Austrian  general,  son  of  Augustus  ITT.  of 
Poland.     He  was  defeated  by  Dumouriez  1792. 

Albert,  G.  Albrecht,  Friedrich  August. 
Bom  at  Dresden,  April  23,  1828:  died  at  tbe 
Castle  of  Sibyllenort,  Silesia,  June  19,  1902. 
King  of  Saxony,  son  of  King  John  of  Saxony, 
whom  he  succeeded  Oct.  29, 1873.  As  crown  prince 
he  commanded  in  the  Franco-German  war  an  army  corps, 
and  later  the  Army  of  the  Meuse. 

Albert  Edward  (al'bfert  ed'ward).  Bom  at 
London,  Nov.  9, 1841.  Prince  of  Wales,  eldest 
son  of  Queen  Victoria.  He  married  Princess  Alex- 
andra of  Denmaric  March  10, 1863.  In  1860  he  made  a  tour 
of  the  United  States  and  Canada,  in  1862  of  Egypt  and 
Palestine,  and  in  1875-76  of  British  India.  He  ascended 
the  throne  as  Edward  VII.  Jan.  22, 1901. 

Albert  Victor  Christian  Edward.  Bom  Jan. 
8, 1864 :  died  Jan.  14, 1892.  Eldest  son  of  Albert 
Edward,  prince  of  Wales. 

Albert  the  Great.    See  Albertus  Magnus. 

Albert  Savarus  (al-bar'  sa-va-riis').  A  tale 
by  Balzac,  published  1844,  one  of  the  "  Scenes 
from  Private  Life."  Savarus  is  said  to  be  a 
portrait  of  the  author.  The  book  contains  many 
details  of  his  life  and  work. 

Albert  (al'bert),  Joseph.  Bom  at  Munich, 
March  5, 1825:  died  there.  May  5, 1886.  A  Ger- 
man photographer,  inventor  of  the  Albertype. 

Albert  (al-bar'),  Paul.  Born  at  Thionville, 
Deo.  14, 1827:  died  at  Paris,  June  21,  1880.  A 
French  literary  historian,  professor  at  Poitiers, 
and  later  (1878)  at  the  College  de  France :  au- 
thor of  "La  litt6rature  franQaise"  (1872-75), 
"Histoire  de  la  litt^rature  romaine"  (1871), 
eto. 

Albert  Edward  Nyanza  (nyan'za).  A  lake  in 
central  Africa,  south  of  Lake  Albert  Nyanza, 
and  connected  with  the  latter  by  the  SemKki, 
discovered  by  Stanley  in  1877  and  revisited 
by  him  1888-89.  Its  native  name  is  Muta 
Nzige. 

Albert  Chapel.    See  Windsor. 

Albert  Embankment.  See  Thames  Embank- 
ments. 

Albert  Hall.  A  covered  amphitheater  in  Lon- 
don, finished  in  1871.  its  axes  are  270  and  240  feet, 
those  of  the  arena  100  and  70,  and  it  can  seat  8,000  persons. 
The  exterior  is  of  brick,  with  ornament  of  colored  tiles 
and  terra-cotta  including  a  fdeze  representing  the  various 
peoples  of  the  earth. 

Albert  Lea  (al'bert  le).  The  capital  of  Free- 
bom  County,  Minnesota,  92  miles  south  of  St. 
Paul.    Population  (1900),  4,500. 

Albert  Memorial.  A  monument,  in  London, 
erected  to  the  memory  of  the  Prince  Consort, 
Albert  of  Saxe-Gotha,  on  the  south  side  of 
Kensington  Gardens,  built  from  the  designs  of 
Sir  Gilbert  Scott,  it  consists  of  a  colossal  bronze 
statue  of  the  prince,  seated,  beneath  an  ornate  spired 
canopy  in  the  Pointed  style,  which  rises  to  a  height  of  175 


30 

feet.  Statue  and  canopy  rest  on  a  basement  bearing  re- 
liefs of  artists  of  all  countries  and  times.  At  the  angles 
four  pedestals  project  with  groups  of  statuary  represent- 
ing Agriculture,  Commerce,  Engineering,  and  Manufac- 
ture. Steps  descend  on  all  sides  in  pyramidal  form,  and 
at  the  lower  angles  are  placed  sculptiu'es  personifying  the 
four  chief  regions  of  the  earfli  —  Europe,  America,  Asia, 
and  Africa. 

Albert  Nyanza  (al'bSrt  nyan'za).  A  lake  in 
central  AJErica,  intersected  by  Isit.  2°  N.,  long. 
31°  E.,  one  of  the  main  sources  of  the  Nile,  dis- 
covered by  Sir  Samuel  Baker,  March  14,  1864. 
Its  length  is  97  miles,  and  its  area  about  2,000 
square  miles. 

Alberta  (al-ber'ta).  A  provisionall  district 
formed  in  1882  in"  the  Northwest  Territories, 
Canada,  bounded  by  Athabasca  on  the  north, 
Saskatchewan  and  Assiniboia  on  the  east,  the 
United  States  on  the  south,  and  British  Co- 
lumbia on  the  west,  it  sends  one  representative  to 
the  Dominion  Parliament.  It  is  traversed  by  the  Cana- 
dian Pacific  Bailroad.  Chief  town,  Calgary.  Area,  about 
100,000  square  miles.    Population  (1901),  65,876. 

Alberti  (ai-bar'te),  Leone  Battista.  Bom  at 
Florence,  Feb.  18,  1404:  died  at  Rome,  1472. 
A  noted  Italian  poet,  musician,  painter,  sculp- 
tor, and  architect,  author  of  "De  re  .Sldifi- 
oatoria  "  (1485),  eto. 

Albertine  Line  (al'ber-tin  lin).  The  younger 
and  royal  branch  of  the  Saxon  house  which  de- 
scended from  Albert  (G.  Albrecht),  duke  of 
Saxony  (1443-1500) .  He  ruled  jointly  with  his  bro- 
ther Ernst  (see  Ernestine)  from  1464  to  1485,  when  they 
came  into  possession  of  Thuringia  by  inheritance,  and 
agreed  upon  a  division,  Albrecht  taking  an  eastern  and 
a  western  portion,  with  the  Ernestine  lands  intervening 
between  them. 

Albertinelli(al-bar-ti-nel'le),  Mariotto.  Born 
at  Florence,  Oct.  13,  1474:  died  at  Florence, 
Nov.  5,  1515.  A  Florentine  painter,  an  asso- 
ciate and  imitator  of  Fra  Bartolommeo. 

Albertrandy (al-ber-tran'di),  John  (Jan)  Bap- 
tist. Born  at  Warsaw,  Deo.  7,  1731:  died  at 
Warsaw,  Aug.  10,  1808.  A  Polish  Jesuit  and 
historian,  of  Italian  parentage,  librarian  to 
Bishop  Zaluski  in  Warsaw,  and  later  to  Stanis- 
laus Augustus,  and  a  notable  collector  of  manu- 
scripts relating  to  Polish  history.  He  was 
appointed  by  Stanislaus  bishop  of  Zenopolis. 

Albertus  Magnus  (al-ber'tus  mag'nus).  [L., 
'  Albert  the  Great.' ]  Born  atLauingen,Swabia, 
1193  (according  to  some  authorities  1205) :  died 
at  Cologne,  Nov.  15, 1280.  A  famous  scholastic 
philosopher  and  member  of  the  Dominican 
order.  He  studied  in  Padua  and  Bologna,  taught  philoso- 
phy and  theology  at  Cologne  (1229),  taught  at  Paris  (1245), 
and  finally  returned  to  Cologne.  He  was  made  bisliop  of 
Eatisbon  in  1260,  but  soon  resigned  and  retired  to  a  con- 
vent where  he  died.  Among  his  numerous  pupils  was 
Thomas  Aquinas.  He  was  famous  for  his  extensive  learn- 
ing which  gained  for  him  his  surnames  "The  Great"  and 
"Doctor  Universalis,"  and  was  even  reputed  to  be  a  magi- 
cian ;  but  his  modern  critics  differ  greatly  in  their  esti- 
mates of  his  attainments  and  ability.  "  He  was  the  first 
scholastic  who  reproduced  the  philosophy  of  Aristotle 
systematically,  with  thoroughgoing  consideration  of  the 
Arabian  commentators,  and  transformed  it  in  accordance 
with  the  dogmas  of  the  church  " — to  the  practical  exclu- 
sion of  Platonic  influences.  His  works  fill  twenty-one 
volumes,  and  relate  chiefly  to  physical  science :  they  in- 
clude a  sort  of  encyclopedia  of  the  learning  of  his  times. 

Albertville  (ai-bar-vel').  A  town  in  the  de- 
partment of  Savoie,  France,  near  the  Arly, 
23  miles  northeast  of  Chamb6ry.  Population 
(1891),  5,854. 

Albi,  or  Alby  (al-be').  The  capital  of  the  de- 
partment of  Tarn,  Prance,  situated  on  the 
Tarn:  the  ancient  Albiga.  It  has  a  cathedral  (of 
St.  Cecilia)  and  an  archiepiscopal  palace,  and  is  the  seat 
of  a  bishopric.  It  was  a  stronghold  of  the  Albigenses,  to 
whom  it  gave  their  name.  The  cathedral  is  a  unique 
monument,  massively  built  of  brick,  with  the  base  of  its 
walls  sloped  outward,  the  openings  all  high  above  the 
ground,  and  otherwise  fitted  to  serve  not  only  as  a  church 
but  as  a  citadel.  It  is  chiefly  of  the  14th  century.  It  has 
a  massive  and  lofty  western  tower,  and  a  beautiful  florid 
triple  porch  on  the  south  side,  lavishly  carved  in  stone. 
The  interior,  without  aisles  or  l^ansepts,  is  262  feet  long, 
62  wide,  and  98  high,  surrounded  between  the  buttresses 
by  2  tiers  of  chapels.  The  celebrated  15th-centui7  rood- 
loft  and  choir-screen  are  rich  with  delicate  tracery  and 
excellent  figure  and  foliage  sculpture.  The  roof  and  walls 
are  covered  with  Italian  frescos  dating  from  about  1505. 
Population  (1891),  commune,  20,903. 

Albigenses  (al-bi-jen'sez).  A  collective  name 
for  the  members  of  several  anti-sacerdotal  sects 
in  the  south  of  France  in  the  12th  and  13th 
centuries :  so  called  from  Albi,  in  Languedoc, 
where  they  were  dominant.  They  revolted  from 
the  Church  of  Home,  were  charged  with  Manichsean  errors, 
and  were  so  vigorously  persecuted  that,  as  sects,  they  had 
in  great  part  disappeared  by  the  end  of  the  13th  century. 
A  crusade  against  them  was  preached  by  Pope  Innocent 
III.  in  1208,  and  was  led  by  Arnold  of  Citeaux  and  Simon 
de  Montfort.  The  war  of  extermination,  which  lasted  for 
several  years,  was  one  of  the  bloodiest  in  history.  Their 
doctrines  are  known  chiefly  from  the  writings  of  their 
orthodox  enemies.  Also  called  Cathari,  and  by  many 
other  names. 


Albitte,  Antoine  Louis 

Albigeois  (ai-be-zhwa').  A  former  district  of 
Languedoc,  France,  comprised  in  the  modem 
department  of  Tarn. 

Albin,  or  Albyn  (al'bin).  Another  form  of 
Albion. 

Albina  (al-bi'na).  A  former  city  in  Multno- 
mah County,  Oregon,  on  the  Willamette,  now 
a  part  of  Portland. 

Albingians  (al-bin'ji-anz).  [Properly  North 
Albingians ;  LL.  NordalUngi  (cf .  L.  AUm,  the 
Elbe),  G.  Nordalbingisch.']  A  Saxon  tribe  liv- 
ing north  of  the  Elbe  (whence  the  name)  in 
the  present  Holstein.  They  were  first  made  known 
to  Europe  by  the  campaigns  of  Charlemagne  in  the  8th 
century.  Their  language  was  the  Low  German  dialect  of 
Holstein.  With  the  other  closely  related  dialects,  West- 
phalian.  Middle  Saxon,  and  East  Saxon,  it  forms  the  group 
specifically  called  Saxon. 

Albini  (al-be'ne),  Franz  Joseph,  Baron  von. 
Bom  at  St.  Gear,  May  14,  1748:  died  at  Die- 
burg,  Jan.  8, 1816.  A  German  statesman,  head 
of  the  government  of  the  electorate  of  Mainz 
during  the  French  revolutionary  period. 

Albinovanus  Pedo.    See  Pedo. 

AlbinUS  (al-bi'nus;  G.  pron.  al-be 'nos),  or 
Weiss  (vis),  Bernhard  Siegfried.  Born  at 
Frankfort-on-the-Oder,  Feb.  24,  1697:  died  at 
Leyden,  Sept.  9,  1770.  A  German  anatomist, 
professor  of  medicine  and  anatomy  in  the  Uni- 
versity of  Leyden :  author  of  "  Tabulse  Sceleti 
et  Musculorum  Corporis  Humani"  (1747),  eto. 

Albinus  (al-bi'nus),Clodius  (Decimus  Clodius 
Ceionius  Septimius  A. ) .  Died  after  the  battle 
of  Lyons,  197  A.  d.  A  Eoman  commander,  pro- 
claimed emperor  by  the  armies  in  Gaul  and  Brit- 
ain in  193  A.  D.,  and  probably  recognized  as 
Caesar  by  Severus  in  194 :  said  to  have  been  called 
"Albinus"  from  the  fairness  of  his  body.  He 
was  defeated  by  Severus  in  197. 

Albinus,  Spurius  Postumius.  Roman  consul 
334  and  321  B.  c,  and  commander  at  the  defeat 
of  the  Caudine  Forks. 

Albion  (al'bi-on),  or  Alebion  (a-le'bi-on).  [Gr. 
'AXpiuv  or  'A/^piav.']  In  classical  mythology,  a 
son  of  Poseidon  and  brother  of  Dercynus  or 
Bei^ion.  He  and  his  brother  lost  their  lives  in  an  attack 
on  Heracles  as  the  latter  passed  through  their  country 
(Liguria)  with  the  oxen  of  Geryon. 

Albion  (al'bi-on).  [L.  Albion,  Gr.  'AlfHuni, 
'ATicmiuv,  from  Old  Celtic  *  Albion,  Ir.  Alba,  Alpa, 
Elbu  (gen.  Alban,  dat.  aoc.  Albain),  W.  AWan 
(see  Albin),  lit.  'white  land,'  with  reference 
to  the  chalk  oUffs  of  the  southern  coast.  Cf. 
Alps."]  The  ancient  name  of  Britain :  restricted 
in  later  poetic  use  to  England.    Alban  and  Albin 

'  were  ancient  names  for  the  Highlands  of  Scotland. 

Albion.  The  capital  of  Orleans  Comity,  New 
York,  43  miles  northeast  of  Buffalo.  Popula- 
tion (1900),  viUage,  4,477. 

Albion.  A  city  in  Calhoun  County,  southern 
Michigan,  38  miles  south-southwest  of  Lansing. 
Pojpulatiou  (1900),  4,519. 

Albion  and  Albanius  (al-ba'ni-us).  An  op- 
eratic entertainment  by  Dryden,  produced  in 
1685,  allegorieally  representing  the  chief  events 
of  King  Charles  H.'s  reign.  Albion  was  Charles 
himself  and  Albanius  was  James,  duke  of  York. 
It  was  not  printed  till  1691. 

Albion's  England.  A  rimed  chronicle  of  Eng- 
lish history,  by  William  Warner,  published  in 
1586.  It  was  seized  as  contraband  by  the  order  of  the 
archbishop  of  Canterbury,  for  no  reason  that  is  now  as- 
signable. 

Albion  Knight.  A  comedy  morality  published 
in  1565.  It  turns  on  the  want  of  concord  be- 
tween the  lords  temporal  and  the  lords  spiritual. 

Albireo  (al-bir'e-6).  [Origin  doubtful,  but  con- 
jectured to  be  a  corruption  of  ab  ireo  in  the 
Latin  version  of  the  "Almagest."]  The  usual 
name  for  the  yellow  third-magnitude  star  ^ 
Cygni,  in  the  beak  of  the  swan.  It  is  coarsely 
double  with  a  fine  contrast  of  color  between 
the  two  components. 

Albis  (al'bis).     The  Latin  name  of  the  Elbe. 

Albis  (al'bes).  A  low  mountain-range  in  the 
canton  of  Ziirich,  Switzerland,  west. of  Lake 
Ziirich.    Its  best-known  summit  is  the  tjtliberg. 

Albistan  (al-bi-stan'),  orElbistan  (el-bi-stan'). 
A  town  in  the  vilayet  of  Aleppo,  Asiatic  Tur- 
key, on  the  Jihun  40  miles  northeast  of  Marash. 
The  sultan  Bibars  defeated  here  the  Turks 
and  Mongols  in  1277.     Population,  8,000  (?). 

Albitte  (al-bef),  Antoine  Louis.  Died  1812. 
A  French  radical  revolutionist,  member  of 
the  Legislative  Assembly,  1791.  He  was  con- 
demned to  death  for  participation  in  the  revolt  of  May  20, 
1796,  against  the  Convention,  but  succeeded  in  avoiding 
capture.  Under  the  Directory  he  was  appointed  mayor  of 
Dieppe,  after  the  18th  Brumaire  was  engaged  in  military 
affairs,  and  finally  perished  in  the  retreat  from  Moscow. 


Albizzi 


31 


Albizzi  (al-bet'se).    A  noted  Italian  family,  Albret,  Jeanne  d'.  Bom  at  Pau,  France,  Jan. 


originally  of  Arezzo^  which  played  a  conspie^ 
uous  part  in  Florentine  affairs  during  the  14th 
and  i5th  centuries.     They  belonged  to  the 
democratlo  Guelph  party. 
Albizzi,   Bartolommeo,   L.    Bartholomaeus 


7,  1528 :  died  at  Paris,  June  9,  1572.  A  queen 
of  Navarre,  daughter  of  Henry,  king  of  Na- 
varre, and  Margaret  of  Valois,  wife  of  Antony 
of  Bourbon,  and  mother  of  Henry  IV.  of  France, 
noted  as  a  supporter  of  the  Huguenots. 


AlbiciusPisanusCof  Pisa').    BomatEivano  Albright  (ai'brit),  Jacob.    Bom  near  Potts- 


in  Tuscany:  died  at  Pisa,  Dec.  10,  1401.  A 
noted  Franciscan  monk  and  religious  writer :  au- 
thor of  "  Liber  conf  ormitatum  sancti  Francisci 
cum  Christo  "  (first  ed.  folio,  Venice,  undated). 

Albo,  Joseph  (ill'bo).  Bom  at  Soria  in  Spain: 
died  there,  1444.  A  Jewish  physician,  theolo- 
gian, and  philosopher.  He  wrote  a  work  entitled 
' '  Ikkarim  "  ("  tandaments  ")  which  comprlBes  a  complete 
system  of  the  Jewish  religion. 

Alboinjal'boin).  Died  at  Verona  in  573.   King 


town,  Pa.,  Hay  1, 1759 :  died  1808.  An  Ameri- 
can Methodist  clergyman,  founder  of  the  de- 
nomination named  the  "Evangelical  Associa- 
tion." 

Albrizzi  (al-bret'se),  Isabella  Teotochi,  Coun- 
tess d'.  Bom  in  Corfu,  1763:  died  at  Venice, 
Sept.  27,  1836.  A  Venetian  patroness  of  liter- 
ature and  art,  called  by  Byron  "the  Madame 
de  Stael  of  Venice":  author  of  "Descrizione 
delle  opere  di  Canova"  (1809-25),  etc, 


of  the  Lombards  from  about  553  (560?)  to  573,  Albucasis(al-bii-ka'sis),orAbul-Casim(a-b61- 


son  of  Alduin,  whom  he  succeeded.  He  destroyed 
the  kingdom  of  the  Qepldee  (566),  and  married  Rosa- 
munda,  daughter  of  the  slain  king  Cunimuud.  In  668  he 
conquered  Italy  as  far  south  as  the  Tiber,  and  established 
the  kingdom  of  the  Lombards  with  Pavla  as  its  capital. 
He  was  murdered  at  the  instigation  of  Kosamunda,  whom, 
at  a  carousal,  he  had  ordered  to  drink  from  her  father's 
skull.    She  is  said  to  have  employed  for  this  purpose  a 


ka-sem'), or  Abul-KasimelZahrSiWi.  Bomat 
ZahrU  alTasrif,  near  Cordova,  Spain:  died  at 
Cordova  about  1106.  An  Arabian  physician, 
author  of  "Al-Tasrif,"  a  famous  r6sum6  of 
Arabian  medical  science.  According  to  some  he 
lived  a  century  earlier.  His  work  was  partially  translated 
into  Latin  and  twice  into  Hebrew. 


common  soldier (Helmichis-Alboin's  shield-bearer) whom    Aii,m«>.n    /K^  uk  !:',,k\       a   — jii-    „   •      ii, 

-■--  '■--'  -"  -  >  i    •        '  .  ^^^  to  whom  Albuera  (al-bo-a  ra).    A^viUage  m  the  prov- 


she  first  allowed  to  become  her  paramour, 
she  then  offered  the  choice  of  perishing  through  the  jeal- 
ousy of  Alboin  or  of  becoming  his  murderer.    This  story 
Is  probably  unhistoricaL 


inoe  of  Badajoz,  Spain,  12  miles  southeast  of 
Badajoz.  Here,  May  16,  1811,  the  Anglo-Spanish-Portu- 
guese army  (30,000)  under  Beresford  defeated  the  French 

-<20,000)  under  Soult.    The  losses  were  nearly  even. 

Albufeira  (al-bo-fa'e-ra).  A  small  fishing  port 
in  the  province  of  Algarve,  Portugal,  21  miles 
west  of  Faro, 


Albona  (al-bo'na).  A  town  in  Istria,  Austria- 
Hungary,  42  miles  southeast  of  Trieste.  Popu- 
lation (1890),  commune,  10,379. 

Alboni  (al-bo'ne).  Marietta.  Bom  at  Cesena, 
Italy,  March  10,  1823 :  died  at  Paris,  June  Albufera  de  Valencia  (al-bo-fa'ra  da  va-lan'- 
23,  1894.  A  celebrated  contralto  singer,  she  the-a).  A  lagoon,  about  10  miles  long,  7  miles 
studied  under  Madame  Bertoletti  and  later  under  Eos-  south  of  Valencia,  in  Spain.  Its  revenues  belonged 
slni  (Grove),  and  made  her  dftut  at  the  Communal  Thea-  to  Godoy,  later  to  Suchet  (Duke  of  Albufera),  and  after 
ter  in  Bologna  with  great  success,  appearing  immediately     him  to  the  Duke  of  Wellington. 

afterwMdatLaScalainMilan.    ShesanginalltheCon-  Albula  (al'bo-la).      A  pass   in  the   canton  of 
tmental  and  Encrlish  cities  and  m  America  until  1867.     prisons,  Switzerland,  afiout  25  miles  southeast 


tinental  and  English  cities  and  in  America  until  1867, 
when  her  husband.  Count  Fepoli,  a  Bolognese,  died.  In 
1872  she  reappeared  in  "II  Matrimonio  Segreto "  at  the 
Italiens.  In  1877  she  married  again  an  office^  of  the  (}arde 
S^publicaine,  M.  Zieger. 

Al  Borak  (al  bo'rak),  [Ar.,  'lightning.']  A 
legendary  animal,  white  in  color,  in  size  be- 
tween a  mule  and  an  ass,  with  two  wings,  and 
of  great  swiftness,  on  which  Mohammed  is  said 
to  have  made  a  nocturnal  journey  to  the  seventh 
heaven,  conducted  by  the  angel  Gabriel. 

Albornoz  (al-bor'noth),  Gil  Alvarez  Carillo 
de.  Bom  at  Cuenoa,  Spain,  about  1300 :  died 
at  Viterbo,  Italy,  Aug.  24,  1367.  A  Spanish 
prelate  (archbishop  of  Toledo)  and  soldier,  a 
supporter  of  the  papal  authority  in  Italy. 

Albovine  (al'bo-vin).  King  of  the  Lombards. 
A  tragedy  by  Davenant,  printed  in  1629.  The 
scene  and  the  names  of  characters  are  the  same 
as  in  his  later  poem  "  Gondibert." 

Albracca  (al-brak'ka).    InBoiardo's  "Orlando 


of  Coire,  connecting  the  valleys  of  the  Albula 
and  Hinter-Rhein  with  that  of  the  Inn.  Its 
height  is  7,595  feet. 

Albumazar  (al-bo-ma'zar).  Bom  at  Balkh, 
Turkestan,  805  (?):  died  at  Wasid,  central 
Asia,  885.  A  celebrated  Arabian  astronomer, 
author  of  numerous  works,  including  an  intro- 
duction to  astronomy,  a  "  Book  of  Conjunction," 
and  a  treatise  on  astrology.  Latin  translations  of 
the  first  two  appeared  at  Augsburg  in  1489,  and  again 
at  Venice,  the  former  in  1506  and  the  latter  in  1615.  The 
work  on  astrology  was  printed  at  Venice  under  the  title 
"Mores  Astrologise"  (date  unknown),  and  reprinted  at 
Augsburg  in  1588.  His  name  is  given  to  the  leading 
character,  a  knavish  astrologer,  in  a  university  play  (in 
English),  named  for  him,  by  John  Tomkis  (or  Tomkins), 
acted  by  the  gentlemen  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  be- 
fore King  James  I.:in  1614.  It  is  founded  on  "  L'Astrologo  " 
of  Gian  Battista  del  Porta,  1606.  Dryden  revived  it  in 
1748.  In  1734  a  comedy  called  "The  Astrologer"  (pro- 
duced in  1744)  was  founded  on  it  by  £alph, 


Innamorato,"  a  castle' of  Cathay  in  which  An-  AlbU9iueraue  (al-bo-kar'ke)     A  town  in  the 
gelioa  was  besieged  by  Agricane.  province  of  Badajoz,  Spam  24  miles  north  of 

Albrecht     See  Albert  Badajoz.    Population  (1897),  about  10,000. 

Albrecht"(al'bre6ht)."  Lived  about  1270.  A  Albuctueraue.  The  capital  of  Bernalillo 
German  poet,  author  of  the  later  "Titurel,"  a  County,  New  Mexico,  situated  on  the  Eio 
continuation  of  the  "  Titurel"  of  "Wolfram  von  prande  58  miles  southwest  of  Santa  F6 :  an 
Esohenbach:  generally,  but  probably  wrongly,    important  railroad  center.    It  consists  oi  two  set- 

„j   Aii,_„„ti  „„„  a  'i,o»*™i,„™™  tlements,  the  old  town  and  the  new  town.    The  latter 

named  Albrecht  von  Scharfenberg.  y,^  founded  in  ISSI.    The  old  town  dates  from  the  17th 

Albrecht.  Wllhelm  Eduard.    Bom  at  Elbmg,      century.    Population  (1900),  new  city,  6,238. 
Prussia,March  4,1800:  died  at  Leipsic,  May  22,  Albuquerque,   Affonso   de,   surnamed    "The 


1876.  A  German  jurist,  one  of  the  seven  Got- 
tingen  professors  removed  on  account  of  liber- 
alism in  1837. 

Albrechtsberger  (al-breehts-ber'ger),  Johann 
Georg.  Bom  at  Kloster-Neuburg,  near  Vien- 
na, Feb.  3, 1736 :  died  at  Vienna,  March  7, 1809. 
An  Austrian  musician,  distinguished  especially 
as  a  contrapuntist :  author  of  "Griindliche  An- 
weisung  zur  Komposition"  (1790),  etc. 

Albrechtsburg  (al'brechts-borQ).  An  extensive 
castle  at  Meissen,  Saxony,  founded  in  1471  by 
the  princes  Emst  and  Albert,  it  is  a  picturesque 
pile,  dominated  1^  towers  and  lofty  roofs,  and  by  the  open- 
work spire  of  its  Johannisk^pelle.    The  large  banqueting- 


Great"  anS  "The  Portuguese  Mars."  Born  at 
Alhandra,  near  Lisbon,  1452  (1453  ?) :  died  at 
sea  near  Goa,  India,  Dec.  16,  1515.  A  cele- 
brated Portuguese  navigator  and  conqueror, 
the  founder  of  the  Portuguese  empire  in  the 
East.  Appointed  viceroy  of  India,  he  landed  on  the 
coast  of  Malabar  in  1503,  conquered  Goa  and  afterward 
the  whole  of  Malabar,  Ceylon,  the  Sunda  Islands,  the 
peninsula  of  Malacca,  and  the  island  of  Ormuz.  King 
Emmanuel  appointed  a  personal  enemy  of  Albuquerque 
to  supersede  him.  On  his  return,  he  died  at  sea.  He 
was  an  extraordinary  man,  and  made  the  Portuguese  name 
profoundly  respected  in  the  East. 

Albuquerque,  Duarte  Coelho  de.    See  Coelho 
de  Atbuguerque,  Duarte. 


™^Ll'=*°Tl,»?«°fi™^,,TS'.SitntZ';,»?n„"^«^L°^^^^^      Albuquerque,  Francisco  Fernandez  de  la 

princes.  There  is  much  excellent  vaulting.   SincelS63the     n««Jr«    rlt.i-^  „4i      o„«  c ™.j««  .7.,  ?«  /-t„,«..« 

whole  has  been  restored  and  decorated  with  historical    Cueva,  Duke  of.     See  Fernandez:  dela  Cueva. 
frescos,    i'or  150  years  from  1710  the  famous  royal  porce-  AlbuquerqUC,    FraUClSCO    FemaudeZ    de    la 
lain  manufactory  was  conducted  here.  Cueva  Henriquez,  Duke  of.   See  Fernandez  de 

Albreda  (a.l-bra'da).  A  seaport  in  Senegambia,     la  Cueva  Henriquez. 

situated  on  the  Gambia  Eiver  20  miles  above  Albuquerque,  Jeronymo  de.  Born  about  1514: 
Bathurst.    Poptdation,  7,000  (?).  died  at  Olinda,  near  Pernambuco,  about  Feb. 

Albret  (al-bra'),  House  of.    A  Gascon  family    25, 1594.  A  Portuguese  soldier,  leader  in  various 

wars  against  the  Indians  in  Brazil,  whither  he 
went  in  1535.    in  1648  he  was  captured  by  the  Cahetes 
tribe,  but  gained  their  good  will  and  married  the  daughter 
of  a  chfef. 
d' Albret  (died  1466),  cardinal  bishop  of  Cahors';  Jean  AlbuqUCrqUO  MarauhaO,  JeronvmO  de.  Bom 

w»h''rt'4»Ji-n»''^r^fv'5i,''fi^.^fr,J^P  H?i?hrp?'^^i¥.^  at  Pernambuco,  1548:  died  at  Maranhao,  Feb. 

with  Catherine  of  Foix  in  1484 ;  Jeanne  u  Albret  (see  be-  -,-,   tn-,n       A-n-i.  u*  ^  t 

low);  and  C^sar-Ph^bus  d'Albret,  marshal  of  Trance  and  H;  1^1?,.     A  Brazilian  soldier,  son  of  Jeronymo 

the  last  descendant  of  the  house  in  the  male  line.  de  Albuquerque  and  an  Indian  mother.    He  con- 


whioh  arose  in  the  11th  century,  and  derived 
its  name  from  the  Ch&teau  d' Albret.  its  best- 
known  members  are  Oiarles  d'Albret,  count  of  Dreux, 
who  was  killed  in  the  battle  of  Agincourt  in  1415 ;  Louis 


Alcantara 

quered  Rio  Grande  do  Norte  from  the  Indians  1698-90  and 
Ceari  in  1613.  In  Nov.,  1615,  he  took  Maranhao  from  the 
iFrench,  and  was  made  captain-general  of  that  colony. 

Albuquerque,  Mathias  di.  Said  to  have  been 
bom  in  Brazil :  died  at  Lisbon,  June  9,  1647. 
A  Portuguese  general,  governor  of  Pernambuco 
in  1624,  and,  after  the  Dutch  had  taken  Bahia 
(May,  1624),  acting  governor-general  of  north- 
em  Brazil.  He  recovered  Bahia  in  1625.  After  vis- 
iting Madrid  he  returned  to  Pernambuco,  in  Oct.,  1629,  as 
governor,  and  in  Feb.,  1630,  abandoned  Olinda  and  Recife 
(Pernambuco)  to  the  Dutch.  In  Dec,  1635,  he  was  ordered 
back  to  Madrid,  whence  he  was  sent  to  Portugal  in  dis- 
grace. In  1640  Portugal  thi-ew  ofl'  the  Spanish  yoke,  and 
Albuquerque  took  a  principal  part  in  the  war  which  fol- 
lowed. His  decisive  victory  of  Montijo  or  Campo  Mayor 
(May,  1644)  won  for  him  the  titles  of  Count  of  Allegrete 
and  grandee  of  Portugal. 

Albuquerque,  Pedro  d'.  Bom  at  Pernambuco 
about  1575:  died  at  Pard,  Feb.  6,  1644.  A  son 
of  Jeronymo  de  Albuquerque  Maranhao,  ap- 
pointed governor  of  Maranhao  and  Pard,  in  16^. 

Albuquerque  Coelho,  Jorge  d'.  See  Coelho, 
Jorge  d? Albuquerque. 

Alby.    See  Albi. 

Alb3m.    See  Albion. 

Alcacer-do-Sal  (al-ka'ser-dg-sal').  A  trading 
town  in  the  province  of  Estremadura,  Portugal, 
situated  on  the  Sado  50  miles  southeast  of  Lis- 
bon :  the  Eoman  Salaeia.  It  has  been  the  scene 
of  various  battles,  particularly  between  Moors  and  Chris- 
tians.   Population,  about  2,000. 

Alcaeus  (al-se'us).  [Gr. 'A/lmiof.]  1.  A  famous 
poet  of  Mytilene  in  Lesbos  (about  611-580 
B.  0.),  by  some  regarded  as  the  first  in  rank  of 
the  lyric  poets  of  Greece.  He  supported  the  nobles 
in  their  struggles  with  the  tyrants  of  his  native  town, 
was  banished,  and  led  an  eventful  and  wandering  ilife. 
He  was  "the  perfect  picture  of  an  unprincipled,  violent, 
lawless  Greek  aristocrat,  who  sacrificed  all  and  everything 
to  the  demands  of  pleasure  and  power"  (Mahafy).  Frag- 
ments of  his  works  remain. 

2.  In  Greek  legend,  a  son  of  Perseus  and  An- 
dromeda.   He  was  an  ancestor  of  Hercules. 

Alcaforado  (al-ka-fo-ra'do),  Francisco,  A 
Portuguese  navigator  who  took  part  in  the  ex- 
pedition (of  which  he  wrote  an  account)  of  Joao 
Gonzales  Zarco  to  the  island  of  Madeira  in  1420. 

Alcald,  de  Chisbert  (al-ka-la'  da  ches-bart'). 
\_Alcald:  At.  'castle.']  A  town  in  the  province 
of  Castellon,  Spain,  situated  near  the  Mediter- 
ranean 65  miles  northeast  of  Valencia.  Popu- 
lation (1887),  5,751. 

Alcali  de  Guadaira  (al-ka-la'  da  gwa-THi'rft). 
A  town  in  the  province  of  Seville,  Spain,  situ- 
ated near  the  Guadaira  7  miles  east  of  Seville. 
It  contains  a  Moorish  castle,  an  unusually  fine  example, 
older  than  1246,  when  the  town  was  taken  by  the  Clu*is- 
tians.    Population  (1887),  9,05.5. 

AlcalSi  de  Henares  (al-ka-la'  da  a-na'ras).  A 
town  in  the  province  of  Madrid,  Spain,  near 
the  site  of  the  Eoman  Complutum,  situated  on 
the  Henares  17  miles  east  by  north  of  Madrid: 
the  birthplace  of  Cervantes,  it  was  formerly  famous 
for  its  university,  founded  by  Cardinal  Ximenes,  which 
was  removed  to  Madrid  in  1836.    Population  (1887),  13,543. 

Alcaic  de  los  Gazules  (al-ka-la'  da  los  ga-tho'- 
las).  A  town  in  the  province  of  Cadiz,  Spain, 
30  miles  east  of  Cadiz.  Population  (1887),  9,802. 

AlcalS.  la  Beal  (al-ka-la' la  ra-al').  A  town  in 
the  province  of  Jaen,  Spain,  27  miles  north- 
west of  Granada.    Population  (1887),  15,802. 

Alcald  y  Herrera,  Alonso  de.  A  Portuguese 
writer  of  Spanish  origin,  who  published  in  1641 
five  Spanish  tales  in  each  of  which  one  of  the 
five  vowels  is  omitted.    JXcknor. 

Alcamenes,  or  Alkamenes  (al-kam'e-nez). 
[Gr.  'Aluaij.tvrjQ.']  Bom  at  Lemnos,  of  Attic  de- 
scent, or  at  Athens :  flourished  alDout  448-404 
B.C.  A  Greek  sculptor,  according  to  Pausanias 
the  most  skilful  pupil  of  Phidias.  The  same  au- 
thor ascribes  to  him  the  centaur  conflict  on  the  western 
pediment  of  the  temple  of  Zeus  recently  recovered  at 
Olympia.  This  must  have  been  a  very  early  work  of  the 
master.  His  recorded  works  were  statues  of  gods  and 
heroes  mainly.  His  Aphrodite  "of  the  gardens"  was  one 
of  the  great  statues  of  antiquity.  His  statue  of  ivory  and 
gold  of  JSsculapius  may  be  represented  in  the  beautiful 
head  in  the  British  Museum,  found  at  Melos. 

Alcamo  (al'ka-mo).  A  town  in  the  province  of 
Trapani,  Sicily,  24  miles  west-southwest  of  Pa- 
lermo. Near  it  are  the  ruins  of  the  ancient 
Segesta.    Population,  about  37,000. 

Alcandre  (al-kon'dr).  A  character  in  Made- 
moiselle de  Seud^ry's  romance  "C161ie":  a 
flattering  portrait  of  Louis  XIV.,  then  only 
about  eighteen  years  of  age. 

Aleaniz  (al-kan-yeth').  A  town  in  the  province 
of  Teruel,  Spain,  on  the  Guadalope  64  miles 
southeast  of  Saragossa.  Populationi(1887),  7,781. 

Alcantara  (al-kan'ta-ra).  A  western  quarter, 
formerly  a  suburb,  of  Lisbon,  noted  for  the 
victory  gained  there  in  1580  by  the  Duke  of 
Alva  over  the  Portuguese. 


Alciintara 

Alcantara.  [Ar.,  '  the  bridge.']  A  small  town 
in  the  province  of  Csiceres,  Spain,  the  ancient 
Norba  Csesarea,  situated  on  the  Tagus  31  miles 
northwest  of  Caoeres.  The  famous  bridge  of  Trajan, 
over  the  Tagus,  built  In  105  A.  D.,  exists  to-day  practically 
as  the  Bomans  left  it.  It  is  built  without  cement,  and  is 
■one  of  the  most  imposing  of  masonry  bridges.  It  is  about 
670  feet  long,  and  210  feet  high  from  the  river-bed,  with 
six  arches.  The  two  central  arches  each  have  a  span  of 
110  feet.  A  plain  triumphal  arch  rises  over  the  middle 
pier.  Another  notable  structure  is  the  monastery  of  the 
Knights  of  Alcantara,  begun  in  1506,  and  now  in  ruins. 
The  florid  Pointed  church  is  divided  by  slender  piers  into 
lofty,  gracefully  vaulted  aisles.  The  cloisters  are  flue,  and 
the  buildings,  both  for  residence  and  for  defense,  of  great 
extent  and  massiveness.    Population,  about  4,000. 

Alcantara.  A  seaport  in  the  province  of  Ma- 
raniao,  Brazil,  in  lat.  2°  25'  S.,  long.  44°  25'  W. 

Alcantara,  Francisco  Martin.  Born  in  the 
province  of  Bstremadura,  probably  about  1480: 
killed  at  Lima,  Peru,  June  26,  1541.  A  Span- 
ish soldier,  half-brother  of  Francisco  Pizarro  on 
the  mother's  side.  He  left  Spain  with  Pizarro  in  1629, 
and  was  with  him  daring  part  of  the  conquest  of  Peru. 
He  received  a  large  inheritance  which  was  unjustly  taken 
from  the  younger  Almagro.  Alcantara  was  killed  with 
Pizarro. 

Alcantara,  Doctor  of.  An  operetta  by  Julius 
Eichberg  produced  in  Boston  in  1862,  "the 
most  successful  work  of  any  pretensions  with 
an  exclusively  American  reputation"  {Grove). 

Alcantara,  KaiightS  of.  A  religious  and  mili- 
tary order  in  Spain,  created  about  1156  by  the 
brothers  Don  Suarez  and  Don  Gomez  de  Bar- 
rientos  to  combat  the  Moors.  In  1177  it  was  con- 
firmed by  Pope  Alexander  III.  as  a  religious  order  of 
knighthood  under  Benedictine  rule.  It  took  its  name 
irom  the  fortified  town  of  Alcantara,  with  whose  defense 
it  was  intrusted  about  1213,  having  hitherto  been  known 
as  the  order  of  the  Knights  of  San  Julian  del  Pereyro.  In 
1494-95  the  grand  mastership  was  vested  in  the  crown, 
:and  in  1540  the  knights  received  permission  to  marry.  In 
1835  the  order  ceased  to  exist  as  a  spiritual  body,  though 
it  still  remains  in  Its  civil  capacity. 

Alcantara,  Pedro  de.  See  Pedro  I.  and  II.  of 
Brazil. 

Alcatraz  (al-ka-traz').  A  small  island  north 
of  San  Francisco,  the  seat  of  a  military  prison. 

Alcaildete  (al-kou-THa'ta).  A  townin  the  prov- 
ince of  Jaen,  Spain,  situated  on  a  tributary  of 
the  Guadalquivir  23  miles  southwest  of  Jaen. 
Population  (1887),  9,188. 

Alcdzar  (ai-ka'thar).     [Ar.  al  qaer,  the  castle.] 

1 .  The  palace  of  the  Moorish  kings  and  later 
of  Spanish  royalty  at  Seville.  A  large  part  is  of 
the  original  Alhambresque  architecture,  and  extremely 
1>eautiful,  though  restored  and  too  highly  colored.  Other 
portions  have  been  added  by  successive  Spanish  sover- 
■eigns,  from  Pedro  the  Cruel.  The  gardens  were  laid  out 
hy  the  emperor  Charles  V. 

2.  A  palace  in  Segovia,  Spain,  originally  Moor- 
ish, occupied  by  the  sovereigns  of  CastUe  from 
the  14th  century.  It  was  a  large  and  strong  medieval 
castle,  with  picturesque  towers  and  turrets,  and  con- 
tained rooms  of  much  historical  interest.  It  was  burned 
in  1862,  and  has  been  restored. 

Alcizar,  Battle  of.    See  Battle  of  Alcazar. 

Alcazar  de  San  Juan  (al-ka'thar  da  san  hwan). 
A  town  in  the  province  of  Ciudad  Real,  Spain, 
a  railway  and  manufacturing  center.  Popula- 
tion (1887),  9,557. 

Alcazar-Quivir.    See  Kassr-el^KeMr. 

Alcazava  Sotomayor,  Simao  de.  Bom  about 
1490 :  died  on  the  east  coast  of  Patagonia  early 
in  1536.  A  Portuguese  explorer,  from  1522  in 
the  service  of  Spain  as  a  naval  officer,  in  1534 
lie  fitted  out,  at  his  own  expense,  two  vessels  and  240  men, 
with  the  object  of  reaching  Peru  by  the  Straits  of  Magel- 
lan. Leaving  SanLucar  Sept.  21,  he  touched  attheAbrol- 
hos  Islands,  Brazil,  and  arrived  at  the  Straits  in  Jan.,  1535 ; 
attempting  to  pass,  he  was  driven  back  by  a  storm,  and 
wintered  at  Puerto  de  los  Lobos  (probably  St.  Joseph's  or 
St.  Matthew's  Bay).  Thence  he  led  a  land  expedition 
which  crossed  the  country  to  the  Andes  and  was  the  first 
to  explore  the  Patagonian  plateau.  Alcazava  himself  was 
obliged  by  sickness  to  return  to  the  ship,  where  he  was 
shortly  after  murdered  in  a  mutiny.  Also  Alcazaba,  AU 
cazooa,  Alcafoba. 

Alcedo(al-tha'SH6),  Antonio  de.  Bom  at  Quito, 
1735:  date  of  death  not  recorded.  A  Spanish 
brigadier-general  (1792)  and  geographer,  son  of 
Don  Dionisio  de  Aleedo  y  Herrera,  best  known 
for  his  "Diccionario  geogrd,fico-hist6rico  de 
las  Indias  occidentales  6  America"  (Madrid, 
1786-89,  5  vols.).  There  is  an  English  translation  by 
Thomson,  London,  1812-15.  He  served  during  part  of  his 
life  in  America. 

Alcedo  y  Herrera  (al-tha'»H6  e  er-ra'ra),  Dio- 
nisio de.  Bom  at  Madrid,  1690:  died  there, 
1777.  A  Spanish  administrator.  From  1706  to 
1752  he  was  almost  constantly  in  Spanish  America  in  va- 
rious civil  capacities.  As  president  and  captain-general 
of  Quito  (1728-37)  he  received  the  French  commission 
sent  to  measure  an  arc  of  the  meridian.  From  1743  to 
1749  he  was  captain-general  of  Tierra  Firme  and  president 
of  Panama.  Hepublished  some  works  of  considerable  im- 
portance on  the  geography  and  history  of  South  America. 

Alceste.    See  Alcestis, 


32 

Alceste  (al-sesf).  The  principal  character  in 
Molifere's  comedy  "The  Misanthrope":  a  dis- 
agreeable but  upright  man  who  scorns  the 
civilities  of  life  and  the  shams  of  society. 
Wycherley  has  taken  him  as  the  model  of  his 
rude  and  brutal  Manly  in  "  The  Plain  Dealer." 

Alceste,  A  pseudonym  of  several  modern 
French  writers,  among  them  Alfred  Assolant, 
Hippolyte  de  Castille,  Louis  Belmontet,  and 
Edouard  Laboulaye. 

Alceste.  A  tragic  opera  by  Gluck,  first  pre- 
sented at  Vienna,  Dec.  16,  1767. 

Alcester  (S^l'stSr).  A  town  in  Warwickshire, 
England,  19  miles  south  of  Birmingham :  the 
site  of  an  ancient  Eoman  encampment.  Popu- 
lation (1891),  4,963. 

Alcester,  Baron,    See  Seymow,  Sir  Frederick. 

Alcestis  (al-ses'tis),  or  Alceste  (al-ses'te). 
[Gr.  "AAKnariQ,  or  'AlKkarri.']  In  Greek  legend, 
the  daughter  of  Pelias  and  wife  of  Admetus, 
king  of  Pherss  in  Thessaly.  when  her  husband  was 
stricken  with  a  mortal  sickness  she  sacrificed  her  life  for 
him,  in  accordance  with  the  promise  of  Apollo  that  by 
this  means  he  should  be  saved.  According  to  one  form 
of  the  legend  she  was  allowed  to  return  to  the  upper  world 
by  Persephone  :  according  to  another  she  was  rescued  by 
Hercules.    She  is  the  subject  of  a  play  by  Euripides. 

The  Alcestis  is  a  curious  and  almost  unique  example  of 
a  great  novelty  attempted  by  Euripides  —  a  novelty  which 
Shakspeare  has  sanctioned  by  his  genius— I  mean  the 
mixture  of  comic  and  vulgar  elements  with  real  tragic 
pathos,  by  way  of  contrast.  The  play  is  not  strictly  a 
tragedy,  but  a  melodrama,  with  a  happy  conclusion,  and 
was  noted  as  such  by  the  old  critics,  who  called  the  play 
rather  comic,  that  is  to  say,  like  the  new  comedies  in  this 
respect.  The  intention  of  the  poet  seems  to  have  been  to 
calm  the  minds  of  the  audience  agitated  by  great  sorrows, 
and  to  tone  them  by  an  afterpiece  of  a  higher  and  more 
refined  character  than  the  satyric  dramas,  which  were 
coarse  and  generally  obscene. 

";/,  Hist,  of  Classical  Greek  Lit.,  I.  325. 


Alchemb  (al-kemb').  [Ar.]  A  rarely  used 
name  for  the  second-magnitude  star  a  Persei, 
usually  called  Mirfak,  and  sometimes  Algenib. 

Alchemist,  The.  A  comedy  by  Ben  Jonson 
acted  by  the  King's  Servants  in  1610 :  a  satire 
on  the  reigning  folly  of  the  time,  the  search 
for  the  philosopher's  stone.  It  observes  strictly 
the  unities  of  time  and  place,  and,  in  point  of  intellec- 
tual power,  is  regarded  as  the  first  of  Jonson's  plays. 
"The  Empiric,"  a  droll,  was  founded  on  it  in  1676,  and 
"The  Tobacconist,"  a  farce,  in  1771.  It  was  entered  in 
the  Stationers'  Kegister  in  1610,  but  was  not  published 
till  1612. 

Alchfrith  (alch'frith),  or  Alchfrid  (-frid). 
A  son  of  Oswiu,  king  of  the  Northumbrians, 
and  Eanflsed,  daughter  of  Eadwine.  He  was  cre- 
ated under-king  of  the  Deirans  by  his  father;  married 
Cyneburh,  daughter  of  Penda,  king  of  the  Mercians  ;  and 
joined  his  father  in  the  defeat  of  Penda,  666,  near  the 
river  Winwsed.  He  made  unsuccessful  war  against  his  fa- 
ther, and  probably  fied  to  Mercia. 

Alchiba,  or  Alkhiba  (al-ke-ba').  [Ar.,  'the 
tent,'  a  name  given  by  some  of  the  Arabians 
to  the  constellation  Corvus.]  The  seldom 
used  name  of  the  fourth-magnitude  star  a 
Corvi,  which,  however,  is  not  the  brightest  in 
the  constellation. 

Alchymist  (al-che-mesf),  Der.  An  opera  by 
Spohr,  composed  about  the  end  of  1829,  and 
first  performed  at  Cassel  July  28,  1830.  The 
libretto  by  Pfeiffer  is  based  on  a  story  by 
Washington  Irving. 

Alcibiades  (al-si-bi'a-dez).  [Gr.  'AXiapL&8rjQ.'] 
Born  at  Athens,  about  450  B.  c. :  killed  at  Me- 
lissa, Phrygia,  404  B.  0.  A  celebrated  Athenian 
poUtieian  and  general,  the  son  of  Cleinias  and 
Deinomache,  and  a  pupil  and  friend  of  Socrates. 
After  his  father's  death  at  the  battle  of  Coronea  he  was 
brought  up  in  the  house  of  Pericles,  who  was  his  kinsman. 
He  became  leader  of  the  radical  party  about  421 ;  com- 
manded the  Athenian.  League  420-418;  was  appointed  a 
commander  of  the  expedition  against  Sicily  iu  416 ;  and 
was  accused  of  profanation  in  Athens,  and  fled  to  Sparta, 
in  the  same  year,  becoming  an  open  enemy  of  Athens. 
In  412,  having  become  an  object  of  suspicion  at  Sparta  (his 
death  had  been  resolved  upon),  he  went  over  to  the  Per- 
sians. He  was  soon  recalled  by  the  Athenian  army,  and  com- 
manded the  Athenians  in  the  victory  over  the  Pelopon- 
nesians  and  Persians  at  Cyzicus  410,  and  in  other  success- 
ful battles.  His  failure  at  Andros  and  the  defeat  of  his 
general  at  Notion  in  407  caused  him  to  be  deposed  from 
his  command.  After  the  battle  of  .^gospotami  he  sought 
refuge  with  Phamabazus  in  Phrygia  where  he  was  treaoh- 
erously  put  to  death.  He  was  celebrated  for  his  great 
beauty  and  talents,  and  also  for  his  self-will  and  unbri- 
dled insolence  and  capriciousness. 

Alcibiades.  A  tragedy  by  Thomas  Otway  pro- 
duced in  1675. 

Alcibiades.  A  pseudonym  used  by  Alfred 
Tennyson  in  "Pim.eh." 

Alcida:  Greene's  Metamorphoses.  A  pam- 
phlet by  Robert  Greene,  licensed  in  1588,  prob- 
ably published  in  1589.  It  consists  of  stories 
exposing  the  evils  of  women'spride  and  vanity. 

Alcidamas  (al-sid'a-mas).    [G-r.  'A'kui&iiag.']    A 


Alcock 

Greek  rhetorician,  a  native  of  Elaaa  in  Asia 
Minor.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Gorgias,  and  between  432 
and  411  B.  c.  resided  at  Athens  where  he  gave  instruc- 
tion in  eloquence,  being  the  last  of  the  purely  sophistical 
school  of  rhetoricians.  Two  extant  declamations  are 
ascribed  to  him. 

Alcide  (al-sed'),  Baron  de  M  .  .  .  A  pseudo- 
nym used  1833-35  and  in  1864  by  Alfred  de 
Musset. 

Alcides  (al'si-dez) .  A  patronymic  of  Heracles, 
who  was  a  descendant  of  AIcsbus. 

Alcina  (al-ehe'na).  A  fairy,  the  embodiment 
of  carnal  delights,  in  Boiardo's  "Oriando  In- 
namorato"  and  Ariosto's  "Orlando  Furioso": 
the  sister  of  Logistilla  (reason)  and  Morgana 
(lasci  viousness  ) .  When  tired  of  her  lovers  she  changed 
them  into  trees,  beasts,  etc.,  and  was  finally,  by  means  of 
a  magic  ring,  displayed  in  her  real  senility  and  ugliness. 
Compare  Acrasiaj  Armida,  and  Circe. 

Alcinous  (al-sin'6-us).  [Gr.  a^/ct'voof.]  In 
Greek  legend,  a  king  of  the  Phceacians,  in  the 
island  of  Scheria,  mentioned  in  the  Odyssey. 
A  considerable  part  of  the  poem  (Books  VI.-XIII.)  is  de- 
voted to  the  events  of  Odysseus's  stay  in  his  dominions. 

Alciphron  (al'si-fron).  [Gr.  SiA/u'^pwv.]  Lived 
probably  in  the  last  part  of  the  2d  century  a.  d. 
A  Greek  epistolographer  whose  identity  is  un- 
certain, Alciphron  being,  perhaps,  an  assumed 
name.  The  letters  attributed  to  him  "are  about  100  in 
number,  and  are  divided  into  three  books.  They  repre- 
sent classes  of  the  older  Greek  community,  and  are  val- 
uable from  the  glimpses  which  they  give  of  social  life, 
the  materMs  being  mostly  derived  from  the  remains  of 
the  middle  and  new  comedy.  The  most  lively  are  those 
supposed  to  be  written  by  celebrated  hetcerse,  especially 
those  from  Glvcera  to  Menander.  The  style  is  a  careful 
imitation  of  the  best  Attic"  (K.  0.  Mutter,  Hist,  of  the 
Lit.  of  Anc.  Greece,  III.).    {Donaldson.) 

Alciphron.  A  character  in  Thomas  Moore's 
romance  "The  Epicurean,"  published  in  1827. 
Moore  also  wrote  a  poem  with  this  title,  pub- 
lished in  1839. 

Alciphron,  or  the  Minute  Philosopher.  A 
philosophical  dialogue  by  Bishop  Berkeley, 
written  to  expose  the  weakness  of  infidelity. 
It  was  composed  while  Berkeley  was  at  New- 
port, R.  I.,  and  was  published  in  1732. 

Alcira  (al-the'ra).  A  town  in  the  province  of 
Valencia,  Spain,  on  an  island  of  the  Juoar  20 
miles  south  of  Valencia.  Population  (1887), 
18,448. 

Alcmaeon  (alk-me'on).  [Gr.  'ATiKjiaiav.^  In 
Greek  legend,  the  son  of  Amphiaraus  and 
Eriphyle  and  the  leader  of  the  Bpigoni  in  the 
expedition  against  Thebes.  In  accordance  with  the 
command  of  his  father,  given  when  he  joined  the  first 
expedition  against  Thebes,  and  the  advice  of  the  oracle, 
he  slew  his  mother,  and  was  driven  mad  and  pursued  by 
the  Furies  in  consequence.  Having,  under  false  pretenses, 
obtained  from  Phegeus  the  Arcadian  the  necklace  and 
robe  of  Harmonia  (see  Harmonia)  for  his  wife  Callirrhoe, 
he  was  waylaid  and  slain  by  Phegeus's  order. 

Alcmeeon.  A  Greek  natural  philosopher,  bom 
at  Crotona,  Italy,  in  the  6th  century  B.  c,  es- 
pecially noted  for  his  discoveries  in  anatomy. 

Alcmseonidse  (alk-me-on'i-de).  A  noble  family 
of  Athens,  a  branch  of  the  family  of  the  Neleidse 
which  came  from  Pylos  in  Messenia  to  Athens 
about  1100  B.  0.  Among  the  more  notable  members 
of  the  family  are  Alcmseon,  an  Athenian  general  in  the 
Cirrhsean  war ;  Megacles,  a  son  of  Alcmaeon,  and  a  rival 
of  Pisistratus ;  Clistheues,  the  legislator,  son  of  Megacles; 
Pericles,  the  celebrated  Athenian  statesman,  great-grand- 
son of  Megacles ;  and  the  scarcely  less  famous  Alcibiades, 
cousin  of  Pericles.  The  family  was  banished  for  sacri- 
lege about  696  B.  0.,  on  account  of  the  action  of  the  Alc- 
mieonid  archon  Megacles  who  612  B.  c.  put  to  death  the 
participants  in  the  insurrection  of  Cylon  while  they  clung 
for  protection  to  the  altars.  They  returned  through  an 
alliance  with  Lycurgus,  carried  on  with  varying  fortunes 
a  struggle  with  Pisistratus  and  the  Fisistratidse,  and  were 
finally  restored  in  610  B.  0. 

Alcman,  or  Alkman  (alk'man),  or  Alcmseon. 
[Gr.  'A?Mudv,  or  'A^k/mIuv.']  The  greatest  lyric 
poet  of  Sparta.  He  flourished  about  the  middle  of  the 
7th  century  B.  c,  and  was  probably  brought  to  Greece  as 
a  slave,  in  youth,  from  Sardis.  "His  six  books  contained 
all  kinds  of  melos,  hymns,  pseans,  prosodia,  parthenifL  and 
erotic  songs.  His  metres  are  easy  and  various,  and  not 
like  the  complicated  systems  of  later  lyrists.  On  the 
other  hand,  his  proverbial  wjsdom,  and  the  form  of  his 
personal  allusions,  sometimes  remind  one  of  Pindar.  But 
the  general  character  of  the  poet  is  that  of  an  easy, 
simple,  pleasure-loving  man.  He  boasts  to  have  imitated 
the  song  of  birds  (fr.  17, 67)— in  other  words,  to  have  been 
a  self-taught  and  original  poet."  iMahafy,  Hist  Greek 
Lit.,  1. 170.)    Fragments  of  his  writings  are  extant. 

Alcmene  (alk-me'ne),  or  Alkmene.  [Gr.  ^aIk- 
/i^vr/.']  In  Greek  mythology,  the  wife  of  Am- 
phitryon and  mother,  by  Zeus,  of  Heracles. 

Alcobaga  (al-ko-ba'sa).  A  small  town  in  the 
province  of  Estremadura,  Portugal,  50  miles 
north  of  Lisbon,  it  contains  a  Cistercian  monastery, 
founded  in  1148,  and  believed  to  have  been  the  largest  of 
the  order.    The  buildings  now  serve  as  barracks. 

Alcock,  or  Alcocke  (ai'kok),  John.  Bom  at 
Beverley,  Yorkshire,  England,  1430:  died  at 
Wisbeach,  England,  Oct.  1,  1500.    An  English 


Alcock 


33 


prelate  and  scholar,  successively  bishop  of  Ko-  Aldabra  Island  (al-da'bra).  A  small  island 
Chester,  Worcester,  and  Ely,  and  founder  of  intheIndianOoean,belongingtoGreatBritain, 
Jesus  College,  Cambridge,  1496.  in  lat.  9°  23'  S.,  long.  46°  15'  E. 

Alcofribas  Kasier  (al-ko-fre-ba'na-sya').  An  Aldan  (al-dan').  A  river  in  the  government  of 
anagranunatic  pseudonym  of  Francois  Kabelais,  Yakutsk,  Siberia,  which  rises  near  the  Yablo- 
once  or  twice  abortened  to  the  first  word  only,    noi  Mountains,  and  joins  the  Lena  about  lat. 

Alcolea  (al-ko-la'a).  A  locality  in  the  province  63°  N.,  long.  130°  E.  Its  length  is  about  1,300 
of  Cordova,  Spain,  on  the  Guadalquivir  8  miles    miles. 

northeast  of  Cordova,  where,  Sept.  28, 1868,  the  Aldan  Mountains.  A  spur  of  the  Stanovoi 
Spanish  revolutionists,  under  Serrano,  defeated    Mountains,  in  eastern  Siberia,  near  the  river 


the  royalists.  The  battle  resulted  in  the  over- 
throw of  Queen  Isabella. 

Alcor  (al'k&r).  [At.,  but  uncertain;  said  to  sig- 
nify '  the  rider.']  A  small  fifth-magnitude  star 
very  near  to  Mizar  (f  Ursse  Majoris).  It  is  easily 
seeii  with  the  naked  eye  if  the  eye  is  normal,  but  not 
otherwise :  hence  sometimes  used  as  a  test  of  vision.  It 
is  called  Aliore  in  the  Latin  version  of  the  "  Almagest." 

Alcoran.     See  Koran. 

Alcorn  (al'kdm),  James  Lusk,  Born  Nov.  4, 
1816:  died  Dec.  20,  1894.    An  American  poli- 


Aldan, 

Aldana  (al-da'n9,),  Lorenzo  de.  Bom  in  Es- 
tremadura  about  1500:  died  at  Arequipa,  Peru, 
probably  in  1556.  A  Spanish  soldier  who  served 
with  Alvarado  in  Guatemala  and  Peru,  and  in 
1536  went  with  Juan  de  Rada  to  reinforce  Al- 
magro  in  Chile,  in  1664  he  was  with  Alonzo  de  Alva- 
rado in  the  campaign  against  Giron,  and  shared  in  the 
defeat  at  the  Abancay  (May  21, 1664).  Authorities  are  not 
in  accord  as  to  the  date  of  his  death,  Calancha  placing  it 
in  1671. 


tician,  founder  of  tie  levee  system  of  the  State  Aldborough  (&ld'bur"6,  locally  a'bro).  A  small 
of  Mississippi,  Eepublican  governor  of  Missis-  town  in  Yorkshire,  England,  the  ancient  Isu- 
sippi  1870-71, United  States  senator  1871-77,  and  rium,  16  miles  northwest  of  York,  noted  for  its 
unsuccessful  candidate  for  governor  in  1873.  Roman  antiquities  (the  pavements,  founda- 
Alcott  (41'kqt),  Amos  Bronson.  Bom  at  Wol-  tions,  etc.,  of  the  ancient  city), 
oott.  Conn.,  Jjov.  29, 1799 :  died  at  Boston,  March  Aldborongh,  or  Aldeburgh.  A  watering-place 
4,1888.  AjiAmericanphilosophical  writer  and  in  Suffolk,  England,  21  miles  northeast  of 
educator,  one  of  the  founders  of  the  school  of  Ipswich.  Population  (1891),  7,467. 
transcendentalists  in  New  England.  Hewassonof  Aldea  Gallega  do  Ribatejo  (al-da'a  gal-la'ga 
.Toseph  Chatfleld  Alcox,  a  small  farmer  and  mechanic,  and  do  re-ba-ta'zho).  A  town  in  the  district  of 
Anna  Bronson :  the  famUy  name  was  originally  spelled  Lisbon,  Portugal,  near  the  Tagus  8  miles  east 
Alcocke,     His  youth  was  spent  m  peddlmg  books  and       -.  -r  j„-u'  ® 

other  wares,  interrupted  by  school-teaching,  chiefly  in  Vir-     oi  uisoon.  ,     ,  ,  ,  , 

ginia  and  North  and  South  Carolina.    He  returned  to  New  AldObaran  (al-de-ba-ran'  or  al-deb  a-ran), 


[Ar.  al-dabardn,  the  follower  or  the  hindmost, 
because  in  rising  it  follows  the  Pleiades.] 
The  standard  first-magnitude  red  star  a  Tauri. 
It  is  in  the  eye  of  the  animal,  and  is  the  most  conspicuous 
member  of  the  group  known  as  the  Hyades.  Also  often 
called  Palilicium  (which  see). 


England  in  1823,  and  soon  after  opened  an  infant-school 
in  Boston  where  he  later  (1834-37)  conducted  a  well-known 
school  in  which  the  instruction  was  based  upon  the  prin- 
ciples of  self-analysis  and  self-education,  the  efforts  of  the 
teacher  being  directed  to  the  development  of  the  indi- 
viduality of  the  pupil.  He  retired  to  Concord  1840,  where 
he  was  intimately  associated  with  Emerson,  Hawthorne, 
Thoreau,  and  Channing,  and  became  dean  of  the  Concord  AldegOndO.     See  Sainte-Aldeaonde, 

i^^SSs^'cSS^-to^lfe  'i?i)fai^"fJ?4or"Ta^??iS  Aldegrever  (al'de-^a-fer)  or  Aldegraf  (al'de- 
(1868)7  "Concord  Days  ■'(1872X  "Table-Talk"  (1877),  "Son-  gjaf ),  Heinridl.  Born  at  Paderbom,  Prussia, 
nets  and  Canzonets"  (1882).  1502 :  died  at  Soest,  Prussia,  1562.    A  German 

Alcott,  Louisa  May.    Born  at  Germantown,    engraver  and  painter. 

Pa.,Nov.  29, 1832:  died  at  Boston,  Mass.,  March  Alden  (3,1 'den),  James.  Bom  at  Portland, 
6,  1888.     An  American  author,  daughter  of  A.    Maine,  Marcli  31, 1810:  died  at  San  Francisco, 


B.  Alcott.  She  was  a  teacher  in  early  life  and  an  army 
nurse  in  the  Civil  War,  Among  her  works  ai-e  "Little 
Women"  (1868),  "Old-Fashioned  Girl"  (1869),  "Little 
Men"  (1871),  "Aunt  Jo's  Scrap-Bag"  (1872-82),  "Hose  in 
Bloom,"  etc. 
Alcoy  (al-koi').  A  city  in  the  province  of  Ali- 
cante, Spain,  lat.  38°  42'  N.,  long.  0°  27'  W. 


Cal.,  Feb.  6,  1877.  An  American  naval  officer, 
appointed  captain  Jan.  2, 1863,  commodore  July 
25, 1866,  and  rear-admiral  June  19, 1871,  and  re- 
tired March  31, 1872.  He  served  in  the  Mexican  war, 
and  commanded  the  Kichmond  in  the  New  Orleans  cam- 
paign of  1862,  and  the  Brooklyn  in  Mobile  Bay,  1864, 
and  in  the  attacks  on  Fort  Fisher. 


an  important   manufacturing   center  (paper,  ^j^        j  j^        Bom  in  England,  1599:  died  at 
etc.).     It  was.  the  aceneofabloody  insurrection  of  the    Duxbiry,  Mass.,  Sept.,  1686.     nio  .<=  fho  "Pn_ 


Internationale  in  July,  1873.    Population  (1887),  30,373. 

Alcudia  (al-ko'sne-a).  A  seaport  on  the  north- 
ern coast  of  Majorca,  Balearic  Islands,  for- 
merly the  chief  fortress  of  the  island.  Popula- 
tion, about  2,000. 

Alcudia,  Duke  of.    See  Godoy,  Manuel  de. 

Alcuin  (al'kwin),  AS.  Ealhwine  (ealch'wi-ne). 
Born  at  York,  England,  735:  died  at  Tours, 
May  19,  804.    An  English  prelate  and  scholar. 


One  of  the  "  Pil- 
grim Fathers,"  a  cooper  of  Southampton,  who 
was  engaged  in  repairing  the  Mayflower  and 
became  one  of  the  party  which  sailed  in  her. 
He  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  to  step  on  Plymouth  Bock, 
though  this  honor  is  also  assigned  to  Mary  Chilton.  He 
settled  at  Duxbury  and  in  1621  married  Priscilla  Mullens. 
The  incidents  of  their  courtship  form  the  theme  of  Long- 
fellow's "Courtship  of  Miles  Standish."  He  was  a  magis- 
trate in  the  colony  for  more  than  50  years,  and  outlived 
all  the  other  signers  of  the  Mayflower  compact. 


abbot  of  Tours:  also  known  as  .ilbinus,Flaccus,    .u.      t v     -d  //^  ■       -vr  ir'   t       < 

and  Albinus  Flaccus.    He  was  educat^  at  York,  A14§°.  J«>?epll-„  Born  at  Cairo,  N.  Y.,  Jan.  4, 
and  settled  on  the  Continent  in  782,  on  the  invitation 


and  under  the  protection  of  Charlemagne.  He  was  mas- 
ter of  the  school  of  the  palace  and  served  as  general  su- 
perintendent of  Charlemagne's  schemes  of  ecclesiastical 
and  educational  reform.  At  the  council  of  Frankfort  in 
794  he  led  the  opposition  to  adoptionism,  which  the  coun- 
cil condemned ;  and  at  the  synod  of  Aachen  (Aix-la- 
Cbapelle)  in  799  he  persuaded  Felix,  the  leader  of  the 
adopUonists,  to  recant  (his  second  recantation).    Alcuin 


1807:  died  at  New  York,  Aug.  30,  1885.  An 
American  educator.  He  was  professor  of  Latin  (later 
of  rhetoric  and  political  economy)  in  Williams  College 
1835-53,  professor  of  mental  and  moral  philosophy  at  La- 
fayette College  1863-67,  president  of  Jefferson  College, 
Cannonsburg,  Pennsylvania,  1867-62,  and  principal  of  the 
Albany,  New  York,  Normal  School  1867-72.  He  was  also 
for  a  time  editor  of  "The  New  York  Observer,"  and  was  a 
proliflo  writer,  chiefly  of  juvenile  literature. 


jTote  on  a  great  variety  of  subjects,  including  theology.  Aldeuhoven  (al'den-ho-fen).      A  town  in  the 


history,  grammar,  rhetoric,  orthography,  dialectics,  etc. 
About  802  he  revised  the  Vulgate.  He  was  also  a  poet. 
Alcyone  (al-si'o-ne).  [Gr.  'A?mv6v7i.']  1.  In 
classical  mythology:  (a)  The  daughter  of  .^olus 
and  wife  of  Cejrx.  After  the  loss  of  her  husband 
she  cast  herself  into  the  sea  and  was  changed 


Ehine  Province,  Prussia,  12  miles  northeast  of 
Aix-la-Chapelle.  Here,  March  1, 1793,  the  Austrians 
under  the  Prince  of  Cobutg  and  Archduke  Charles  de- 
feated the  French,  and  Oct.  2, 1794,  the  French  (about 
85,000)  under  Jourdan  defeated  the  Austrians  (about  70,000) 
under  Clairfay t.   Population,  about  2,000. 


into  a  kingfisher.    (6)  A  Pleiad,  daughter  of  Alderamin  (al-der-am'in).     [Ar.  al-dord'  lya- 
Atlas  and  Pleione. — 2.    A  greenish  star  of    min,  the  right  arm.]    The  usual  name  of  the 
magnitude  3.0,  the  brightest  of  the  Pleiades.        2}^-magnitude  star  a  Cephei. 
Alcyonius  (al-si-6'ni-us),  or  Alcionius,  Pe-  Alderney  (41'd6r-ni),  F.  Aurigny  (o-ren-ye'). 
trus.    Born  at  Venice,  1487:  died  at  Rome,     One  of  the  Channel  Islands,  the  ancient  Au- 


1527.  An  Italian  scholar,  corrector  of  the  press 
of  Aldus  Manutius,  and  professor  of  Greek  at 
Florence:  author  of  "Mediois  legatus,  sive  de 
Exilio"  (1522),  etc. 
Aldabella  (al-da-bel'la).  .1.  The  wife  of  Or- 
lando in  Ariosto's  poems,  the  sister  of  Oliviero 
and  Brandimarte  and  dauerhter  of  Monodantes 


rinia  or  Riduna,  situated  northeast  of  Guern- 
sey, and  7  miles  west  of  Cape  La  Hague,  in  lat. 
49°  43'  N.,  long.  2°  12'  W.  (Braye  Harbor) : 
length,  3i^  nules ;  area,  4  square  miles :  noted 
for  its  breed  of  cattle,  it  contains  the  town  of  St. 
Anne.  The  government  is  vested  in  a  judge,  6  jurats,  and 
12  representatives.    Population  (1891),  1,843. 


intheoldFrenchandSpanish'poemBcalledJilrfa  Alderney,  Race  of,  F.  Ras  d'Aurigny.  A 
and  Auda. — 2.  A  character  in  Milman's  play  ohaimel  between  Alderney  and  the  French 
"Fazio" :  a  handsome  shameless  woman  who  coast,  dangerous  from  its  currents, 
beguiles  Fazio  when  he  becomes  rich,  and  after  Aldersgate  (&l'ders-gat).  A  gate  in  old  Lon- 
his  execution  is  condemned  to  imprisonment  in  don  wall  which  stood  in  the  reentering  angle 
a  nunnery  for  life  through  the  interposition  of  of  the  old  city  between  Newgate  and  Cripple- 
Bianca,  the  wife  of  Fazio.  gate  and  at  the  junction  of  Aldersgate  street 


Aldred 

and  St.  Martin's  lane.  It  is  called  Ealdred's 
gate  (Ealdredesgate)  in  the  (Latin)  laws  of 
Ethelred. 

Aidershot  (al'd^r-shot).  A  town  on  the  border 
of  Surrey  and  Hampshire,  England,  34  miles 
southwest  of  London,  noted  for  its  military 
camp  (established  1855).  Population  (1891), 
25  595 

Aldfrith  (ald'frith),  Ealdfrith  (eald'frith),  or 
Eahfrith  (eah'frith).  Died  705.  King  of  the 
Northumbrians,  an  illegitimate  son  of  Oswiu, 
and  brother  of  Ecgfrith,  whom  he  succeeded 
in  685. 

Aldgate  (aid'gat).  [Oiigmallj  Alegate :  mean- 
ing probably  '  a  gate  open  to  all,'  or  'free  gate.'] 
The  eastern  gate  of  old  London  wall,  situated 
near  the  junction  of  Leadenhall  street.  Hounds- 
ditch,  Whitehall,  and  the  Minories.  It  must  have 
been  one  of  the  7  double  gates  mentioned  by  Fitz  Stephens 
(who  died  1191),  not  one  of  the  Eoman  gates.  The  great 
road  to  Essex  by  which  provisions  were  brought  to  the 
Roman  city  crossed  the  Lea  at  Old-ford  and  entered  the 
city  with  the  Eormine  (Ermine)  street,  not  at  Aldgate  but 
at  Bishopsgate.  Aldgate  may  have  been  opened  in  the 
reign  of  King  Eadgar,  or  that  of  Edward  the  Confessor, 
but  probably  dates  from  the  flrst  years  of  Henry  I.,  at 
which  time  Bow  Bridge  across  the  Lea  at  Stratford  is 
supposed  to  have  been  built  by  his  queen  Matilda. 

AJdkelm  (ald'helm).  Saint.  Born  640  (?) :  died 
at  Doulting,  near  Wells,  England,  May,  709. 
An  English  scholar  and  prelate,  made  bishop  of 
Sherborne  in  705.  His  best-known  works  are  "De 
laude  virginitatis,"  in  prose,  and  a  poem  "De  laudibua 
virginum." 

Aldiborontephqscophornio  (al"di-bo-ron"te- 
fos'^ko-fdr'ni-o).  A  character  in  Henry 
Carey's  burlesque  "  Chrononhotonthologos."  It 
was  given  as  a  nickname  to  James  Ballantyne  the  printer, 
on  account  of  the  solemn  pomposity  of  his  manner,  by  Sir 
Walter  Scott.    See  Jftigduin/unnidos. 

Aldiger  (al'di-ger).  In  Ariosto's  "Orlando 
Furioso,"  a  Christian  knight  and  the  brother 
of  the  enchanter  Malagigi. 

Aldine  (al'din)  Press.  The  press  established  at 
Venice  by  Aldus  Manutius.    See  Manutius. 

Aldingar  (al'ding-gar).  Sir.  A  ballad  concern- 
ing a  false  steward  who  sought  to  take  away 
the  honor  of  his  queen.  In  the  ballad  with  this  title 
from  the  Percy  MS.  the  queen's  name  is  Elinore,  the  wife 
of  Henry  II.,  but  the  story  occurs  repeatedly  in  connec- 
tion with  historical  personages  of  nearly  all  the  European 
nations. 

Our  conclusion  would  therefore  be,  with  Grundtvig, 
that  the  ballads  of  Sir  Aldingar,  Kavengaard,  and  Mem- 
ering,  and  the  rest,  are  of  common  derivation  with  the 
legends  of  St.  Cunigund,  Gundeberg,  &c. ,  and  that  all  these 
are  offshoots  of  a  story  which,  "beginning  far  back  in  the 
infancy  of  the  Gothic  race  and  their  poetry,  is  continually 
turning  up,  now  here  and  now  there,  without  having  a 
proper  home  in  any  definite  time  or  assignable  place." 

Child,  Eng.  and  Scottish  Ballads,  III.  241. 

Aldingar.  The  prior  of  St.  Cuthbert's  Abbey 
in  Sir  Walter  Scott's  poem  "Harold  the 
Dauntless." 

Aldini  (al-de'ne).  Count  Antonio.  Bom  at 
Bologna,  Italy,  1756 :  died  at  Pavia,  Italy,  Oct. 
5, 1826.  An  Italian  statesman,  minister  of  the 
Italian  republic  and  kingdom  under  the  Na- 
poleonic regime. 

Aldini,  Giovanni.  Bom  at  Bologna,  Italy, 
April  10, 1762:  died  at  Milan,  Jan.  17, 1834.  An 
Italian  physicist,  professor  of  physics  at  Bo- 
logna, brother  of  Antonio  Aldini  and  nephew 
of  Galvani. 

Aldo  Manuzio.    See  Manutius. 

Aldo  (al'do),  Father.  'In  Dryden's  play  "Lim- 
berham,  or  the  Kind  Keeper,"  an  abandoned 
but  kind-hearted  old  debauchee. 

Aldobrandini  (al-do-bran-de'ne).  A  celebrated 
Florentine  family,  originally  from  the  village  of 
Lasciano,  near  Pistoja,  established  in  Florence 
since  the  12th  century.  Among  its  more  important 
members  are  Giovanni  A.  (1525 :  died  at  Kome,  1673),  an 
Italian  cardinal,  sonof  Silvestro  A.;  Giovanni  Francesco  A. 
(1646-1601),  a  papal  general,nephew  of  Pope  Clement  VIII. ; 
Pietro  A.  (1571-1621),  an  Italian  cardinal,  grandson  of  Sil- 
vestro A. ;  Silvestro  A.  (born  at  Florence,  Nov.  23, 1499 :  died 
at  Rome,  Jan.  6,  1558),  an  Italian  jurist;  and  Tommaso 
A.  (15407-72),  an  Italian  man  of  letters,  son  of  Silvestro 
A.,  author  of  a  Latin  translation  of  Diogenes  Laertius. 

Aldobrandini,  Ippolito.  See  Clement  Vlll., 
Pope. 

Aldred  (al'dred),  or  Ealdred  (e-al'dred),  or  Ai- 
red (al'red).  Died  at  York,  England,  Sept. 
11, 1069.  An  English  ecclesiastic,  made  bishop 
of  Worcester  in  1044  and  archbishop  of  York 
in  1060.  About  1050  be  was  sent  on  a  mission  to  Rome 
by  Edward  the  Confessor,  and  in  1064  to  the  court  of  the 
emperor  Henry  III.  to  negotiate  for  the  return  of 
jidward  the  ^theling  from  Hungary.  He  was  the  first 
English  bishop  to  make  the  pilgrimage  to  Jerusalem  (1058). 
According  to  one  account  (Florence  of  Worcester)  he 
crowned  Harold  in  1066,  but  the  ceremony  was  probably 
performed  by  Stigand,  He  submitted  to  William  I.,  whom 
he  crowned  1066  and  over  whom  he  is  said  to  have  exer- 
cised considerable  influence. 


Aldrich,  Henry 

Aldrich  (ftl'drieh  or  ai'drij),  Henry.  Bom  at 
Westminster,  England,  1647:  died  at  Oxford, 
England,  Dee.  14,  1710.  An  English  divine, 
writer,  musioian,  and  architect,  dean  of  Christ 
Church,  Oxford,  from  1689:  author  of  a  logical 
compendivim  (1691)  which  long  remained  a  pop- 
ular text-took  (ed.  by  Mansel). 

Aldrich,  Nelson  Wilmarth.  Bom  at  Poster, 
R.I.jNov.  6,1841.  An Americanpolitician,mem- 
ber  of  Congress  fromEhode  Island  1879-81,  and 
Republican  senator  from  Ehode  Island  1881-. 

Aldrich,  Thomas  Bailey.  Bom  at  Ports- 
mouth, N.  H.,  Nov.  11,  1836.  An  American 
poet,  novelist,  and  jouriialist,  editor  of  "Every 
Saturday"  (Boston,  1870-74),  and  of  the  "At- 
lantic Monthly  "  1881-90.  Hisworka  include  "Bells" 
(18S51,  "Ballad  of  Babie  Bell"  (18S6),  "Pampinea,  and 
other  Poems"  (1861),  "Poems"  (1863,  1865),  "Cloth  of 
Gold,  and  other  Poems  "  (1874),  "Flower  and  Thorn  "  (1876X 
"Story  of  a  Bad  Boy"  (1870),  "Marjorie  Daw,  and  other 
People"  (1873),  "Prudence  Palfrey"  (1874),  "Flower  and 
Thorn:  Later  Poems  "  (18Y6),  "The  Queen  of  Sheba"  (1877), 
"ftivermouth  Romance"  (1877),  "The  Stillwater  Tragedy" 
(1880),  "From  Ponkapog  to  Pesth"  (1883),  "Mercedes,  and 
Later  Lyrics"  (1883),  "Wyndham  Towers"  (1889),  "The 
Sisters'  Tragedy,  and  other  Poems  "  (1891). 

Aldridge  (al'drij),  Ira.  Said  to  have  been  bom 
at  Bellair,  near  Baltimore,  about  1810 :  died  at 
Lodz,  Poland,  Aug.  7, 1866.  A  negro  tragedian, 
sumamed  the  "African  Roseius,"  in  early  life 
valet  of  Edmund  Kean.  Among  his  chief  parts 
was  Othello. 

Aldringer  (alt'ring-er),  or  Aldringen  (alf- 
ring-en),  or  Altringer  (alt'rin^-er),  Count 
Jonann.  Bom  at  Thionville  (Diedenhofen), 
Lorraine,  Dee.  10,  1588:  killed  at  Landshut, 
Bavaria,  July,  1634.  An  Imperialist  general  in 
the  Thirty  Tears'  War.  He  succeeded  Tilly  as  com- 
mander of  the  army  of  the  Leaftue  in  1632,  and  distin- 
guished himself  under  Wallenstein  at  Nuremberg. 

Aldrovaud  (al'dro-vand).  Father.  A  Domini- 
can, the  warlike  chaplain  of  Lady  Eveline  Be- 
renger  in  Sir  Walter  Scott's  novel  "  The  Be- 
trothed." 

Aldrovandi  (al-dro-van'de),  L.  Aldrovandus 
(al-dro-van'dus),  Ulisse.  Born  at  Bologna, 
Italy,  'Sept.  11, 1522 :  died  at  Bologna,  May  10, 
1605.  Acelebratedltaliannaturalist,  appointed 
professor  of  natural  history  at  Bologna  in  1560. 
At  his  instance  the  senate  of  Bologna  established  in  1568 
a  botanical  garden,  of  which  he  was  appointed  director. 
He  also  served  as  inspector  of  drugs,  in  which  capacity  he 
published  " Antidotarii  Bononiensis  Epitome  "  (1574).  His 
chief  work  is  a  "Natural  History"  in  13  volumes,  espe- 
cially notable  on  account  of  the  profusion  and  excellence 
of  its  illustrations.  The  last  7  volumes  were  published 
after  his  death. 

Aldstone  (ald'stun),  or  Aldstone  Moor,  or 
Alston  Moor.  A  town  in  Cumberland,  Eng- 
land, 20  miles  southeast  of  Carlisle.  Popula- 
tion (1891),  3,884.     ■ 

Aldus  Manutius.    See  Manutius. 

Aleandro  (al-a-an'dro),  Girolamo,  L.  Alean- 
der,  Hieronymus.  Bom  at  Motta,  near  Ven- 
ice, Feb.  13,  1480 :  died  at  Eome,  Jan.  31, 1542. 
An  Italian  ecclesiastic  (cardinal)  and  scholar, 
author  of  a  "Lexicon  grseco-latinum"  (1512), 
etc.  He  was  several  times  papal  legate  or  nuncio  to 
Germany,  and  was  an  ardent  opponent  of  the  Reforma- 
tion. •  _ 

Aleardi  (a-la-ar'de),  Aleardo  (originally  G-ae- 
tano).  Born  at  Verona,  Italy,  Nov.  4,  1812: 
died  there,  July  17,  1878.  An  Italian  poet  and 
patriot,  an  active  partizan  of  the  insurrection 
in  Venetia  1848-49,  imprisoned  by  the  Austri- 
ans  in  1852  and  1859.  Best  edition  of  Ms 
poems,  Florence,  1862  (5th  ed.  1878). 

Alecsandri  (al-ek-san'dre),  or  Alexandri, 
Basil,  or  Vassili.  Born  in  Moldavia,  July, 
1821:  died  at  Mircesti,  Moldavia,  Sept.  4, 1890. 
A  Eumanian  poet,  politician,  and  journalist, 
active  in  politics  after  1848,  and  for  a  short 
time  (1859)  foreign  minister:  author  of  lyric 
and  dramatic  poems  in  Eumanian,  and  of 
translations  of  Rumanian  songs  into  French. 

Alecto  (a-lek'to).  [Gr.  ^A^KTa,  she  who  rests 
not.]  In  Greek  mythology,  one  of  the  three 
Erinyes.    See  Erinyes. 

Aleksin,  or  Alexin  (a-lek'sen).  A  town  in 
the  government  of  Tula,  Russia,  situated  on 
the  Oka  85  miles  south  by  west  of  Moscow. 
Population,  5,713. 

Aleman  (a-la-man'),  Mateo.  Bom  near  Se- 
ville in  the  middle  of  the  16th  century:  died  in 
Mexico  about  1610  (?).  A  Spanish  novelist,  for 
many  years  controller  of  the  finances  to  Philip 
II. :  author  of  the  famous  "La  vida  y  heehos 
del  piearo  Guzman  de  Alfarache"  (1599),  etc. 
See  Guzman  de  Alfarache. 

Alemanni,  Alemannic.  See  Alamawni,  Ala- 
mannic. 


34 

Alemanni,  Lxiigi,    See  'Alamanni,  l/aigi, 

Alemannia,    See  Alamannia. 

Alembert  (a-lon-bar'),  JeanBaptiste  le  Bond 
d'.  Born  at  Paris,  Nov.  16, 1717 :  died  at  Paris, 
Oct.  29,  1783.  A  noted  French  mathematician, 
philosopher,  and  author.  He  was  an  editor  of  the 
"EncyclopSdie,"  forwhichhe  wrote  the  introduction,  the 
mathematical  articles,  and  part  of  the  biographies.  In 
1772  he  became  perpetual  secretary  of  the  French  Acad- 
emy, and  in  that  capacity  was  the  spokesman  of  the  parti 
dee  philomphes  of  which  Voltaire  was  the  head.  His  prin- 
cipal works  are  "Trait6  de  dynamique"  (1748),  "Traltd 
de  I'^quilibre  et  du  mouvement  des  fluides"  (1744),  "Ee- 
cherches  sur  la  precession  des  Equinoxes  et  sur  la  nuta- 
tion de  I'axe  de  la  terre  "  (1749),"  Reoherches  sur  dift^rents 
points  importants  du  systime  du  monde"  (1754),  "Me- 
langes de  philoeophie  et  de  litt^rature,"  "Elements  de 
philosophic,"  "Opuscules  math^matiques"  (1761-80),  etc. 

Alemquer,  or  Alenquer  (a-lan-kar').  A  small 
town  m  the  province  of  Estremadura,  Portugal, 
29  miles  northeast  of  Lisbon. 

AlemcLuer,  or  Alenq.uer.  A  town  in  Brazil,  on 
the  Amazon  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Tapaj6s. 
Population,  3,000. 

Alemtejo  (a-lan-ta'zho).  A  province  of  Portu- 
gal, bounded  by  Beira  on  the  north,  by  Spain 
on  the  east,  byAlgarve  on  the  south,  and  by 
Estremadura  and  the  Atlantic  on  the  west.  It 
compi-ises  3  districts,  Evora,  Portalegre,  and  Beja.  Area, 
9,431  square  miles.    Population  (18^,  393,054. 

Alencar  (a-lan-kar'),  Jos^  Martiniano  de. 

Bom  in  Ceard,  May  1, 1829 :  died  at  Rio  de  Ja- 
neiro, Dec.  12,  1877.  A  Brazilian  jurist  and 
novelist,  best  known  from  his  stories  of  Indian 
and  colonial  life,  among  which  are  "O  Guar- 
any,"  "Iracema,"  and  "O  Sertanejo." 

AlenQOn  (a-lon-s6n').  A  former  countship  and 
duchy  of  France,  whose  counts  and  dukes  were 
prominent  in  the  14th,  15th,  and  16th  centuries. 
The  duchy  was  an  appanage  of  the  house  of  Va- 
lois.     See  below. 

Alengon.  The  capital  of  the  department  of 
Orne,  France,  situated  at  the  junction  of  the 
Briante  and  Sarthe  in  lat.  48°  25'  N.,  long.  0° 
5'  E,  It  has  an  importanttrade  and  manufactures  of  lace 
(the  celebrated  "point  d'Alencon"),  linen,  and  woolen 
goods.  The  town  was  often  taken  and  retaken  in  the  Eng- 
lish and  League  wars.  Captured  by  the  Germans  Jan.  16, 
1871.    Population  (1891),  18,319. 

Alengon,  Due  d'  (Charles  de  Valois).  Died 
1346.  A  brother  of  Philip  VI.  of  France,  killed 
in  the  battle  of  Cr6cy. 

AleuQon,  Due  d'  (Charles  IV.).  Bom  1489: 
died  April  11,  1525.  A  prince  of  the  blood  and 
constable  of  France,  husband  of  Margaret  of 
Valois,  sister  of  Francis  I.  His  cowardice  caused 
the  loss  of  the  battle  of  Favia  xn  1625  and  the  capture  of 
Francis  I. 

Alencon,  Due  d'  (Jean  II.).  Died  1476.  He  sup- 
ported the  Dauphin  against  his  father  Charles  VIL,  and 
was  condemned  to  death  in  1456,  the  sentence  being,  how- 
ever, commuted  to  life  imprisonment,  followed  by  a  par- 
don. 

Alenio  (a-la'ne-6),  Giulio.  Bom  at  Brescia, 
Italy,  about  1582:  died  1649.  An  Italian  Jes- 
uit, a  missionary  in  China. 

Aleppo  (a-lep'6).  [Ar.  Haleli  or  Halei-es-Shdh- 
6a.  J  Tli'e  capital  of  the  vilayet  of  Aleppo,  sit- 
uated on  the  Nahr-el-Haleb  in  lat.  36°  11'  32"  N., 
long.  37°  9'E.:  the  ancient  Beroea.  It  has  an  ex- 
tensive commerce,  and  manufactures  of  silk,  etc.  In 
688  It  was  conquered  by  the  Saracens ;  was  the  seat  of  a 
Seljuk  sultanate  11th  and  12th  centuries ;  was  captured  by 
the  Crusaders  under  Baldwin  in  1170 ;  was  plundered  by 
the  Mongols  and  by  Timur ;  was  conquered  and  annexed 
by  the  Turks  in  1517  ;  suffered  severely  from  plagues,  and 
in  1170  and  1822  from  earthquakes ;  and  was  the  scene 
of  an  outbrea1(  against  the  Christians  in  1850.  Popular 
tion  (estimated),  120,000. 

Aleppo.  A  vilayet  in  Asiatic  Turkey.  Popu- 
lation, 994,604. 

Aleppy.    See  Al(walU. 

Aler  (a'ler),  Paul.  Bom  at  Saint-Guy  in  Lux- 
emburg, Nov.  9, 1656:  died  at  Dilren,  Germany, 
May  2,  1727.  A  German  Jesuit,  author  of  the 
school  treatise  "  Gradus  ad  Parnassum"  (1702), 
etc. 

Aleshki  (a-lesh'ke).  A  town  in  the  govern- 
ment of  Taurida,  Russia,  near  the  Dnieper, 
opposite  Kherson.    Population,  9,925. 

Alesia  (a-le'shi-a).  [Grr.  'A/ieata.']  In  ancient 
geography,  the  capital  of  the  Mandubii  in  cen- 
tral Gaul,  usually  identified  with  Alise,  famous 
for  its  defense  by  Vercingetorix  (of  whom  Na- 
poleon III.  erected  a  colossal  statue  here)  and 
capture  by  Julius  Cresar  52  b.  c.    See  Alise. 

Alesius  (a-le'shi-us)  (properly  Aless),  Alex- 
ander. Bom  at  Edinburgh,  April  23,  1500: 
died  at  Leipsio,  March  17,  1565.  A  Scottish 
Lutheran  controversialist  and  exegete,  early 
made  a  canon  of  St.  Andrew's  where  he  was 
educated.  He  was  imprisoned  several  times  as  a  result 
of  his  reforming  tendencies,  and  finally  escaped  to  Ger- 
many in  1532,  where  he  became  the  friend  of  Luther  and 


Alexander 

Melanchtbon  and  declared  his  adherence  to  the  Augs- 
burg Confession.  In  August,  1535,  he  returned  to  England, 
and  was  intimately  associated  with  Cranmer  and  other 
English  reformers.  He  returned  to  Germany  in  1540,  was 
appointed  in  the  same  year  professor  of  theology  at  Frank- 
forton-the-Oder,  and  played  an  important  part  in  the 
German  Reformation.    Also  Alesse. 

Alessandri  (a-les-san'dre),  Alessandro.  Born 
at  Naples,  about  1461 :  died  1523.  An  Italian 
jurist  and  antiquarian,  author  of  "Dies  geni- 
ales"  (1522),  etc. 

Alessandri,  Basil.    See  Alecsandri. 

Alessandria  (al-es-san'dre-a).  [Named  for 
Pope  Alexander  III.]  The  capital  of  the  prov- 
ince of  Alessandria,  situated  at  the  junction  of 
the  Bormida  with  the  Tanaro,  lat.  44°  55'  N., 
long.  8°  38'  E.  it  is  an  important  railway  center  and 
a  strong  fortress,  and  has  flourishing  trade  and  manufac- 
tures of  woolen  goods,  linen,  silk,  etc.  The  town  was  built  by 
the  Lombard  League  against  Frederick  Barbarossa  in  1168 ; 
was  conquered  by  Sforza  in  1522 ;  was  unsuccessfully  be- 
sieged by  the  French  in  1657 ;  was  taken  by  the  Imperial- 
ists in  1707  ;  was  ceded  to  Savoy  in  1713  ;  was  the  capital 
of  the  French  department  of  Marengo  in  the  revolutionary 
period ;  was  taken  by  Suvarofl  in  1799 ;  was  occupied  by  the 
Austrians  in  1821 ;  became  a  Piedmontese  military  center 
1848-49;  and  was  occupied  by  the  Austrians  in  1849. 
Population,  30,000 ;  commune  (1891),  75,000. 

Alessandria.  A  province  in  Piedmont,  Italy. 
Area,  1,950  square  miles.  Population  (1891), 
estimated,  775,729. 

Alessandria.  A  small  town  in  the  province  of 
Girgenti,  Sicily,  20  miles  northwest  of  Gir- 
genti. 

Alessandria,  Armistice  of.  An  armistice 
agreed  upon  between  Napoleon  and  the  Aus- 
trian general  Melas,  June  16,  1800,  after  the 
battle  of  Marengo.  The  Austrians  retired  behind 
the  Kincio,  abandoning  to  the  French  every  fortress  in 
northern  Italy  west  of  that  river.  "  It  was  an  armistice 
more  fatal  [to  the  Austrians]  than  an  unconditional  sur- 
render."   Fyffe,  Hist,  of  Mod.  Europe. 

Alessi  (a-les'se),  Galeazzo.  Born  at  Peragia, 
Italy,  1500(1512?):  died  1572.  An  Italian  archi- 
tect, builder  of  the  church  of  Sta.  Maria  di 
Carignano  (in  Genoa),  and  of  palaces  and 
churches  in  Genoa,  Milan,  etc. 

Alessio  (a-les'se-o).  A  town  in  the  vilayet  of 
Skutari,  European  Turkey,  situated  on  the  Drin 
20  miles  southeast  of  Skutari :  the  ancient  Lis- 
sus,  founded  by  Dionysius.  Scanderbeg  died 
here.    Population,  about  3,000. 

Alet  (a-la').  A  town  in  the  department  of 
Aude,  France,  on  the  Aude  15  miles  southwest 
of  Carcassonne.  It  contains  a  ruined  cathe- 
dral. 

Aletsch  (a'lech)  Glacier.  The  largest  glacier 
in  Switzerland,  13  miles  in  length,  situated  in 
the  canton  of  Valais,  north  of  Brieg  and  south 
of  the  Jungfrau. 

Aletschhorn  (a'lech-h6rn).  A  peak  of  the  Ber- 
nese Alps,  13,773  feet  high,  near  the  Aletsch 
Glacier. 

Aleut  (al'e-ot).    See  TJnungun. 

Aleutian  Islands  (al-e-o'shi-an  I'landz),  or 
Catharine  Archipelago  (kaiili'a-rin  ar-M- 
pel'a-go).  A  chain  of  about  150  islands  belong- 
ing iprincipally  to  Alaska.  It  extends  westward 
from  the  peninsula  of  Alaska,  and  separates  Bering  Sea 
from  the  Paciilc  Ocean.  The  islands  were  discovered  by 
the  Russians  in  the  middle  of  the  18th  century.  Popu- 
lation (Aleuts),  about  2,000. 

Alexander  (al-eg-zan'der).  [Gr.  'A.U^av6poQ.'\ 
See  Paris. 

Alexander  III.,  sumamed ' '  The  Great."  Bom 
at  Pella,  Macedonia,  in  the  summer  or  autumn 
of  356  B.  c. :  died  at  Babylon,  May  or  June,  323 
B.  0.  A  famous  king  of  Macedon  and  con- 
queror, son  of  Philip  and  a  pupil  of  Aristotle. 
He  fought  at  the  battle  of  Chteronea  in  338 ;  succeeded 
to  the  throne  in  336 ;  subjugated  Thrace  and  lUyiia  in  SS6 ; 
and  conquered  and  destroyed  Tliebes  and  subdued  oppo- 
sition in  Greece  in  335.  In  334  he  started  on  his  eastern 
expedition ;  gained  the  victory  of  Granicus  in  334  and  of 
Issus  in  338  ;  captured  Tyre  and  Gaza,  occupied  Egypt, 
and  founded  Alexandria  in  832 ;  overtlurew  the  Persian 
Empire  at  Arbela  in  S31 ;  conquered  the  eastern  provinces 
of  Persia  330-327 ;  and  invaded  India  in  326.  He  returned 
from  India  to  Persia  325-324.  He  became  a  hero  of 
various  cycles  of  romance,  especially  in  the  middle  ages. 
See  Alexander,  Romance  of. 

Alexander.  A  Greek,  or  native  of  Lyncestis 
in  Macedonia  (whence  his  surname  "Lynces- 
tes"),  implicated  with  his  brothers  in  the  mur- 
der of  Philip,  336  B.  C.  Because  he  was  the  first  to 
do  homage  to  Alexander  the  Great,  the  latter  pardoned 
him  and  raised  him  to  a  high  position  in  the  army,  but 
afterward  put  him  to  death  for  a  treasonable  correspon- 
dence with  Darius. 

Alexander.  A  celebrated  commentatoronAris- 
totle  of  the  end  of  the  2d  and  beginning  of  the 
3d  century  a.  d.,  a  native  of  Aphrodisias  in 
Caria,  whence  his  surname  "  Aphrodisiensis." 
He  was  also  called  "the  Exegete."  More  than  half  of 
his  numerous  works  are  extant.  The  most  notable  is  a 
treatise  on  Aristotle's  views  concerning  fate  and  freewill 


Alexander 

Alexander,  sumamed  Balas  (the  Semitic 
ba'al  perhaps  signifies  'lord').  Killed  in 
Arabia,  146  b.  o.  A  person  of  low  origin  who 
usimied  the  Syrian  throne  in  150  b.  c.  He  was 
overthrown  in  battle  by  Ptolemy  Philometor  and  was 
murdered  by  an  Arabian  emir  with  whom  he  had  taken 
retuge. 


Alexander  I.    Died  326  b.  c.    Kmg  of  Epirus,  Alexander  VIII.  (Pietro  Ottoboni),    Bom  at 

son  of  Neoptolemus  and  brother  of  Olympias,    Venice,  1610 :  died  Feb.,  1691.    Pope  from  1689 
the  mother  of  Alexander  the  Great.    His  youth    ■■"--"- 
was  spent  at  the  court  of  Philip  of  Macedonia,  who  made 
him  king  of  Epirus.  On  her  repudiation  by  Philip,  Olym- 
pias sought  refuge  with  Alexander,  and  it  was  at  his 
marriage  with  Philip's  daughter  Cleopatra  iu  336  B.  0. 


that  pJuip  was  assassinated  by  Pausanias.    ^^J^^  Alexander  OfHaleS.     Born  at  Hales,  Glouces- 


Alexander,  Romance  of 

Alexander  Bey.  See  Scanderbeg. 
Alexander,  .^chibald.  Bom  in  Virginia, 
April  17,  1772:  died  at  Princeton,  N.  J.,  Oct. 
22,  1851.  An  American  Presbyterian  divine, 
president  of  Hampden  Sydney  College  (Va.> 
1796-1806,  and  professor  at  Princeton  Theolog- 
ical Seminary  1812-51.  He  wrote  "Eyidences  of 
Christianity"  (1823),  "Treatise  on  the  Canon  of  the  01* 
and  New  Testament"  (1826),  "Outlines  of  Moral  Science" 

till  1691.    He  condemned  the  doctrine  of  "philosophi-     (1852),  etc.       _      .       „ 

cal  sin, "  as  taught  by  the  Jesuit  Bongot  of  Dijon ;  assisted  Alexander,  Sarton  Stone.    Bom  in  Kentucky, 

Venice  agamat  the  Turks;  and  enriched  the  Vatican  li-     ■•"■'"■j^-j-'^'^-'^  •  "-      — 

brary  by  the  purchase  of  Queen  Christina's  collection  of 

books  and  manuscripts, 


35 

ena,  Feb.  13,  1599 :  died  May  22,  1667.  Pope 
from  April  7,  1655,  to  May  22,  1667.  He  was  a 
patron  of  learning  and  art,  and  a  poet.  He  promulgated 
a  bull  against  the  Jansenists,  and,  in  1662,  in  a  conflict 
with  Louis  XIV.,  was  deprlTCd  of  Avignon.  During  his 
pontificate  occurred  the  conversion  to  the  Catholic  faith 
of  Christina,  queen  of  Sweden,  after  her  abdication  (1664) 
of  the  Swedish  crown. 


Alexander  crossed  over  into  lisily  to  aid  the 
against  the  Lncanians  and  Bruttii.  He  was  treacherously 
killed  by  some  Lucanian  exiles  at  the  battle  of  Pandosia. 
Alexander  II.  King  of  Epirus,  son  of  Pyrrhus 
and  Lanassa,  the  daughter  of  Agathoeles,  ty- 
rant of  Syracuse.  He  succeeded  his  father  in  272 
B.  c.  He  was  dispossessed  of  Epirus  and  Macedonia  by 
Demetrius,  whose  father,  Antigonus  Gonatas,  he  had  de- 
prived of  Macedonia :  but  Epirus  was  recovered  by  the 
aid  chiefly  of  the  Acarnanians. 

Alexander,  sumamed  Jannaeus  (Heb.  Tannai, 
an  abbreviation  of  Jonathan).  Bom  128  or  129 
B.  0. :  died  78  b.  c.  King  of  the  Jews  from  104 
till  78  b.  c,  a  younger  son  of  John  Hyrcanus. 

Alexander,  sumamed  "The  Paphlagonian." 
An  impostor,  a  native  of  Abonoteichos  (lonop- 
olis  in  Cappadooia),  who  flourished  about  the 
beginning  of  the  2d  century.  He  posed  as  an 
oracle  and  wonder-worker,  and  attained  great  influence. 
His  tricks  were  exposed  by  Lucian. 

Alexander,  Saint.  Died  at  Alexandria,  April 
17,  326.  The  patriarch  of  Alexandria  from  312. 
He  condemned  the  heresy  of  Arius  in  his  dispute  with 
Alexander  Baucalis,  and  attended  the  Council  of  Nicsea 
in  325  with  his  deacon  St.  Athanasius. 

Alexander.  A  Greek  medical  writer  born  at 
Tralles  in  Lydia,  in  the  6th  century. 

Alexander  I,  Bishop  of  Rome,  successor  of 
Evaristus.  Eusebius  in  his  liistory  gives  as  the  date  of 
his  accession  the  year  109  A.  D. ;  in  his  chronicle,  the  year 
111  A.  D.   In  both  works  he  is  assigned  a  reign  of  ten  years. 

Alexander  II.  (Anselmo  Baggio.ML.  Ansel- 
mus  Badajus).  Born  at  Milan :  died  April  20, 
1073.  Pope  from  1061  to  1073,  successor  of  Mch- 


tershire,  England :  died  1245.  A  noted  Eng- 
lish theologian  and  philosopher,  sumamed 
"Doctor  Irrefragabilis."  He  lectured  at  Paris  and 
was  a  member  of  the  order  of  Franciscans.  His  chief  work 
is  "SummaTheologise"  (printed  1476). 

Alexander  has  acquired  a  place  in  the  roll  of  mediseval 
writers  mainly  by  the  accidents  of  his  historic  position. 
He  was  among  the  first  to  approach  the  labour  of  ex- 
pounding the  Christian  system  with  the  knowledge  not 
only  of  the  whole  Aristotelian  corpus,  but  also  of  the  Arab 
commentators.  He  thus  initiated  the  long  and  thorny  de- 
bates which  grew  out  of  the  attempt  to  amalgamate  the 
Christian  faith  with  a  radically  divergent  metaphysical 
view.  Leslie  Stephen,  Diet.  Nat.  Biog. 

Alexander  I.  Bom  1078  (?) :  died  at  Stirling, 
Scotland,  April  27, 1124.  A  king  of  Scotland,  the 
fourth  son  of  Malcolm  Canmore  and  Margaret, 
sister  of  Eadgar  the  .^theling,,and  brother  of 
Edgar  whom  he  succeeded  in  1107.  He  mar- 
ried Sibylla,  a  natural  daughter  of  Henry  I.  of 
England. 

Alexander  II.  Bom  at  Haddington,  Scotland, 
Aug.  24,  1198:  died  in  Kerrera,  Scotland,  July 
8,  1249.  A  king  of  Scotland,  son  of  William 
the  Lion  whom  he  succeeded  in  1214:  sur- 
named  "The  Peaceful."  He  joined  the  Eng- 
lish barons  sigainst  John. 

Alexander  III.  Bom  at  Eoxburgh,  Scotland, 
Sept.  4,  1241:  died  near  Kinghom,  Fife,  Scot- 
land, March  16, 1285.  A  king  of  Scotland,  son  of 
Alexander  11.  whom  he  succeeded  in  1249.  His 
army  defeated  the  Norwegians  in  1263, 
aided  Henry  HI.  of  England  in  1264, 


olas  U.     He  strove  to  enforce  the  celibacy  of  the  clergy  Alexander  I.     Born  at  St.  Petersburg,  Dec.  23, 


and  the  extravagant  pretensions  of  the  papacy.  His  elec- 
tion did  not  receive  the  imperial  sanction,  and  an  antipope, 
Honorius  II.  (Cadolaus,  bishop  of  Parma),  was  chosen  by 
a  council  at  Basel,  but  was  later  deposed  by  a  council 
held  at  Mantua.  Alexander  was  succeeded  by  Hilde- 
brand  under  the  name  of  Gregory  VII. 

Alexander  III.  (Rolando  Kanuci  of  the  house 
of  Bandlnelli).  Born  at  Siena,  Italy:  died 
Aug.  30,  1181.  Pope  from  1159  to  1181.  He 
carried  out  successfully  me  policy  of  Hildebrand  in  oppo- 
sition to  Frederick  Barbarossa  and  Henry  II.  of  England. 
'J'hree  antipopes,  Victor  IV.,  Pascal  III.,  and  Calixtus. 
III.,  elected  in  1159,  1164,  and  1168,  respectively,  were 
confirmed  by  the  emperor  and  disputed  the  authority  of 
Alexander,  who  was  compelled  to  seek  refuge  in  France 
from  1162  to  1165.  The  contest  between  the  pope  and  the 
emperor  ended  in  the  decisive  defeat  of  the  latter  at  the 
battle  of  Legnano,  May  29, 1176.  In  1177  a  reconciliation 
took  place  at  Venice,  and  in  1178  the  antipope  Calixtus 


1777 :  died  at  Taganrog,  Russia,  Dec!  1,  18251 
Emperor  of  Russia,  son  of  Paul  whom  he  suc- 
ceeded in  1801.  He  encouraged  education  and  science, 
and  the  introduction  of  Western  civilization  ;  carried  out 
many  reforms,  including  the  abolition  of  serfdom  in  the 
Baltic  provinces ;  and  promoted  trade  and  manufactures. 
In  1805  he  joined  the  coalition  against  Napoleon ;  was 
present  at  the  battle  of  Austerlitz ;  joined  Prussia  against 
Napoleon  in  1806;  signed  the  Peace  of  Tilsit  in  1807;  and 


1819:  died  at  San  Francisco,  Cal.,  Dec.  IB,. 
1878.  An  American  military  engineer  and  offi- 
cer in  the  Civil  War,  brevetted  colonel  and. 
brigadier-general  March  13, 1865. 
Alexander,  Edmund  B.  Bom  at  Haymarket- 
Va.,  Oct.  6,  1802:  died  at  Washington,  D.  C., 
Jan.  3,  1888.  An  American  officer.  He  served 
in  the  Mexican  war,  commanded  the  Utah  expedition 
1867-68,  and  was  brevetted  brigadier-general  Oct.  18, 1865. 

Alexander,  Sir  James  Ed'nrard.  Born  in 
Scotland,  1803:  died  April  2,  1885.  A  British 
soldier  (general)  and  explorer,  author  of 
"Travels  through  Russia  and  the  Crimea"' 
(1830),  "Expedition  of  Discovery  into  the  In- 
terior of  Africa"  (1838),  etc.  He  served  in  India 
and  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  and  in  the  Burmese,  Kafir, 
Crimean,  and  other  wars.  In  1836-37  he  conducted  an  ex- 
ploring expedition  into  central  Africa. 

Alexander,  James  Waddel.  Born  in  Louisa 
County,  Va.,  March  13, 1804:  died  at  Red  Sweet 
Springs,  Va.,  July  31,  1859.  An  American 
Presbyterian  clergyman,  son  of  Archibald  Alex- 
ander. He  was  professor  of  rhetoric  and  belles-lettres 
at  Princeton  College  1833-44,  and  of  ecclesiastical  history 
and  church  government  in  Princeton  Theological  Semi- 
nary 1844-61,  and  pastor  of  the  Fifth  Avenue  Presbyte- 
rian Church,  New  York,  1851-59. 

Alexander,  John.  A  pseudonym  of  Jeremy 
Taylor,  used  in  1642. 

Alexander  John  (Alexander  John  Cuza  or 
Cusa).  Bom  at  Hush,  Moldavia,  March  20, 
1820:  died  at  Heidelberg,  Baden,  May  15, 1873- 
Prince  of  Moldavia  and  Wallachia  1859,  and  of 
^^^  Rumania  1861 :  dethroned  1866. 
^d  Alexander,  John  W.  Bom  at  Pittsburg,  Pa.,. 
Oct.  7,  1856.  An  American  portrait-painter. 
He  studied  at  Munich,  at  Paris,  and  in  Italy,  and 
is  soci^taire  of  the  Beaux  Arts  at  Paris. 

Alexander,  Joseph  Addison.  Bom  at  Phila- 
delphia, April  24,  1809:  died  at  Princeton, 
N.  J.,  Jan.  28,  1860.  An  American  biblical 
scholar,  son  of  Archibald  Alexander,  and  pro- 
fessor in  Princeton  Theological  Seminary.  He 
wrote  commentaries  on  Isaiah  (1846-47),  on  the  Psalms- 
(1860),  and  on  several  books  of  the  New  Testament. 


jNapojeonm  ibob;  signeatnereaceotTilsitm  1807;  and   AloTa-ndor    (a    lak    oar,',^or■^    1  ■nA-ari.T  fian-^^ 
conquered  Finland  in  1808.    A  successful  war  was  waged  ■^®?^"?®^  J*  '.,^'  ^^\  "■^^'>  JjUdWlg  GCOrg 


with  Turkey  1806-12.  In  1812  Napoleon  invaded  Russia 
(see  Napoleon).  Alexander  was  a  leader  in  the  coalition 
against  France  1813-14  ;was  present  at  the  battles  of  Dres- 
den and  Leipsic  in  1813 ;  entered  Paris  in  1814 ;  took  part 
in  the  Congress  of  Vienna;  became  king  of  Poland  in  1816; 
again  entered  Paris  in  1815 ;  formed  the  Holy  Alliance  in 
1815,  and  took  part  in  the  conferences  of  Aix-la-Chapelle  in 
1818,  Troppau  in  1820,  Laibach  in  1821,  and  Verona  in  1822. 
He  married  a  princess  of  Baden. 


III.  abdicated.    The  contest  with  Henry  II.  of  England  Alexander  II.    Born  April  29,  1818:  died  at  St. 


ended  in  the  humiliation  of  the  king  and  the  canonization 
of  Thomas  k  Beckett  who  represented  the  papal  claims  of 
supremacy. 

Alexander  IV.  (Count  Binaldo  di  Segni). 

Died  at  Viterbo,  Italy,  May  25,  1261.  Pope 
from  1254  to  1261.  He  attempted  to  unite  the  Greek 
and  Latin  churches,  established  the  Inquisition  in  France 
in  1265,  and  encouraged  the  orders  of  mendicant  friars. 
The  last  years  of  his  pontificate  were  spent  at  Viterbo, 
whither  he  had  been  driven  by  the  factional  struggles  in 
Rome. 

Alexander  V.  (Pietro  Philarghi).  Bom  at 
Candia:  died  at  Bologna,  May  3,  1410, 
from  June  26,  1409,  to  May  3,  1410. 
elected  by  the  Council  of  Pisa,  after  the  deposition  of 
Benedict  XIII.  and  Gregory  XII.,  with  the  understanding 
that  he  should  reform  the  abuses  of  the  church.  He  was, 
according  to  the  general  belief,  poisoned  by  Balthasar 
Cossa,  his  successor  under  the  name  of  John  XXIII. 

Alexander  VI.  (Kodrigo  Borgia).    Bom  at 

Xativa  in  Valencia,  Jan.  1, 1431 :  died  Aug.  18, 
1503.  Pope  from  Aug.  11, 1492,  to  Aug.  18, 1503. 
He  was  made  cardinal  and  vice-chancellor  in  1456  by  his 
uncle  Calixtus  III. ,  whom  he  also  succeeded  as  archbishop 
of  Valencia.  His  election  to  the  pontificate  is  ascribed  to 
bribery.  His  efforts  were  directed  toward  the  aggran- 
dizement ol  the  temporal  power  of  the  papacy  at  the  ex- 
pense of  the  feudal  vassals  of  the  church,  and  toward  the 
foundation  for  his  family  of  a  great  hereditary  dominion 
in  Italy.  In  the  furtherance  of  these  plans  two  of  his  five 
Illegitimate  children  by  Eosa  Vanozza  (Csesar  and  Lucretia 
Borgia)  played  important  parts.  May  4, 1493,  Alexander 
issued  his  bull  dividing  the  New  World  between  Spain  and 
Portugal.  In  1494  he  unsuccessfully  opposed  the  entrance 
of  Charles  VIII.  into  Naples,  but  in  1496  he  joined  the 
league  between  the  emperor,  Milan,  Venice,  and  Spain, 
which  drove  Charles  from  Italy.  May  23, 1498,  the  exe- 
cutinn  of  Savonarola  took  place  by  his  order,  and  in  1601 
he  instituted  the  censorship  of  books.  He  was  poisoned, 
it  is  said,  by  a  cup  of  wine  intended  for  Cardinal  Corneto. 
Alexander  VII.  (Fabio  Chigi).    Bom  at  Si- 


Petersburg,  March  13,  1881.  Emperor  of  Rus- 
sia, son  of  Nicholas  I.  whom  he  succeeded  in 
1855.  He  concluded  the  treaty  of  Paris  1866 ;  proclaimed 
the  emancipation  of  the  serfs  1861 ;  reorganized  the  army 
and  the  departments  of  administration  and  justice;  and 


Friedrich  Emil.  Born  July  15, 1823  :  died  Dec. 
15,  1888.  Prince  of  Hesse,  younger  son  of  the! 
grand  duke  Ludwig  II.  of  Hesse-Darmstadt.. 
He  distinguished  himself  in  the  Russian  military  service,, 
and  later  in  the  Austrian,  commanding  a  South-German 
contingent  against  Prussia  in  1866. 

Alexander  (al-eg-zan'dfer).  Sir  William.  Bom 
1567  (?) :  died  at  London,  Sept.  12,  1640.  A 
Scottish  poet  and  statesman,  created  earl  of 
Stirling  iu  1633.  Author  of  "Monarchicke  Tragedies  " 
(1603-07);  "Parsenesis  to  the  Prince"  (1604);  "Doomes- 
day,  etc."  (first  part  1614),  etc.  He  received  Sept.  21, 1621, 
the  grant  of  New  Scotland  (i.  e..  Nova  Scotia  and  New 
Brunswick),'  which  he  transferred  to  De  la  Tour  in  1630. 
In  1626  he  was  appointed  secretary  of  state  for  Scotland.. 


developed  commerce  and  manufactures.    He  suppressed    . .,  ,         ..if.-..  ^  ^         a    xt         ^t     t 

the  Polish  insurrection  1863-64,  and  carried  on  war  with  Alexander,   William.      Born    at   JNew    york. 


Turkey  1877-78.  During  the  latter  part  of  his  reign  he 
was closeljr  allied  with  Germanyand  Austria.  Theattacks 
of  the  NihUists  led  him  to  enter  upon  a  reactionary  pol- 
icy in  1879,  and  he  was  finally  assassinated  by  them.  He 
married  a  princess  of  Hesse. 
Pope  Alexander  III.  Born  March  10,  1845:  died  at 
He  was  Livadia,  Crimea,  Nov.  1, 1894.  Emperor  of  Rus- 
sia, son  of  Alexander  II.  whom  he  succeeded 
March  13, 1881,  He  continued  the  reactionary  policy 
of  his  father's  reign.    A  meeting  of  the  emperors  of  Rus- 


1726:  died  at  Albany,  N.  Y.,  Jan.  15, 1783.  An 
American  major-general  in  the  Revolutionary- 
War,  known  as  Lord  Stirling,  though  his  olaimi 
to  the  Stirling  title  and  estate  was  pronounced 
invalid  by  the  lords'  committee  on  privileges^ 
in  March,  1762.  He  entered  the  service  as  colonel  of  a 
militia  regiment  in  1776,  commanded  a  brigade  at  the 
battle  of  Long  Island  in  1776,  where  he  was  taken  pris- 
oner, and  also  served  at  Trenton,  Brandywine,  German- 
town,  and  Monmouth. 


i^:^,lZTZiZil^^!-r^li^SSlt^ZL^^i^t  Alexander,  William  Lindsay..  Born  at  Edin- 


the  time,  but  since  the  formation  of  the  Triple  Alliance 
(which  see)  in  1883,  Russia  has  become  a  virtual  ally  of 
France.  Alexander  opposed  Prince  Alexander  of  Bulgaria 
at  the  time  of  his  overthrow  in  1886,  and  refused  to  rec- 
ognize his  successor  Prince  Ferdinand.  (For  the  chief 
events  in  his  reign,  see  Ruisia.)  He  married  Princess 
Dagmar  of  Denmark  in  1866. 
Alexander  I.  Bom  April  5,  1857 :  died  Nov. 
17,  1893.  Titular  prince  of  Battenberg,  the 
second  son  of  Prince  Alexander  of  Hesse.  He 
served  in  the  Hessian  army,  and  in  the  Russo-Turkish 
war  of  1877-78  in  the  Russian  army.  He  was  elected  prince 
of  Bulgaria  April  29, 1879 ;  suspended  constitutional  gov- 
ernment there  1881-83 ;  became  by  the  revolution  at  Philip- 
popolis,  Sept.,  1886,  prince  of  Eastern  Rumelia  also ;  com- 
manded in  the  repulse  of  the  Servian  invasion,  Nov.,  1885, 
at  the  battles  of  Slivnitza,  Dragoman  Pass,  Tsaribrod,  and 
Pirot ;  became  governor-general  of  Eastern  Rumelia  April, 
1886;  and  was  overthrown  by  a  conspiracy  at  Sofia  Aug. 
21, 1886,  and  abducted  to  Reni  on  the  Danube.  He  was 
restored  at  the  end  of  August  by  a  counter-revolution,  but 
abdicated  in  the  beginning  of  Sept.,  1886. 


burgh,  Aug.  24,  1808:  died  atPinkiebum,  near 
Edinburgh,  Dec.  21,  1884.  A  Scottish  Congre- 
gational clergyman  and  religious  writer,  a 
member  of  the  Old  Testament  revision  com- 
mittee in  1870. 

Alexander,  Mrs.    See  Sector,  Annie. 

Alexander,  Campaspe,  and  Diogenes.  A 
comedy  by  John  Lyly,  printed  in  1584,  and  re- 
printed as  "Campaspe"  in  that  year  and  in 
1591.    It  is  usually  known  by  the  latter  title. 

Alexander,  Romance  of.  One  of  the  most  fa- 
mous romances  of  the  middle  ages.  Callisthenes, 
a  companion  of  Alexander,  wrote  an  account  of  the  Asi- 
atic expedition  of  Alexander,  but  it  is  lost.  His  name^ 
however,  is  attached  to  a  fabulous  account  which  is  sup- 
posed to  have  been  written  in  Alexandria  in  the  early 
part  of  the  3d  century.  There  are  three  Latin  translations 
of  this  pseudo-Callisthenes  :  one  by  Julius  Valerius,  be- 
fore 340;  the  "Itinerarium  Alexandri";  and  the  "His- 
toria  de  preliis,"  by  Archpresbyter  Leo;  and  on  thesa 


Alexander,  Bomance  of 

the  later  ones  are  based.  It  was  translated  into  Syriac 
and  Armenian  in  the  6th  century.  The  Persians  and 
Arabs  made  use  of  the  myth,  and  in  the  Uth  century 
Simeon  Seth,  iseeper  of  the  imperial  wardrobe  at  the  By- 
zantine courts  translated  it  back  from  the  Persian  into 
the  Greek. 

[This]  was  translated  into  Latin,  and  from  Latin  even  into 
Hebrew,  by  one  who  wrote  under  the  adopted  name  of 
Jos.  Gorionides,  had  very  wide  popularity,  and  became 
the  groundwork  of  many  French  and  English  poems.  Ger- 
ald de  Barri  mentions  the  Latin  version  which  professed 
to  be  by  an  Jisopus  or  a  Julius  Valerius,  and  had  a  flcti. 
tious  dedication  to  Constantino  the  Great.  In  the  year 
1200  Gaultier  de  Chatillon  turned  it  into  an  Alexaudreis, 
which  was  one  of  the  best  Latin  poems  of  the  Middle 
Ages ;  and,  again,  in  1236  Aretinus  Qualichinus  turned  it 
into  Latin  elegiac  verse.  ...  A  score  of  French  poets 
worked  upon  the  subject,  and  by  translation  and  expan- 
sion produced  that  romance  of  Alexander  of  which  the 
great  French  exemplar  was  composed  in  or  near  the  year 
1184  by  the  trouvfere  Lambert  ]i  Cort,  or  le  Court,  of  Cha- 
teaudun,  and  Alexandre  de  Paris,  named  usually  from 
Paris  where  he  dwelt,  and  sometimes  from  Bernay  where 
he  was  born.  There  are  only  fragments  of  the  earliest 
French  poem  upon  this  subject,  written  in  the  eleventh 
century  in  octosyllabic  verse  by  Alberic  [Aubry]  of  Besan- 
(jon.  The  larger  and  later  romance  or  Chanson  d'Alixandre 
is  of  22,606  lines  in  nine  books,  and  the  twelve-syllabled 
lines  are  of  the  sort  now  called,  as  is  generally  supposed 
from  their  use  in  this  poem.  Alexandrines.  .  .  .  There  is 
a  German  Alexandreis,  written  in  six  books,  by  Kudolph 
of  Hohenems,  a  Suabian,  between  the  years  1220  and  1254. 
TJlricli  von  Eschenhach  translated  the  Alexandreis  of  Gaul- 
tier de  Chatillon.  The  Alexander  romance  was  adopted  in 
Spain,  Ita^,  and  even  in  Scandinavia.  An  admirable  free 
translation  into  English  metre  was  made  in  the  thirteenth 
century  by  an  unknown  author,  who  has  been  called 
Adam  Davie,  .  .  .  But  few  mistakes  can  be  more  obvious, 
Marley,  English  Writers,  IIL  286, 

[Lamprecht,  a  priest,  translated  the  French  of  Aubry,  or 
Alberic,  of  Besan^on,  into  Gei-man,  and  called  it  the  Alex- 
anderlied,  in  the  12th  century  (about  1130).  The  Alexan- 
dreis of  the  Austrian  Siegfried  was  written  about  1350.  lu 
the  16th  century  he  again  appeared  as  the  hero  of  prose 
romances  in  Germany.  Alexander  myths  are  to  be  found 
in  many  other  of  the  old  French  poems,  and  he  becomes  a 
knightly  conqueror  surrounded  by  twelve  paladins.  The 
poems  do  not  properly  form  a  cycle,  as  they  are  quite  in- 
dependent of  one  another.] 
Alexander  Column.  A  columm  erected  at  St. 
Petersburg  in  1832  in  honor  of  Alexander  I. 
The  polished  shaft  of  red  granite,  84  feet  high  and  14  in 
diameter,  is  remarkable  as  the  greatest  modern  monolith. 
It  supports  a  Eoman-Doric  capital  of  bronze,  on  which  is 
a  die  bearing  a  figure  of  an  angel  with  the  cross.  The 
pedestal  is  adorned  with  reliefs  in  bronze.  The  total 
height  is  154|  feet. 

Alexander  Cornelius  (k6r-ne'lius).  A  Greek 
writer  of  the  1st  century  B.  c,  a  native  either 
of  Ephesus  or  of  Cotiseum  in  Lesser  Phrygia : 
surnamed  "  PolyHstor"from  his  great  learning. 
During  the  war  of  Sulla  in  Greece  he  was  made  prisoner 
and  sold  as  a  slave  to  Cornelius  Lentulus,  who  brought 
liim  to  Bome  to  become  pedagogue  of  his  children.  He 
received  the  Roman  franchise  and  his  gentile  name  either 
from  Cornelius  Lentulus  or  from  L.  Cornelius  Sulla.  He 
died  at  Laurentum  In  a  fire  which  destroyed  his  house. 
He  wrote  a  geographico-historical  account  in  42  books  of 
nearly  all  the  countries  of  the  ancient  world,  and  many 
other  works,  of  which  only  the  titles  and  fragments  have 
been  preserved. 

Alexander  Jagellon  (ja-gel'lon).  Bom  in 
1461 :  died  in  1506,  King  of  Poland  and  grand 
duke  of  Lithuania,  second  son  of  Casimir  IV, 
of  Poland,  He  succeeded  to  the  grand  duchy  at  the 
death  of  his  father  in  1492,  and  was  elected  king  of  Poland 
at  the  death  of  his  brotlier  John  Albert  in  1501,  He  mar- 
ried Helena,  daughter  of  Ivan  III.  of  Eussia,  but  was  al- 
most incessantly  at  war  with  his  father-in-law.  In  his 
reign  the  laws  of  Poland  were  codified  by  John  Laski. 

Alexander  Karageorgevitch  (ka-ra-ga-or'ge- 
vich),  [Karageorgemtch,  son  of  Black  George. 
See  Czemy.']  Born  at  Topola,  Servla,  Oct.  11, 
1806:  died  at  Temesvar,  Hungary,  May  2, 
1885.  A  son  of  Czerny  George,  elected  prince 
of  Servia  in  1842  and  deposed  in  1858.  He  was 
succeeded  by  Prince  Milosch  Obrenovitch,  who  was  in 
turn  succeeded  by  his  son  Michael  in  1860.  Alexander 
made  repeated  attempts  to  regain  the  throne,  and  was 
accused  of  complicity  in  the  murder  of  Prince  Michael  in 
1868  and  imprisoned,  but  was  soon  pardoned. 

Alexander  Nevski  (nef'ski),  Saint,  Bom  at 
Vladimir,  Eussia,  1219:  died  Nov,  14, 1263,  A 
Kussian  national  hero  and  patron  of  St.  Peters- 
burg, prince  of  Novgorod  and  grand  duke  of 
Vladimir.  He  defeated  the  Swedes  in  1240  on  the  Izhora, 
a  southern  affluent  of  the  Neva  (whence  his  surname 
Nevski),  and  the  Livonian  Enights  on  the  ice  of  Lake 
Peipus,  1242,  He  is  commemorated  in  the  Kussian  Church 
Nov.  23. 

Alexander  Nevski,  Cloister  or  Monastery 

of.  A  famous  foundation  of  Peter  the  Great 
at  St.  Petersburg.  The  large  church,  though  by  a 
Russian  architect,  is  ba&ilican  in  plan,  with  transepts  and 
an  Italian  dome  at  the  crossing.  The  exterior  is  sober 
in  design  and  ornament ;  the  interior  is  of  lavish  richness 
in  maniles,  jewels,  and  paibtings.  The  shrine  of  the 
saint,  in  massive  silver,  is  15  feet  high  without  the  angel- 
supported  canopy. 

Alexander  of  the  North.  An  epithet  of  Charles 
Xn.  of  Sweden. 

Alexander  Severus  (se-ve'ms),  Marcus  Aure- 
lius.  Bom  at  Area  Cfesarea  in  Phoenicia  about 
205  A.  D. :  died  in  235  A.  d.    Eoman  emperor 


36 

from  222  to  235,  son  of  Gessius  Marcianus  and 
Julia  MamsBa,  and  a  cousin  of  Elagabalus  by 
whom  he  was  adopted  in  221.  He  was  killed  by 
his  mutinous  soldiers  in  a  campaign  against  the  Germans 
on  the  Ehine.    See  Mamsea. 

Alexander  the  Corrector.    A  pseudonym  of 
Alexander  Cruden. 
Alexander  and  the  Family  of  Darius.    An 

important  painting  by  Paolo  Veronese,  in  the 
National  Gallery,  London. 

Alexander's  Feast.  An  ode  by  Dryden  writ- 
ten in  1697,  in  honor  of  St.  Cecilia's  day. 

Alexanderbad  (ai-ek-san'der-bad),  or  Alex- 
andersbad  (al-ek-san'ders-bad).  A  watering- 
place  in  Upper  Franconia,  Bavaria,  in  the 
Fichtelgebirge  21  miles  northeast  of  Baireuth. 

Alexander  Archipelago.  A  group  of  islands 
on  the  coast  of  Alaska  which  includes  Sitka 
and  Prince  of  Wales  islands. 

Alexander  I.  Land,  A  region  in  the  South 
Polar  lands,  about  lat.  70°  S.,  long.  75°  W. 

Alexandra  (al-eg-zan'dra).  Died  in  69  B.  c. 
(^ueen  of  Judea  from  78"b.  c.  to  69  B.  c,  con- 
sort of  Alexander  Janneeus  whom  she  suc- 
ceeded. 

Alexandra  (Caroline  Marie  Charlotte  Louise 
Julie),  Bom  at  Copenhagen,  Dec.  1,  1844. 
Daughter  of  Christian  IX.  of  Denmark  and 
wife  of  Edward  VII.,  king  of  England,  whom 
she  married  March  10,  1863. 

Alexandra.  The  queen  of  the  Amazons  in 
Ariosto's  "Orlando  Furioso." 

Alexandra.  The  54th  asteroid,  discovered  by 
Goldschmidt  at  Paris,  Sept.  10,  1858. 

Alexandra  Land.  A.  vast  region  of  Australia 
under  the  administration  of  Sonth  Australia, 
regarded  as  the  same  as  the  Northern  Territory, 
or  as  that  part  of  it  which  is  included  between 
lat.  16°-26°  S.  and  long.  129°-138°  E. 

Alexandre  (al-ek-son'dr),  Aaron.  Bom  at 
Hohenfeld,  Bavaria,  about  1766:  died  at  Lon- 
don, Nov.  16,  1850.  A  German  chess-player, 
author  of  "Eneyclop^die  des  tehees"  (1837). 

Alexandre  le  Grand  (al-ek-son'dr  le  gron). 
A  tragedy  by  Kacine,  produced  in  1665.  it  was 
the  cause  of  a  serious  quarrel  between  Moli6reand  Racine, 
who  both  loved  the  same  woman,  an  actress  who  played 
the  part  of  Axiane. 

Alexandretta  (al-eg-zan-dret'a),  Turk.  Skan- 
derun,  or  Iskanderun  (from  Arab.  Ishan- 
der,  Alexander  (the  Great)).  A  seaport  in 
the  vilayet  of  Adana,  Asiatic  Turkey,  on  the 
Gulf  of  Iskandemn  in  lat.  36°  35'  N.,  long. 
36°  10'  E.,  founded  by  Alexander  the  Great  in 
333  B.  C. 

Alexandria  (al-eg-zan'drl-a),  Arab.  Iskan- 
deriyeh.  A  famous  seaport  of  Egypt,  founded 
by  Alexander  the  Great  in  332  b.  O.  (whence  its 
name).  It  is  situated  at  the  northwestern  extremity  of 
the  Delta  on  the  strip  of  land  which  lies  between  the 
Mediterranean  and  Lake  Mareotis.  The  modern  city  oc- 
cupies what  was  anciently  the  island  of  Pharos,  together 
with  the  isthmus  now  connecting  it  with  the  mainland 
where  the  ancient  city  stood.  Alexandria  was  the  capital 
of  Egypt  during  the  Ptolemaic  period,  and  became  an  im- 
portant seat  of  Greek  culture  and  learning.  In  30  B.  c. 
it  was  annexed  by  Rome.  It  ranked  as  the  second  city  of 
the  Roman  Empire,  and  continued  to  be  the  chief  com- 
mercial city  under  the  Byzantine  empire.  It  was  an 
important  center  of  Christianity,  and  the  seat  of  a  patri- 
archate. In  641  it  was  taken  by  the  Saracens  under  Amru, 
and  was  entered  by  the  Frencli  in  1798,  who  were  defeated 
near  here  by  the  British  inlSOl.  (See  .4  tmkir.)  The  pres- 
ent city  was  largely  rebuilt  under  Mehemet  All.  It  was 
bombarded  by  a  British  fleet  of  eight  ironclads  under  Sir 
Frederick  Seymour,  July  11, 1882,  and  defended  by  the  in- 
surgents, and  was  taken  by  the  British  July  12.  Popu- 
lation (1897),  319,766. 

After  the  time  of  Alexander,  Grecian  literature  flour- 
ished nowhere  so  conspicuously  as  at  Alexandria  in 
Egypt,  under  the  auspices  of  the  Ptolemies.  Here  all  the 
sects  of  philosophy  had  established  themselves ;  numer- 
ous schools  were  opened ;  and,  for  the  advancement  of 
learning,  a  library  was  collected,  which  was  supposed,  at 
one  time,  to  have  contained  700,000  volumes,  in  all  lan- 
guages. Connected  with  the  library  there  were  extensive 
offices,  in  which  the  business  of  transcribing  books  was 
carried  on  very  largely,  and  with  every  possible  advan- 
tage which  royal  munificence  on  the  one  hand,  and 
learned  assiduity  on  the  other,  could  insure.  Nor  did 
the  literary  fame  of  Alexandria  decline  under  the  Roman 
emperors.  Domitian,  as  Suetonius  reports,  sent  scribes 
to  Alexandria  to  copy  books  for  the  restoration  of  those 
libraries  that  had  been  destroyed  by  fire.  And  it  seems 
to  have  been  for  some  centuries  afterwards  a  common 
practice  for  those  who  wished  to  form  a  library,  to  main- 
tain copyists  at  Alexandria.  The  conquest  of  Egypt  by 
the  Saracens,  A.  D.  640,  who  burned  the  Alexandrian 
Library,  banished  learning  for  a  time  from  that,  as  from 
other  countries,  which  they  occupied. 

Taylor,  Hist.  Anc.  Books,  p.  69. 
[This  library  (according  to  many  writers  who  discredit 
its  sacking  by  the  Arabs)  was  entirely  destroyed  under 
Theophilus,  A.  D.  391.]' 

Alexandria.  A  small  town  on  the  coast  of 
Asia  Minor,  near  the  island  of  Tenedos.  it  con- 
tains important  ruins  of  Roman  thermse.    The  structure 


Alexis 

measured  270  by  404  feet  in  plan,  and  had  on  three  sides 
long  halls,  with  columns,  inside  of  which  were  smaller  sub- 
divisions. The  walls  of  the  interior  were  incrusted  with 
ornamental  marbles,  and  the  vaults  ornamented  with 
glass  mosaics.  It  is  believed  to  date  from  the  reign  of 
Hadrian. 

Alexandria.  A  town  in  southern  Rumania, 
50  miles  southwest  of  Bukharest.  Population 
(1889-90),  12,308. 

Alexandria.  A  small  manufacturing  town  in 
Dumbartonshire,  Scotland,  situated  on  the 
Leven  15  miles  northwest  of  Glasgow. 

Alexandria.  The  capital  of  Eapides  parish, 
Louisiana,  situated  on  Red  River  100  miles 
northwest  of  Baton  Rouge.  A  Federal  squadron  in 
Banks's  expedition  passed  the  rapids  here,  May,  1864,  by 
means  of  a  dam  built  by  Lieutenant-Colonel  Bailey.  Pop- 
ulation (1900),  6,648. 

Alexandria.  A  town  in  Jefferson  County, 
New  York,  situated  on  the  St.  Lawrence  32 
miles  southwest  of  Ogdensburgh.  Population 
(1900),  3,894. 

Alexandria.  The  capital  of  Douglas  County, 
Minnesota,  125  miles  northwest  of  St.  Paul. 
Population  (1900),  2,681. 

Alexandria.  A  city,  port  of  entry,  and  the 
capital  of  Alexajidria  County,  Virginia,  situated 
on  the  Potomac  7  miles  south  of  Washington. 
It  was  entered  by  Federal  troops  May  24, 1861.  Population 
(1900),  14,528. 

Alexandrian  Codex,  L.  Codex  Alexandrinus. 

An  important  manuscript  of  the  Scriptures 
now  in  the  British  Museum,  sent  to  Charles  I. 
of  England  by  the  Patriarch  of  Constantinople. 
It  is  written  in  Greek  uncials  on  parchment,  and  con- 
tains the  Septuagint  version  of  the  Old  Testament  com- 
plete, except  parts  of  the  Psalms,  and  almost  all  the  New 
Testament.    It  is  assigned  to  the  5th  century. 

Alexandrian  Saga.  See  Alexander,  Momance  of. 

Alexandrina  (al  -  eg  -  zan  -  dri'na),  Lake.  See 
Victoria,  Lake. 

Alexandrine  War.  A  war  (48-47  B.  c.)  be. 
tween  Julius  Csesar  and  the  guardians  of  Ptol- 
emy (elder  brother  of  Cleopatra),  in  Egypt. 
It  resulted  in  favor  of  Ceesar,  who  placed  Cleopatra"  and 
her  younger  brother  (the  elder  having  died)  on  the  Egyp- 
tian  throne. 

Alexandroff.     See  Alexandrov. 

Alexandropol  (al-ek-san-dro'pol),  or  Alexan- 
drapol  (al-ek-san-dra'pol),  formerly  Gumri. 
A  town  in  the  government  of  Brivan,  Trans- 
caucasia, Eussia,  situated  on  the  Arpa  35  miles 
northeast  of  Kars.  It  is  an  important  military  post 
Here,  1853,  the  Russians  defeated  the  Turks.  Pepulation 
(1891),  24,230. 

Alexandrov,  or  Alexandroff  (a-lek-san'drof). 
A  town  in  the  government  of  Vladimir,  Eussia, 
60  miles  northeast  of  Moscow.  Population, 
5,692. 

AlexandrOTSk  (al-ek-san'drofsk).  A  town  in 
the  government  of  YekaterinoslafE,  Eussia,  sit- 
uated near  the  Dnieperin  lat.  47°  47'  N,,  long. 
35°  20'  B,     Population,  15,079. 

Alexandrovsky  (al-ek-san-drof'ske)  Moun- 
tains. A  mountain-range  running  east  and 
west  in  the  governments  of  Semiryetchensk 
and  Syr-Daria,  Asiatic  Eussia.  Its  greatest 
height  is  about  12,000  to  13,000  feet. 

Alexas  (a-lek'sas).  A  minor  character  in 
Shakspere's  "Antony  and  Cleopatra,"  an  at- 
tendant of  Cleopatra. 

Alexei.    See  Alexis. 

Alexiad  (a-lek'si-ad).  The.  See  the  extract. 
By  the  command  of  the  Empress  Irene,  Nicephorus 
Byrennius,  who  had  married  her  daughter  the  celebrated 
Anna  Comnena,  undertook  a  history  of  the  house  of 
Comneni,  which  has  come  down  to  us  with  the  title 
"Materials  of  History."  Anna  herself  continued  her 
husband's  work  when  she  retired  after  his  death  to  the 
leisure  of  a  convent.  The  imperial  authoress  entitled  her 
book  "The  Alexiad."  As  its  epic  name  denotes,  it  is 
mainly  a  prolix  biography  of  her  father  Alexis  I.  It  is  in 
fifteen  books,  and  includes  the  period  from  1069  to  1118. 
The  work  is  interesting  in  itself  to  the  student  of  history, 
but  it  is  most  generally  known  as  having  supplied  Sir 
Walter  Scott  with  the  subject  and  some  of  the  materials 
for  the  last  and  feeblest  of  his  romances. 

K.  0.  MiiUer,  Hist,  of  the  Lit.  of  Anc.  Greece,  III.  399. 

[(Dtmaldton.) 

Alexin.    See  Alehsin. 

Alexinatz  (a-lek'si-nats).  A  town  in  Servia, 
situated  near  the  Morava  in  lat.  43°  31'  N., 
long.  21°  41'  E.,  the  scene  of  several  contests 
between  the  Turks  and  Servians  in  1876. 
Population  (1890),  5,762. 

Alexios.    See  Alexius. 

Alexis (a-lek' sis).  [Gr. 'aXefjf.]  BornatThurii, 
Magna  Greecia,  Italy,  about  390b.  c.  :  died  about 
288  B.  c.  A  Greek  dramatist,  a  master  of  the 
"middle  comedy."  He  was  a  prolific  writer,  the 
author  of  245  plays.  Fragments  of  these,  amounting  to 
1,000  hues,  are  extant.  He  was  brought  as  a  youth  to 
Athens,  and  was  a  citizen  of  that  city. 

Alexis,  or  Alexei.  Bom  in  1629:  died  in  1676, 
Czar  of  Eussia,  son  of  Michael  F6odoroviteh, 


Alexis 

the  founder  of  the  house  of  Romanoff,  whom  he 
succeeded  in  1645.  He  waged  a  war  with  Poland  from 
1654  to  1667,  acquiring  poBsesBion  of  Smolensk  and  eastern 
Ukraine.  In  a  war  with  Sweden  from  1666  to  1658  he  con- 
quered a  part  of  Livonia  and  Ingermanland,  but  was  forced 
by  domestic  troubles  to  relinquish  this  territory  at  the 
treaty  of  Cardis,  June  21, 1661.  He  extended  his  conquests 
to  eastern  Siberia,  codified  the  laws  of  the  various  prov- 
inces of  Russia,  and,  by  beginnins  to  introduce  European 
civilization,  prepared  the  way  for  his  son  Peter  the  Great. 

Alexis,  or  Alexei.  Born  at  Moscow,  Feb.  18, 
1690 :  died  in  prison  at  St.  Petersburg,  July  7, 
1718.  The  eldest  son  of  Peter  the  Grreat  and 
father  of  Peter  II.  He  was  condemned  for 
high  treason  and  imprisoned. 

Alexis.  An  amorous  shepherd  in  Fletcher's 
pastoral  "The  Faithful  Shepherdess." 

Alexis  I.-V.    See  Alexins. 

Alexisbad  (a-lek'ses-bad).  A  health-resort  in 
the  Harz,  Anhalt,  Germany,  18  miles  south  of 
Halberstadt,  noted  for  mineral  spring. 

Alexins  (a-lek'si-us).  Saint.  A  saint  (probably 
mythical)  said  to  have  been  bom  at  Rome  about 
350  A.  D.  According  to  the  legend,  he  fled  from  his  brid  e, 
a  lady  of  high  rank,  on  the  wedding  evening  to  the  porch 
of  the  Church  of  Our  Lady  of  Edessa,  where  he  lived  in 
chastity  for  seventeen  years.  He  afterward  returned  to 
Rome  and  lived  unrecognized  in  his  father's  house.  He  is 
commemorated  in  the  Eoman  Church  on  July  17,  and  in 
the  Greek  on  March  17. 

Alexius,  Saint.  A  Roman  saint  of  the  5th  century, 
said  to  have  been  a  senator.  He  was  the  founder 
of  the  Alexians  or  Cellites. 

Alexius  I.  Comnenus  (kom-ne'nus),  Gr.  Alex- 
ios  Komnenos.  Bom  at  Constantinople  in 
1048:  died  in  1118.  Byzantine  emperor  from 
1081  to  1118,  nephew  of  Isaac  Comnenus.  He 
supplanted,  by  the  aid  of  the  soldiery,  the  emperor  Ni- 
cephorus,  who  retired  to  a  monastery,  and  defended  the 
empire  against  the  Petchenegs,  the  Turks,  and  the  Nor- 
mans. In  his  reign  occurred  the  first  Crusade.  His  life  has 
been  written  by  his  daughter  Anna  Comnena.  See  Alexiad. 

Alexius  II.  Comnenus,  Gr.  Alexios  Kom- 
nenos. Bom  in  1168  (?) :  died  in  1183.  By- 
zantine emperor  from  1180  to  1183,  son  of 
Manuel  whom  he  succeeded.  He  was  deposed 
and  strangled  by  Andronicus. 

Alexius  III.  Angelus  (an'je-lus),  Gr.  Alexios 
Angelos.  Died  in  1210.  Byzantine  emperor 
from  1195  to  1203.  He  usurped  the  throne  of  his 
brother  Isaac  II.,  but  was  deposed  by  an  army  of  Crusaders 
who  besieged  Constantinople  and  reinstated  Isaac  II.  with 
his  son  Alexius  IV.  as  colleague.  Alexius  III.  died  in  exile. 

Alexius  IV.  Angelus,  Gr.  Alexios  Angelos. 
Died  in  1204.  Byzantine  emperor  in  1203  and 
1204,  son  of  Isaac  II.  Angelus.  He  was  put  to 
death  after  a  reign  of  six  months  by  Alexius  V. 

Alexius  V.,orAlexios,surnamed  Dukas  Murt- 
zuphlos.  Died  in  1204.  A  Byzantine  emperor. 
He  usurped  the  throne  of  Alexius  IV.  in  1204,  but  was 
driven  from  Constantinople  by  the  Crusaders  who  had  re- 
solved on  the  partition  of  the  empire.  He  was  arrested 
in  Morea,  tried  for  the  murder  of  AlexiusIV.,  and  executed. 

Alexius  I.  Comnenus,  Gr.  Alexios  Komnenos. 
Died  in  1222.  Emperor  of  Trebizond  from  1204 
to  1222,  grandson  of  the  Byzantine  emperor 
Andronicus  I.  At  the  capture  of  Constantinople  by 
the  Crusaders  in  1204  he  made  himself  master  of  Trebizond, 
which  he  raised  from  the  position  of  a  province  of  the 
l^zantine  empii'e  to  that  of  an  independent  empire. 

Alexius  II.  Comnenus,  Gr.  Alexios  Kom- 
nenos, Died  in  1380.  Emperor  of  Trebizond 
from  1297  to  1330,  son  of  Joaimes  II.  whom  he 
succeeded. 

Alexius  III.  Comnenus,  Gr.  Alexios  Kom- 
nenos. Died  in  1390.  Emperor  of  Trebizond 
from  1349  to  1390,  son  of  Basilius  by  Irene  of 
Trebizond. 

Alexius  IV.  Comnenus,  Gr.  Alexios  Kom- 
nenos. Died  in  1446.  Emperor  of  Trebizond 
from  1417  to  1446,  son  of  Manuel  IH.  and  Eu- 
docia  of  Georgia. 

Aleyn,  or  Alain.  [MB. :  the  mod.  Allen.']  See 
the  extract. 

The  good-livers  go  to  service  and  are  fed  by  the  Holy 
Graal.  The  sinners,  on  the  contrary,  not  being  thus  fed, 
beg  Josephes,  Joseph's  son,  to  pray  for  them ;  and  he  or- 
ders Bron's  twelfth  son,  Aleyn  or  Alain  le  Gros,  to  take 
the  net  from  the  Graal  table,  and  fish  with  it.  He  catches 
one  flsh,  which  the  sinners  say  will  not  suffice.  But  Aleyn 
having  prayed  satisfies  them  all  with  it,  and  is  thence- 
forward called  the  Eich  Fisher.  Joseph  dies  and  his 
body  is  buried  at  "  Glay,"  while  his  son  transmits  the 
Graal  to  Aleyn.  By  Aleyn's  instrumentality  theleperking 
Galafres,  of  the  land  of  Foreygne,  is  converted  and  chris- 
tened Alphasan.  He  is  healed  by  looking  upon  the  Graal, 
and  builds  Castle  Corbenic,  which  is  to  be  the  repository 
and  shrine  of  the  Holy  Cup,  as  Vespasian  was  healed  by 
looking  on  the  Veronica. 

Outdop,  Hist,  of  Prose  Fiction,  1. 167. 

Aleyn.  One  of  the  Cambridge  students  or  clerks 
of  Cantebregge  in  Chaucer's  "Reeve's  Tale." 

Alfadir  (al-fa'dir).  Peel.  AlfadUr,  All-father.] 
In  Old  Norse  mythology,  one  of  the  many 
appellations  of  Odin  as  the  supreme  god  of  all 
mankind. 


37 

Alfana  (al-fa'nS).  The  horse  of  Gradasso  in 
"Orlando  Furioso." 

Al-Farabi  (al-fa-ra'bi),  Abu  Nasr  Mohammed 
ibn  Tarkhan.  Born  at  Farab,  Turkestan, 
about  870 :  died  at  Damascus  about  950.  An 
Arabian  philosopher  of  the  school  of  Bagdad, 
famous  for  his  great  learning.  He  wrote  an  encyclo- 
pedia of  the  sciences  and  numerous  treatises  on  the  worlcs 
of  Plato  and  Aristotle. 

Alfarache,  Guzman  de.  See  Guzman, 
Alfaro  (al-fa'ro).  A  town  in  the  province  of 
Logrono,  Spain,  situated  near  the  Ebro  60 
miles  northwest  of  Saragossa.  Population 
(1887),  5,938. 
Alfaro,  Francisco  de.  Bom  at  Seville  about 
1565 :  died  at  Madrid  about  1650.  A  Spanish 
lawyer.  He  was  successively  fiscal  of  the  Audience  of 
Panama  (1594),  member  of  the  Audience  of  Lima  {about 
1601),  president  of  the  Audience  of  Charcas  (1632),  and 
member  of  the  Council  of  the  Indies  for  some  years  before 
his  death.  The  viceroy  Montesclaros  commissioned  him  to 
inquire  into  the  condition  of  the  Indians  of  Peru,  and  the  re- 
sult was  a  set  of  laws  called  the  Ordinances  of  Alfaro,  pro- 
mulgated in  1612  and  intended  to  prevent  Indian  slavery. 

Alfasi  (al-fa'si),  Isaac  ben  Jacob.  [Ar.  Al- 
fasi,  Fez.]  Born  in  Kala  Hamad,  near  Fez, 
1013:  died  at  Tucena,  1103.  A  celebrated 
Jewish  scholar  and  authority  on  the  Talmud. 
He  composed  a  sort  of  abbreviated  Talmud  which  was 
much  used  by  the  Spanish  Jews  in  place  of  the  Talmud 
itself.    Also  called,  after  the  initials  of  his  name,  Rif. 

Alfeld  (al'felt).  A  small  town  in  the  province 
of  Hanover,  Prussia,  situated'  on  the  Leine  28 
miles  south  of  Hanover. 

Alfeta  (al'fe-ta).  The  name  given  in  the  "Al- 
magest "  and  Alphonsine  tables  to  the  second- 
magnitude  star  a  CoronsB  Borealis.  The  star  is 
more  generally  known  asAVphecca  or  Gemma. 

Alflieim(alf'  Mm).  [(m.Alfheimr:  ai/r, elf , and 
fceimr, world.]  In01dNorsemythology,theabode 
of  the  light  Elves.  It  was  conceived  to  be  near  the 
sacred  well  of  the  Norns,  at  the  foot  of  the  ash  Yggdrasil. 

Alfieri  (al-fe-a're),  Cesare,  Marctuis  di  Sos- 
tegno.  Bom  at  Turin,  Aug.  13,  1796:  died 
at  Florence,  April  17,  1869.  A  Piedmontese 
statesman  and  political  reformer,  for  a  short 
time  premier  in  1848. 

Alfieri,  Count  Vittorio.  Bom,  of  noble  pa- 
rents, at  Asti  in  Piedmont,  Jan.  17,  1749:  died 
at  Florence,  Oct.  8, 1803.  A  celebrated  Italian 
dramatist.  At  nine  years  of  agehewasplacedin  the  Acad- 
emy at  Turin,  at  thirteen  began  the  study  of  civil  and  ca- 
nonical law,  which  he  soon  abandoned,  and  at  fourteen 
came  into  possession  of  large  wealth.  From  1767  to  1773  he 
roamed  adventurously  over  Europe,  returning  to  Turin  in 
the  latter  year.  In  1775  his  play  • '  Cleopatra  "was  success- 
fully produced.  He  then  went  to  Tuscany  to  complete 
"Philip  II."  and  "Polynices,"  two  tragedies  originally 
written  in  French  prose,  which  he  now  versified.  While 
in  Florence  he  formed  a  connection  with  the  Countess  of 
Albany,  which  endured  for  twenty  years.  He  resided  for 
a  time  in  Home,  leaving  it  in  1783  for  a  period  of  travel : 
on  his  return  he  joined  the  countess  in  Alsace,  living  with 
her  there  and  in  Paris,  where  he  went  in  1787  to  oversee  a 
complete  edition  of  his  works.  In  1792,  at  the  outbreak 
of  the  Revolution,  they  returned  to  Florence  where  he 
passed  the  last  eleven  years  of  his  life.  He  left  21  tragedies 
and  6  comedies,  besides  5  odes  on  American  Independence, 
various  sonnets,  and  a  number  of  prose  works,  among 
which  are  a  "Panegyric  on  Trajan,"  "Essays  on  Litera- 
ture and  Government,"  and  a  "Defense  of  Louis  XVI.," 
which  includes  a  satirical  account  of  the  French  Revolu- 
tion. His  tragedies  are  "  Philip  II."  "Polynices,"  "An- 
tigone "(the  sequel  of  "Polynices"),  "Virginia,"  "Aga- 
memnon," "Orestes,"  "The  Conspiracy  of  the  Pazzi," 
"Don  Garcia,"  "Rosamunda,"  "Mary  Stuart,"  "Timo- 
leon,"  "Octavia,"  "Merope,"  *'Saul,"  "Agis,"  "Sopho- 
nisba,"  "  Myrrha,"  two  tragedies  on  the  elder  and  younger 
Brutus,  and  two  on  the  subject  of  Alcestes.  "Abel," 
which  he  called  a  "tramelogedia,"  is  a  sort  of  mixture  of 
lyric  and  tragic  poetry.  He  wrote  six  comedies  which  he 
attempted  to  make  a  vehicle  for  his  political  sentiments. 
They  are  satirical,  not  dramatic.  Theyare  "One,"  "Few," 
"Too  Many,"  "'The  Antidote,"  "La  Finestrina,"  and 
"The  Divorce."  They  were  never  played.  He  also  wrote 
an  autobiography.  He  was  a  strict  observer  of  dramatic 
unities,  and  left  out  all  secondary  characters.  His  bold, 
vigorous,  lofty,  and  almost  naked  style  founded  a  new 
school  in  Italian  drama.  His  works  were  first  collected 
and  published  after  his  death  by  the  Countess  of  Albany. 
The  edition  is  in  36  volumes,  published  at  Pisa  1805-15. 
Thirteen  volumes  contain  his  posthumous  works. 

Alfinger  (al'fing-er),  Ambrosio  de.  Died  1532. 
A  German  soldier,  appointed  in  1528  agent  of 
the  mercantile  house  of  the  Welsers  (of  Augs- 
burg), which  held  Venezuela  as  a  hereditary 
flef  on  condition  of  completing  the  conj^uest  of 
the  country  for  Castile  and  colonizing  it.  After 
ravaging  the  vicinity  of  Lake  Maracaybo,  he  marched 
into  the  highlands  of  New  Granada,  and  had  nearly 
reached  the  rich  country  of  the  Chibchas  when  he  died 
from  a  wound  by  an  Indian  arrow.  His  inroads  were 
marked  by  horrible  cruelties. 

Alfold  (ol'feld).  [Hung.,  'lowland:']  The 
great  central  plain  of  Hungary. 

Alfonso  (al-fon's6)  I.,  or  Alphonso,  or  Alonzo 
(a-lon'z6).  Bom  693:  died  at  (Jangas,  757. 
King  of  Asturias  739-757,  sumamed"  The  Cath- 
olic "  on  account  of  his  zeal  in  erecting  and  en- 


Alfonso  Xnil. 

dowing  monasteries  and  churches.  He  was  a  son 
of  Pedro,  duke  of  Biscay,  a  descendant  of  the  Visigothic 
kings,  and  son-in-law  of  Pelayo,  king  of  Asturias,  whose 
son  Favila  he  succeeded.  He  is  said  to  have  wrested 
Leon,  Gfllicia,  and  Castile  from  the  Moors. 

Alfonso  II.,  or  Alphonso.  Died  in  Oviedo,  842. 
King  of  Asturias  791-842,  sumamed  "The 
Chaste."  He  defeated  Mohammed,  the  Moorish 
governor  of  Merida,  in  830. 

Alfonso  III.,  or  Alphonso.  Bom  848:  died 
912.  King  of  Asturias  and  Leon  866-910,  sur- 
named  "The  Great,"  eldest  son  of  Ordono  I. 
His  reign  was  filled  with  internal  struggles  and  external 
conflicts,  especially  with  the  Moors,  over  whom  he  was 
almost  uniformly  victorious.  His  successes  extended 
his  dominions  from  the  Duero  to  the  Guadiana.  In  910 
he  abdicated  in  favor  of  his  son  Garcia  on  account  of  civil 
wars  raised  by  his  sons. 

Alfonso  IV.,  or  Alphonso.  Died  933  (?).  King 
of  Leon  924-927  (?),  sumamed  "  The  Monk," 
eldest  son  of  Ordono  II.  He  abdicated,  on  the  death 
of  his  wife,  in  favor  of  his  brother  Ramiro,  and  retired  to 
a  cloister,  was  taken  prisoner  at  Leon  in  an  attempt  to 
regain  the  throne,  was  blinded,  and  was  confined  till  his 
death  in  the  monastery  of  St.  Julian. 

Alfonso  v.,  or  Alphonso.  Born  994:  died  1027 
King  of  Leon  and  Castile  999-1027,  son  of 
Bermudo  II.  whom  he  succeeded.  He  recaptured 
Leon,  which  had  been  lost  during  his  minority,  and  was 
killed  at  the  siege  of  Viseo. 

Alfonso  VI.,  or  Alphonso.  Bom  1030:  died 
1109.  King  of  Leon  and,  as  Alfonso  I.,  of  Cas- 
tile, sumamed  "The  VaUant,"  son  of  Ferdi- 
nand the  Great  whom  he  succeeded  in  Leon  in 
1065.  He  succeeded  his  brother  Sancho  in  Castile  in 
1072.  From  1068  until  1072,  when  Sancho  died,  the 
brothers  were  at  war,  and  in  1071  Alfonso  was  defeated 
and  taken  prisoner  at  Valpellage  (Golpeliera).  In  1085  he 
captured  Toledo  from  the  Moors  and  was  himself  de- 
feated near  Zalaca  by  Yussuf  ibn  Tashfyn  in  1086.  His 
reign  witnessed  the  exploits  of  the  Cid. 

Alfonso  VII.,  King  of  Leon  and  Castile.  See 
Alfonso  I.  (of  Aragon). 

Alfonso  VIII.,  or  Alphonso  (Alfonso  Bay- 
mond).  Bom  1106:  died  at  Tremada,  Aug., 
1157.  King  of  Leon  and,  as  Alfonso  II.  (or 
III.),  king  of  Castile,  1126-57,  son  of  Urraca, 
daughter  of  Alfonso  VI.  (and  wife  of  Alfonso 
VII.),  and  Raymond  of  Burgundy,  her  first 
husband.  He  extended  the  frontiers  of  Castile  from 
the  Tagus  to  the  Sierra  Morena Mountains,  and  proclaimed 
himself  emperor  of  Spain  in  1136. 

Alfonso  IX.,  or  Alphonso.  King  of  Leon 
1188-1230,  son  of  Ferdinand  II.  He  gained  a  brU- 
liant  victory  over  Mohammed  ibn  Hud  at  Merida  1230. 
He  was  married  first  to  Theresa,  daughter  of  Sancho  I. 
of  Portugal,  and  later  to  Berengaria,  daughter  of  the  king 
of  Castile:  both  marriages  were  dissolved  by  the  Pope 
as  being  within  the  degree  of  affinity  prescribed  by  the 
canon  law. 

Alfonso  IX.,  or  Alphonso  (also  reckoned  as 
VIII.  and  as  III.).  Born  1155:  died  1214. 
King  of  Castile  1158-1214,  sumamed  "The 
Noble"  or  "The  Good,"  son  of  Sancho  HL 
He  was  defeated  by  the  Moors  at  Alarcos  in  1195,  and  in 
alliance  with  Aragon  and  Navarre  defeated  the  Moors  at 
Las  Navas  de  Tolosa  in  1212. 

Alfonso  X,,  or  Alphonso.  Bom  1221:  died  at 
Seville,  April  4,  1284.  A  celebrated  king  of 
Leon  and  Castile,  1252-82,  sumamed  "The 
Wise  "  and  "  The  Astronomer,"  son  of  Ferdi- 
nand IH.  He  laid  claim  to  the  duchy  of  Swabia,  and 
twice  unsuccessfully  attempted  to  secure  the  imperial 
crown :  the  first  time  he  was  defeated  by  Richard  of 
Cornwall,  and  the  second  by  Rudolf  of  Hapsburg.  From 
1261  to  1266  he  waged  war  with  the  Moors  with  varying 
fortune.  He  was  dethroned  by  his  son  Sancho  in  1282. 
Alfonso  is  celebrated  as  the  author  of  the  code  "  La£&iete 
Partidaa,"  the  basis  of  Spanish  jurisprudence,  and  for 
the  Alphonsine  tables,  a  set  of  astronomical  observations 
compiled  at  his  command. 

[Alfonso]  first  made  the  Caatilian  a  national  language  by 
causing  the  Bible  to  be  translated  into  it,  and  by  requir- 
ing it  to  be  used  in  all  legal  proceedings ;  and  he  first,  by 
his  great  Code  and  other  works,  gave  specimens  of  prose 
composition  which  left  a  free  and  disencumbered  course 
for  all  that  has  been  done  since,—  a  service,  perhaps, 
greater  than  it  has  been  permitted  any  other  Spaniard  to 
render  the  prose  literature  of  his  country. 

Ticknor,  Span.  Lit.,  I.  41. 

Alfonso  XI.,  or  Alphonso.  Died  March  26, 
1350.  King  of  Leon  and  Castile  1312-50,  sur- 
named  "The  Avenger"  from  his  severity  in 
repressing  internal  disorder:  son  of  Ferdinand 
IV.  He  defeated  the  Moors  of  Morocco  and  Granada  at 
Rio  Salado,  Oct.  29, 1340. 

Alfonso  XII.,  or  Alphonso.  Born  at  Madrid, 
Nov.  28,  1857:  died  at  El  Pardo,  near  Madrid,  , 
Nov.  25,  1885.  The  son  of  Isabella  II.,  pro- 
claimed king  of  Spain  Dec,  1874.  He  landed  in 
Spain  Jan.,  1876,  and  suppressed  the  Carlist  rebellion  in 
1876.  In  1883  he  visited  Germany,  and  was  insulted  by 
a  mob  in  Paris  on  his  return. 

Alfonso  XIII.,  or  Alphonso.  Bom  at  Madrid, 
May  17,  1886.  The  son  of  -Alfonso  XII.,  pro- 
claimed king  under  the  regency  of  his  mother 
(Maria  Christina  of  Austria)  on  the  day  of  his 
birth.     The  regency  ended  May  17,  1902. 


Alfonso  I. 

Alfonso  I.,  King  of  Naples.  See  Alfonso  T. 
of  Aragon. 

Alfonso II., 01- Alphonso.  Bom  1448:  diedNov. 
19, 1495.  King  of  Naples  1494-95,  eldest  son  of 
JPerdinand  I.  and  Isabella.  He  defeated  the  Flor- 
entines at  Poggio  1479,  and  the  Turks  at  Otranto  1481. 
Having  rendered  himself  obnoxious  to  his  subjects,  he 
abdicated  (Jan.  23, 1495)  in  favor  of  his  son  Ferdinand  II., 
when  Charles  VIIl.  of  France  threatened  his  capital. 

Alfonso  I.,  or  Affonso  (af-f  on'so),  or  Alphonso. 
Born  about  1110:  died  Dec.  6,  1185.  The  first 
king  of  Portugal,  son  of  Henry  of  Burgundy, 
■count  of  Portugal,  and  Teresa  of  Castile.  On 
his  father's  death  in  1112  he  became,  under  his  mother's 
"tutelaQ;e,  count  of  Portugal,  and  was  declared  sole  ruler 
in  1128.  In  that  year  he  made  successful  war  upon  hia 
another,  who  refused  to  yield  up  the  government,  and 
■upon  her  ally,  Alfonso  VIII.,  from  whom  he  wrested 
the  independence  of  Portugal.  He  was  proclaimed  king 
by  his  soldiers,  probably  after  the  victory  over  the  Moors 
at  Ourique,  July  26, 1139 ;  took  Santarem  from  the  Moors 
in  1146  ;  captured  tisbon  in  1147 ;  and  was  taken  captive 
near  Badajoz  in  1167  by  the  Leonese  and  made  to  pay  a 
heavy  ransom  (the  surrender  of  all  his  conquests  in  Galicia). 

Alfonso  II.,  or  Affonso,  or  Alphonso.    Bom 

April  23,  1185 :  died  March  25,  1223.  King  of 
Portugal  1211-23,  sumamed  "The  Fat."  He 
defeated  the  Moors  at  Alcacer  do  Sal  in  1217. 

Alfonso  III.,  or  Affonso,  or  Alphonso.  Bom 
May  5,  1210 :  died  Feb.  16,  1279.  King  of  Por- 
tugal 1248-79.  During  his  reign  Algarve  was 
incorporated  in  Portugal. 

Alfonso  IV.,  or  Affonso,  or  Alphonso.  Bom  at 
Coimbra,  Feb.  8, 1290:  died  ]!ilay28, 1357.  King 
of  Portugal  1325-57,  sumamed  "The  Brave" 
and  "  The  Fierce."  He  consented  to  the  murder  of 
Ines  de  Castro,  secretly  married  to  his  son  Pedro,  who, 
in  consequence,  headed  a  revolt  against  his  father.  See 
Castro^  Ines  de. 

Alfonso  v.,  or  Affonso,  or  Alphonso.  Born 
1432:  died  at  Cintra,  Aug.  28,  1481.  King  of 
Portugal  1438-81,  sumamed  "The  African" 
from  his  conquests  in  Africa:  sou  of  King 
Duarte  (Edward).  He  defeated  the  Moors  in 
Africa  in  1458  and  1471,  and  was  defeated  at 
Tore  in  1476  by  Ferdinand  the  Catholic. 

Alfonso  VI.,  or  Affonso,  or  Alphonso.  Bom 
1643 :  died  Sept.  12,  1683.  King  of  Portugal, 
second  son  of  John  IV.  He  succeeded  to  the 
throne  in  1656  and  was  deposed  in  1667. 

Alfonso  I.,  or  Alphonso.  King  of  Aragon  and 
Navarre  1104-34,  and,  as  Alfonso  VII.,  king  of 
Leon  and  Castile.  He  married  Urraca,  daughter  and 
lieiress  of  Alfonso  VI.  of  Leon  and  Castile,  in  1109.  In 
1118  he  conquered  Saragossa  from  the  Moors. 

Alfonso  II.,  or  Alphonso.  Bom  1152:  died 
1196.  King  of  Aragon  1163-96,  son  of  Eay- 
mondo  V.,  count  of  Barcelona,  and  Petronilla, 
■daughter  of  Ramiro  II.  of  Aragon :  especially 
noted  as  a  patron  of  Proven§al  poetry. 

Alfonso  III.,  or  Alphonso.  Bom  1265:  died 
June  18,  1291.  King  of  Aragon  1285^91,  sur- 
named  "  The  Magnificent,"  son  of  Pedro  III. 
He  granted  in  1287  the  "Privilege  of  Union  "  by  which  his 
subjects  were  permitted  to  bear  arms  and  the  right  was 
given  of  citing  the  king  himself  before  the  Cortes. 

Alfonso  IV.,  or  Alphonso.  Bom  1299:  died 
1336.  King  of  Aragon  1327-36,  surnamed  "  The 
<Jood."  His  entire  reign  was  occupied  by  a  war  with 
the  Genoese  about  the  possession  of  Corsica  and  Sardinia. 

Alfonso  v.,  or  Alphonso.  Born  1385:  died  at 
Naples,  June  27, 1458.  King  of  Aragon  and,  as 
Alfonso  I.,  Mug  of  Sicily  and  Sardinia  and  of 
Naples :  sumamed  ' '  The  Magnanimous."  Hewas 
the  son  of  Ferdinand  the  Just,  whom  he  succeeded  in  1416 
as  king  of  Aragon  and  of  Sicily  and  Sardinia.  In  1420  he 
"was  adopted  as  heir  and  prospective  successor  by  Joanna 
I.  of  Naples,  but  was  disinherited  in  1423  in  favor  of  Louis 
of  Anjou.  He  captured  Naples  in  1442,  seven  years  after 
the  death  of  Joanna,  and  enforced  his  claim  to  the  succes- 
sion. He  was  a  patron  of  learning  and  a  model  of  chivalric 
virtues. 

Alfonso  I.,  or  Alphonso,  of  Este.  Bom  1476 : 
died  Oct.  81,  1534.  Duke  of  Ferrara  1505-34. 
He  commanded  the  papal  troops  in  the  war  of 
the  League  of  Cambrai  in  1509,  and  fought 
against  Pope  Julius  II.  at  Eavenna  in  1512. 
He  married  Lueretia  Borgia  in  1501. 

Alfonso,  Count  of  Poitou.  Died  1271.  Brother 
of  Louis  IX.  of  France,  and  ruler  of  Poitou  and 
Toulouse. 

Alfonso  de  Cartagena.  See  Alphonsiis  a  Sancta 
Maria. 

Alford  (M'ford),  Henry.  Born  at  London,  Oct. 
10,  1810 :  died  at  Canterbury,  England,  Jan.  12, 
1871.  An  English  divine,  biblical  scholar,  poet, 
and  general  writer,  a  graduate  and  fellow  of 
Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  and  dean  of  Can- 
terbury 1857-71.  He  was  the  author  of  a  noted  edition 
■of  the  Greek  Testament  (1849-61),  "New  Testament  for 
English  Readers"  (1867),  "Poems,''  "The  Queen's  English" 
(18:J6),  etc. 

Alford  (originally  Griflaths),  Michael.  Born 
at  London,  1587:  died  at  St.  Omer,  Aug.  11, 


38 

1652.  An  English  Jesuit,  author  of  various 
works  on  eeolesiastioal  history. 

Alfortvllle  (al-f6rt-vel').  A  town  in  the  de- 
partment of  Seine,  France,  on  the  Mame  south- 
east of  Paris,  the  seat  of  a  national  veterinary 
school  established  1766. 

Alfred (al'fred), or .ffllfred(alf 'rM),  surnamed 
"The  Great."  Born  at  Wantage,  Berkshire, 
849 :  died  Oct.  28, 901.  King  of  the  West  Saxons 
871-901,  fifth  and  youngest  son  of  ^thelwulf, 
king  of  the  West  Saxons,  and  his  wife  Osburh 
(daughter  of  Oslao  his  cup-bearer),  and  brother 
of  .ffithelred  whom  he  succeeded.  He  fought 
against  the  Danes  in  the  defensive  campaign  of  871,  serv- 
ing under  his  brother  ^thelred  at  Ashdown,  Basing,  and 
Merton,  and  commanded  as  king  at  Wilton.  In  878  he  re- 
ceded before  the  Danes  to  Athelney,  but  later  obtained  a 
decisive  victory  over  them  p.t  Ethandun.  By  the  treaty  of 
Wedmore,  which  followed,  Guthrum  consented  to  receive 
baptism  and  to  retire  north  of  Watling  Street  Alfred  forti- 
fied London  in  886,  and  carried  on  a  defensive  war  with  the 
Danes  894-897,  which  ended  in  the  withdrawal  of  the  in- 
vaders, and  in  which,  by  the  aid  of  ships  of  improved 
model,  the  English  for  the  first  time  gained  a  decided 
naval  advantage  over  the  vikings.  His  success  against 
the  Danes  was  due  largely  to  his  reform  of  the  national 
fyrd  or  militia,  by  which  half  the  force  of  each  shire 
was  always  ready  for  military  service.  His  adminis- 
tration was  also  marked  by  judicial  and  educational  re- 
forms. He  compiled  a  code  of  laws,  rebuilt  the  schools 
and  monasteries,  and  invited  scholars  to  his  court.  He 
was  himself  a  man  of  learning,  and  translated  into 
Ssixon  the  "Ecclesiastical  History  "  of  the  Venerable  Bede, 
the  "Epitome  of  Universal  History  "of  Paulus  Orosius, 
and  the  "  Consolations  of  Philosophy "  by  Eoethiua,  and 
corrected  a  translation  of  the  "  Dialogues"  of  Gregory  the 
Great.  The  popular  accounts  of  his  life  abound  in  legends 
which  are  devoid  of  histoncal  foundation. 

It  is  not  surprising  that  the  great  services  of  Alfred 
to  his  people  in  peace  and  in  war  should  have  led  poster- 
ity to  ascribe  every  institution,  of  which  the  beginning 
was  obscure  [such  as  the  law  of  frank-pledge,  the  distri- 
bution of  hundreds  and  tythings,  and  trial  by  jury],  to  his 
contrivance,  till  his  fame  has  become  almost  as  fabulous 
in  legislation  as  that  of  Arthur  in  arms.  Hallam, 

Alfred  the  Great.  A  historical  play  by  J. 
Sheridan  Knowles,  produced  in  1831. 

Alfred,  or  Alredus  (al-re'dus),  or  Aluredus 
(al-o-re'dus),  of  Beverley.  Lived  about  1143. 
An  English  chronicler,  author  of  ' '  Annales  sive 
Historia  de  gestis  regum  Britanniss  libris  ix.  ad 
annum  1129,"  a  work  occupied  chiefly  with  the 
fabulous  history  of  the  country. 

Alfred,  Prince  (Duke  of  Edinburgh).  Bom 
Aug.  6,  1844  :  died  July  30,  1900.  The  second 
son  of  Queen  Victoria :  duke  of  Saxe-Coburg 
and  (xotha  (1893).  He  was  elected  king  of 
Greece  in  1862,  but  declined  the  offer. 

Alfred  Club.  A  club  instituted  in  1808  in  Al- 
bemarle street,  London. 

Alfreton  (al'fer-ton).  A  town  in  Derbyshire, 
England,  13  miles'northeast  of  Derby.  Popu- 
lation (1891),  15,355. 

Alfric.     See  ^Ifric. 

Alfures  (al-fo'res),  or  Alfuros  (al-fB'ros),  or 
Alfura  (al-f6'ra).  A  descriptive  name,  signi- 
fying '  wild,'  '  uncivilized,'  given  to  certain 
native  tribes  of  the  north  of  Celebes,  the  Mo- 
luccas, Mindanao,  and  adjacent  islands.  They 
are  generally  classed  with  the  Malays.  Also 
JSaraforas. 

Algardi  (al-gar'de),  Alessandro.  Born  at  Bo- 
logna, Italy,  1602  (1598  ?) :  died  at  Kome,  June 
10,  1654.  A  noted  Italian  sculptor.  His  chief 
works  are  the  monument  of  Leo  XI.  and  a  mai^ble  relief 
of  Leo  I.  and  Attila,  both  in  St  Peter's,  Home. 

Algarotti  (al-ga-rot'te),  Count  Francesco. 
Bom  at  Venice,  Dec.  11,  1712 :  died  at  Pisa, 
Italy,  May  23,  1764.  A  noted  Italian  littera- 
teur and  art  connoisseur. 

Algarve  (al-gar'va).  The  southernmost  prov- 
ince of  Portugal,  bounded  by  Alemtejo  on  the 
north,  by  Spain  (from  which  it  is  separated  by 
the  Guadiana)  on  the  east,  and  by  the  Atlantic 
on  the  south  and  west.  It  forms  the  district  Faro, 
with  the  town  of  Faro  as  capitaL  It  was  partly  conquered 
from  the  Moors  by  Sancho  I.,  and  was  united  with  Portu- 
gal as  a  kingdom  by  Alfonso  III.  about  1250.  Area,  1,878 
square  miles.    Population  (1890),  228,661. 

AlgSu,  or  AUgaU  (al'gou).  A  popular  name 
for  the  southwestern  part  of  Bavaria  with  the 
neighboring  portions  of  Wurtemberg  andTyrol; 
in  an  extended  sense,  the  region  between  the 
Danube  on  the  north,  the  Lech  on  the  east, 
the  Inn  on  the  south,  and  the  111  and  Lake 
Constance  on  the  west. 

Algauer  Alps.  A  mountain  group  in  Algau 
(northern  T^ol  and  southwestern  Bavaria). 
Its  highest  point  is  the  Parseyer  Spitz,  which 
is  about  9,960  feet  high .  Among  other  points  is 
the  Griinten. 

Al-Gazali  (ai-ga-za'le),  or  Algazel  (ai-ga'zel), 
Abu  Hamid  Mohammed.  Bom  at  Tus,  Per- 
sia, 1058  (1059?) :  died  1111.    An  Arabian  phi- 


Alglers 

losopher  and  theologian,  for  a  time  professor 
of  theology  and  director  of  the  school  at  Bag- 
dad .  He  wrote  "  The  Destruction  of  the  Philosophers  " 
and  other  works  in  defense  of  Moslem  orthodoxy  against 
the  followers  of  Aristotle  and  other  Greek  philosophers. 

Algebar  (al'je-bar).  [Said  to  be  from  Ar.  al,  the, 
and  Jabbdr  (Syr.  gdboro),  giant.]  1.  An  Arabic 
and  poetical  name  of  the  constellation  Orion. — 
2.  (Jocasionally  used  to  designate  Eigel  (/? 
Orionls),  the  brightest  star  in  the  constellation. 

Algeciras,  or  Algeziras  (al-na-the'ras). 
[Ar.  al-jazira,  the  island  or  peninsula.]  A 
seaport  in  the  province  of  Cadiz,  Spain,  6  miles 
west  of  Gibraltar:  the  ancient  Portus  Albus. 
It  has  a  considerable  coasting-trade.  It  was  the  landing- 
place  of  the  Arabs  under  Tarik  in  711 ;  was  retaken  from 
the  Moors  by  Alfonso  XI.  of  Castile  in  1844  (?) ;  and  was 
the  scene  of  engagements,  July,  1801,  between  the  British 
and  Franco-Spanish  fleets.  It  contains  a  notable  aqueduct 
built  by  the  Moors.  The  arches  are  pointed,  elegant  in 
profile,  and  of  considerable  height  and  span.  The  highest 
piers,  in  the  middle,  have  on  each  side  curious  ogival 
flying  buttresses.    Population  (1887),  12,381. 

Algeiba,  or  Algieba  (al-je'ba).  [Ar.,  said  to 
represent  aljeb-bali,  the  forehead ;  but  if  so  a 
misnomer,  as  it  is  in  the  shoulder  of  the  con- 
stellation.] The  second-magnitude  double  star 
y  Leonis.  By  IJlugh  Beigh  the  name  Algeiba 
was  applied  to  three  stars,  v,  7,  and  f  Leonis. 

Algenib  (al'je-nib).  [Ar.  al-jdnib  al-faraa,  the 
flank  of  the  horse.]  The  third-magnitude 
star  y  Pegasi,  at  the  extremity  of  the  wing. 
The  same  name  is  also  often  given  to  a  Persei, 
better  known  as  Mirfak.    See  also  Alehemb. 

Algenubi  (al-je-no'bi).  [Ar.  ra's  al-'asad  'al- 
janiibbi,  the  head  of  the  Hon,  the  southern :  op- 
posed to  al-'samdli,  the  northern.]  A  name 
used,  though  rather  rarely,  for  the  third-mag- 
nitude star  e  Leonis. 

Alger (al'jer),Eussell  Alexander.  BominLa- 
fayettetownship,MedinaCo.,Ohio,Peb.  27,1836. 
An  American  politician  and  general.  He  served 
in  the  Union  army  during  the  Civil  War  and  was  brevetted 
major-general  of  volunteers  in  June,  1865 ;  was  governor 
of  Michigan  1885-87 ;  was  a  candidate  for  the  presidential 
nomination  at  the  Republican  National  Convention  of 
1888 ;  was  commander-m-chief  of  the  Grand  Army  of  the 
Republic  1889-90 ;  and  secretary  of  war  1897-Aug.,  1899. 

Alger,  William  Bounseville.  Bom  at  Free- 
town, Mass.,  Dec.  30,  1822.  A  Unitarian  clergy- 
man and  author.  Among  his  works  are  "Introduction 
to  the  Poetry  of  the  Orient,"  "Metrical  Specimens  of 
the  Thought,  Sentiment  and  Fancy  of  the  East"  (1856X 
"Friendships  of  Women  "  (1867),  etc. 

Algeria  (al-je'ri-a).  [Ar.  dl-jaztra,  the  island 
or  peninsula;  F'.  Alg&rie,  G.  Algerien.l  A 
country  in  northern  Africa,  the  ancient  Nu- 
midia  and  eastern  Mauritania,  organized  as 
a  colonial  possession  of  France  in  1834  (con- 
quest begun  in  1830).  It  is  bounded  by  the  Mediter- 
ranean on  the  north,  by  Tunis  on  the  east,  by  Sahara  on 
the  south,  and  by  Morocco  on  the  west,  and  is  traversed 
by  the  Atlas  range.  It  comprises  three  distinct  regions : 
the  Tell,  or  mountainous  and  cultivated  region,  in  the 
north ;'  the  steppe  region,  with  various  shotts,  or  brackish 
lakes,  in  the  center ;  and  the  Sahara,  which  extends  in- 
deflnitely  southward.  The  leading  industry  is  agriculture, 
but  the  country  also  contains  considerable  mineral  wealth 
(especially  iron  and  copper),  and  exports  wheat,  barley, 
oats,  wine,  olive-oil,  esparto  grass,  wool,  fruits,  and  live 
stock.  It  is  divided  into  three  departments :  Algiers,  Oran, 
and  Constantine,  each  with  a  civil  territory  and  a  mili- 
tary territory.  The  capital  is  Algiers.  The  government  is 
vested  in  a  governor-general  appointed  from  France,  in  the 
French  Corps  L^gislatif,  and  in  a  Superior  Council.  Each 
province  sends  1  senator  and  2  deputies  to  the  French  As- 
sembly. The  prevailing_  religion  is  Mohammedanism,  and 
the  inhabitants  are  chiefly  Berbers,  Arabs,  Europeans 
(largely  French  and  Spaniards),  Jews,  Moors,  and  de- 
scendants of  Turks.  The  country  was  annexed  by  Rome 
in  large  part  in  tie  Ist  century  B.  o. ;  was  conquered  by 
the  Vandals  in  the  5th  century,  and  by  the  Saracens 
in  the  7th ;  passed  into  the  possession  of  the  Turks  in 
1B19 ;  and  was  a  piratical  power  from  the  16th  to  the  19th 
century,  becoming  independent  of  Turkey  in  1710.  The 
ofBce  of  dey  was  established  in  1600.  Defeated  by  the 
United  States  in  1815.  Conquest  by  France,  begun  in  1830 
with  the  taking  of  Algiers,  was  continued  by  the  taking  of 
Constantine  in  1837,  the  subdual  of  the  Kabyles,  and  the 
capture  of  Abd-el-Kader  in  1847.  Various  insurrections 
occurred  in  later  years.  Area  (excluding  the  Algerian 
Sahara),  184,474  square  miles.  Population  (1896), 4,4^421. 
See  Corsairs. 

Algesiras.    See  Algeciras. 

Alghero  (al-ga'ro),  or  Algheri  (-re).  A  sea- 
port in  the  province  of  Sassari,  Sardinia,  in  lat. 
40°  34'  N.,  long.  8°  19'  E.  It  has  a  cathedral. 
Population,  about  9,000. 

Algiers  (al-jerz').  [F.  Alger,  Sp.  Pg.  Argel,  It. 
Algieri,  G.  Algier.  See  Algeria.']  A  seaport,  the 
capital  of  Algeria,  situated  on  the  Bay  of  Algiers 
in  lat.  36°  47'  N.,  long.  3°  3'  E.,  founded  by  the 
Arabs  about  935.  it  consists  of  a  lower  or  European 
and  an  upper  or  Moorish  quarter,  and  contains  the  Easbab, 
or  ancient  fortress  of  the  deys,  situated  about  SCO  feet 
above  the  sea,  numerous  mosques,  a  Catholic  cathedral, 
and  several  Protestant  churches.  The  harbor  is  spacions, 
safe,  and  weU  fortified.  Algiers  is  a  favorite  winter 
health-resort    It  was  imsaccessfuUy  attacked  by  Charles 


Algiers 


v.  In  1541 ;  bombarded  by  the  British  in  1816 ;  and  occu- 
pied by  the  French  in  1830.  Population  (18S1),  82,585. 
See  Corsttire. 

'Algiers'  is  In  Arabic  'Al-Gezair'("the  islands"),  said 
to  be  so  called  from  that  in  its  bay ;  or,  more  probably, 
*A1-Gezair'  is  a  grammarian's  explanation  of  the  name 
'Tzeyr'  or  'Tzier,'  by  which  the  Algerians  commonly 
called  their  city,  and  which  is,  I  suspect,  a  corruption  of 
the  [name  of  the]  Roman  city  Csssarea  (Augusta),  which 
occupied  almost  the  same  site.  It  should  be  remarked 
that  the  Algerians  pronounce  the  gim  hard:  not  'Al- 
Jezair."  Europeans  spelt  the  name  in  all  sorts  of  ways: 
Arger,  Argel,  Argeir,  Algel,  &c.,  down  to  the  French  Alger 
«nd  our  Algiers. 

Poole,  Story  of  the  Barbary  Corsairs,  p.  13. 

Algiers.  The  middle  province  or  department 
of  Algeria.    Population  (1891),  1,468,127. 

Algiers,  A  manufacturing  suburb  of  New  Or- 
leans, situated  on  the  Mississippi  opposite  New 
Orleans. 

Algoa  Bay  (al-go'a  ba).  A  bay  on  the  southern 
coast  of  Cape  Colony,  Africa. 

Algol  (al'gol).  [At.  al-gliAl,  the  ghoul  or  de- 
mon.] The  remarkable  second-magnitude  va- 
riable star  ji  Persei,  in  the  head  of  Medusa, 
who  is  the  monster  referred  to  in  the  name. 

Algonquiau (al-gou'ld-an).  \^Algonqu{in) and 
-Jan.]  A  linguistic  stoct  of  North  American 
Indians,  which  formerly  oocu;pied  an  area  larger 
than  that  of  any  other  stock  in  North  America, 
reaching  from  Labrador  to  the  Rocky  Mountains 
and  from  Churchill  Eiver  of  Hudson  Bay  at  least 
as  far  south  as  Pamlico  Soundin  North  Carolina. 
There  were  breaks  in  the  continuity  of  its  territory  in  and 
near  the  State  of  New  York  where  an  area  was  occupied 
by  Iroquoian  tribes,  and  one  in  Newfoundland  where  the 
Beothukan  family  dwelt.  An  advance  to  the  south  be- 
yond the  contiguous  tribal  territories  was  made  by  the 
Shawano  or  Shawnee  tribe  which  had  early  separated 
from  the  main  body.  The  Cheyenne  and  Arapaho,  two 
■allied  tribes  of  this  stock,  also  separated  from  their  kin- 
dred on  the  north  and  forced  their  way  west  through 
bostile  tribes  across  the  Missouri  River  to  the  Black  Hills 
country  of  South  Dakota,  and  more  recently  into  Wyoming 
and  Colorado,  thus  forming  the  advance  of  the  Algonquian 
stock  in  that  direction,  leaving  t^e  Siouan  tribes  in  their 
rear  and  confronting  those  of  the  Shoshonean  stock.  In 
the  immense  area  occupied  by  this  stock  the  number  of 
tribes  which  sometimes  have  been  called  villages,  and 
sometimes  were  composed  of  several  neighboring  villages, 
was  veryiai'ge.  Hundreds  of  names  of  these  subordinate 
divisions  with  their  situations  are  known,  and  also  several 
oonfederacies  which  are  more  frequently  mentioned  by  a 

^collective  name  than  by  the  names  of  the  tribes  compos- 

'ing  them.  Among  these  confederacies  are  the  Abnaki, 
Illinois,  Pennacook,  Powhatan,  and  Siksika.  The  Cheyenne 
and  Arapaho  and  the  Sac  and  Fox,  though  essentially 
confederacies,  are  not  designated  as  such  under  a  special 
litle.  Excluding  the  five  confederacies  just  mentioned, 
■the  principal  tribes  are  Algonquin,  Arapaho,  Cheyenne, 
Conoy,  Cree,  Delaware,  Fox,  Kickapoo,  Mahican,  Masaa- 
«huset,  Menominee,  Miami,  Micmac,  Misisaga,  Mohegan, 
Mont^nais,  Montauk,  Munsee,  Nanticoke,  Narraganset, 
Nauset,  Niprauc,  Ojibwa,  Ottawa,  Pamlico,  Pequot,  Pian- 
Itishaw,  Pottawotomi,  Sac,  Shawano,  Wampanoag,  and 
Wappinger.  The  Algonquian  stock  numbers  now  about 
■95,600,  of  whom  about  60,000  are  in  Canada  and  the  rest 
in  the  United  States.  As  its  tribes  were  met  by  the  first 
Eiench,  English,  and  Dutch  immigrants  and  for  genera- 
tions were  closely  connected  with  the  colonial  and  revo- 
lutionary history  of  North  America,  the  literature  relating 
to  them  Mis  many  volumes.  Brief  allusions  to  prominent 
historic  events  appear  under  some  of  the  tribal  names. 

Algonctuin,  or  Algonkin  (al-gon'kin).  [A 
French  contraction  of  Algomeguin,  a  word  of 
the  Algonkin  language  signifying  'those  on 
the  other  side  of  the  river,'  i.  e.  the  St.  Law- 
rence Eiver.]  A  collective  term  for  a  group  of 
tribes  of  North  American  Indians  of  the  valleys 
of  the  Ottawa  Eiver  and  of  the  northern  tribu- 
taries of  the  St.  Lawrence,  to  near  Quebec. 
They  were  early  allies  of  the  French  in  fighting  the  Iro- 
quois by  whom  many  were  driven  west  where  they  became 
known  as  Ottawa.  Some  returned  to  Three  Rivers,  Que- 
bec. There  are  about  4,700  in  the  provinces  of  Quebec 
and  Ontario. 

Algorab  (al-go-rab'),  or  Algores  (al'go-res). 
[Ar.  al-glturdb,  the  raven.]  The  third-magni- 
tude star  S  Corvi.  See  Alchiba.  in  this  constel- 
lation the  lettering  of  the  stars  does  not  at  all  correspond 
to  their  present  brightness. 

Algrind  (al'grind).  An  anagram  of  Grindal,  in 
Spenser's  "Shepherd's  Calendar." 

-Al-Hakim  ibn  Otta  (al-ha'kem  ib'n  ot'ta). 
Died  about  780.  An  impostor  who  appeared 
as  a  prophet  in  Mero,  the  capital  of  Khorasan, 
in  774,  surnamed  Al-Mokenna  (Mocanna,  or 
Mukanna),  "  The  Veiled  One."  He  destroyed 
himself  about  780  to  avoid  capture  by  an  army  which  had 
■been  sent  against  him  by  the  calif  Mahdl.  He  has  been 
made  the  subject  of  a  poem  by  Moore,  "Mokanna,  or  the 
Veiled  Prophet  of  Khorassan." 

Al-Hakim  (al-ha'kem)  II.  Bom  about  the  be- 
ginning of  the  10th  century :  died  Sept.  30,  976. 
Calif  of  Cordova  961-976,  famous  as  a  patron 
of  literature  and  learning.  He  collected  a  large 
library  (said  to  have  contained  600,000  volumes),  which 
formed  the  nucleus  of  the  celebrated  academy  of  Cordova, 
and  founded  colleges,  mosques,  and  hospitals. 

Alhama  de  los  Banos  (a-la'ma  da  16s  ban'yos). 
A  town  and  watering-place,   containing  hot 


39 

sulphur  springs,  in  the  province  of  Granada, 
Spain,  26  miles  southwest  of  Granada.  It  was 
taken  from  the  Moors  in  1482.  Population 
(1887),  7,899. 

.Alhania  de  Murcia  (a-la'ma  da  m6r'the-a).  A 
town  in  the  province  of  Murcia,  Spain,  17  miles 
southwest  of  Murcia,  noted  for  its  sulphur 
springs.     Population  (1887),  7,203. 

Albamarides  (a-la-mar'idz).  The  last  Moor- 
ish dynasty  in  Spain.  It  ruled  in  Granada 
from  the  middle  of  the  13th  century  until  1492. 

Alhambra  (al-ham'bra).  [Ar.  al-hamra'u,  red.] 
A  great  citadel  and  palace  founded  in  the  13th 
century  above  the  city  of  Granada,  Spain,  by 
the  Moorish  kings.  The  hill  inclosed  by  this  once 
formidable  fortress  is  2,600  feet  long  and  700  wide ;  the 
high  and  thick  walls  are  strengthened  by  great  square 
towers,  and  there  is  a  strong  inner  citadel.  The  palace,  a 
large  part  of  which  was  destroyed  by  Charles  V.  to  make 
room  for  a  Renaissance  structure,  is  the  finest  example 
of  Moorish  art,  and  gives  its  name  to  the  Alhambraic 
style.  It  consists  of  galleries  and  rather  small  rooms  sur- 
rounding arcaded  courts  beautiful  with  fountains,  flowers, 
and  subtropical  vegetation.  The  key-note  of  the  style  is 
the  delicacy  and  elaboration  of  detail  of  its  interior  dec- 
oration, which  is  formed  especially  of  endlessly  varied 
arabesque  patterns  and  Moslem  inscriptions  impressed 
on  plaster  or  executed  in  wood,  and  delicately  yet  bril- 
liantly colored.  All  is  on  a  rather  small  scale ;  but  the 
little  marble  columns  are  very  finely  cut,  the  coupled 
Ajimez  windows  are  lovely  in  proportions  and  ornament, 
and  the  research  of  artistic  efEects  of  perspective  is  note- 
worthy, 

Alhazen  (al-ha'zen).  Born  at  Bassora:  died 
at  Cairo,  1038.  An  Arabian  mathematician, 
author  of  commentaries  on  the  ".Almagest"  of 
Ptolemy,  a  treatise  "On  Twilight,"  a  "Thesau- 
rus Opticse,"  etc. 

Alhena  (al-hen'a).  [Ar.  al-hen'ah,  a  ring  or 
circlet.]  The  third-magnitude  star  7  Gemi- 
norum,  in  the  foot  or  ankle  of  Pollux.  It  is 
sometimes  called  Almeisam. 

All  (a'le).  Born  at  Mecca  about  600:  killed  at 
Kuf  a,  661.  A  cousin  german  and  adopted  son  of 
Mohammed,  and  the  fourth  calif,  656-661 :  sur- 
named "The  Lion  of  God."  He  was  the  son  of  Abu 
Talib,  uncle  of  Mohammed,  and  he  married  Fatima,  daugh- 
ter of  the  Prophet.  He  was  defeated  by  Moavya,  the 
founder  of  the  Ommiad  dynasty,  and  assassinated.  His 
sons  Hassan  and  Hussein,  who  tried  to  regain  the  cal- 
ifate,  were  killed  in  669  and  680  respectively.  Their  fol- 
lowers brought  about  the  great  schism  which  divides  the 
Moslem  world  into  two  sects,  the  Sunnites  and  the 
Shiites.  The  latter,  which  include  Persians  and  most  of 
the  Mohammedans  of  India,  regard  All  as  the  first  right- 
ful calif,  and  venerate  his  sons  as  martyrs.  He  wrote 
lyric  poems  ("Diwan  "),  and  a  collection  of  proverbs  is  at- 
tributed to  him. 

Ali.  Brother  of  the  prince  in  the  story  of 
"Prince  Ahmed  and  the  Fairy  Pari-Banou," 
in  "The  Arabian  Nights'  Entertainments." 
He  marries  the  Princess  Nourounnihar. 

Ali  Bey.  Born  in  Abkhasia  about  1728 :  died 
1773.  A  Mameluke  bey,  ruler  of  Egypt,  who 
declared  himself  independent  of  the  Porte  in 
1768.  He  made  many  conquests  in  Arabia,  Syria,  etc., 
and  was  taken  prisoner  in  battle  in  1773. 

Ali  Bey.    See  Badia  y  Leblich. 

Ali  Pasha.  Bom  at  Tepeleni,  Albania,  1741: 
beheaded  at  Janina,  Feb.  5,  1822.  An  Alba- 
nian who  became  pasha  of  Janina  in  1788.  He 
subdued  the  Suliotes  in  1803  and  was  made  governor  of 
Rumelia.  He  intrigued  with  France,  Russia,  and  Great 
Britain  against  Turkey,  and  was  compelled  by  the  Turks 
to  surrender  at  Janina,  and  assassinated. 

Ali  Pasha.  Born  at  Constantinople,  1815:  died 
Sept.  6, 1871.  A  Turkish  statesman  and  diplo- 
matist, several  times  grand  vizir  since  1855. 
He  was  especially  distinguished  as  the  promoter  of  vari- 
ous reforms  in  the  Turkish  government. 

Aliaska.    See  Alaska. 

.Aliata.    See  Comanche. 

Ali  Baba  (a'le  ba'ba).  A  character  in  "  The 
■Arabian  Nights'  Entertainments,"  in  the  story 
"Ali  Baba  and  the  Forty  Thieves":  a  pooc 
wood-cutter  who,  concealed  in  a  tree,  sees  a 
band  of  robbers  enter  a  secret  cavern,  and 
overhears  the  magic  words  "open  sesame" 
which  open  its  door.  After  their  departure  he  repeats 
the  spell  and  the  door  opens,  disclosing  a  room  fuU  of 
treasures  with  which  he  loads  his  asses  and  returns  home. 
His  brother  Cassim,  who  discovers  his  secret,  enters  the 
cave  alone,  forgets  the  word  "  sesame,"  and  is  found  and 
out  in  pieces  by  the  robbers.  The  thieves,  discovering 
that  Ali  Baba  knows  their  secret,  resolve  to  kill  him,  but 
are  outwitted  by  Morgiana,  a  slave. 

Ali  Baba.  An  opera  by  Cherubini,  founded  on 
his  "Koukourgi,"  produced  at  Paris  1833. 

Alibamali,  or  Alibami,  or  Alibamo.  See 
AKbamu. 

Alibamu  (a-le-ba'mo).  [In  the  form  Alabama, 
as  the  name  of  one  of  the  United  States,  com- 
monly but  incorrectly  translated  'here  we  rest': 
the  name  is  first  mentioned  as  that  of  a  chief 
met  by  De  Soto.]    A  tribe  of  the  Creek  Con- 


Alinda 

f  ederaoy  of  North  American  Indians.  The  Frencli 
came  int»  conflict  with  them  in  1702.  There  is  now  an 
■Alibamu  town  on  Deep  Creek,  Indian  Territory,  and  some 
of  the  tribe  live  near  .Alexandria,  Louisiana ;  over  100  are 
hi  Polk  County,  Texas.  (See  Creek  and  Muskkogean.) 
Also  Alibamo,  Alibamah,  Alibami, 

Alibaud  (a-le-bo'),  Louis.  Bom  at  Nimes 
France,  May  2,  1810:  guUlotined  at  Paris,  July 
11,  1836.  A  Frenchman  who  attempted  to  as- 
sassinate Louis  Philippe,  June  25, 1836. 

Alibert  (a-le-bar'),  Jean  Louis,  Baron.  Born 
at  Villefranehe,  Aveyron,  France,  May  12, 
1766:  died  at  Paris,  Nov.  6,  1887.  A  French 
medical  writer,  author  of  "  'Traits  eomplet  des 
maladies  de  la  peau"  (1806-27),  etc. 

Alibunar  Marsh.  A  large  morass  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  Alibunar  in  Croatia. 

Alicante  (a-le-kan'ta) .  A  province  in  the  titu- 
lar kingdom  of  Valencia,  Spain,  bounded  by 
Valencia  on  the  north,  the  Mediterranean  on 
the  east,  Murcia  on  the  south,  and  Albacete 
and  Murcia  Qn  the  west.  Area,  2,098  square 
miles.    Population  (1887),  432,355. 

Alicante.  A  seaport  and  the  capital  of  the 
province  of  Alicante,  situated  on  the  Mediter- 
ranean in  lat.  38°  21'  N.,  long.  0°  29'  W. :  the 
ancient  Lucentum.  it  is  one  of  the  best  harbors  in 
the  Mediterranean,  and  has  an  important  export  trade 
in  wine  and  other  products  of  eastern  Spain.  It  was  re- 
covered from  the  Moors  by  Ferdinand  III.  of  Castile, 
ceded  to  .Aragon  in  1304,  besieged  and  taken  by  the  French 
1709,  besieged  by  the  French  1812,  and  bombarded  by  the 
insurgents  of  Cartagena  1873.    Population  (1887),  39,638. 

Alicata.    See  Licata. 

Alice  (al'is).  1.  The  wife  of  Bath  in  Chaucer's 
tale  of  that  name.  Her  "  gossib,"  to  whom  she 
alludes,  has  the  same  name. — 3.  A  lady  in  at- 
tendance on  the  Princess  Katharine,  daughter 
of  the  King  of  France,  in  Shakspere's  "Henry 
V." — 3.  The  principal  female  character  in 
"Arden  of  Feversham." — 4.  A  little  girl 
through  whose  dream  pass  the  scenes  of  "  Alice's 
Adventures  in  Wonderland  "  and  "  Through  the 
Looking-glass, "  two  popular  stories  for  children 
by  Lewis  Carroll  (Charles  Dodgson). 

Alice,  or  The  Mysteries.  A  novel  by  Bulwer, 
published  in  1838:  Si  sequel  to  "Ernest  Mal- 
travers." 

Alicia  (a-lish'ia).  1.  One  of  the  principal 
female  characters  in  Eowe's  tragedy  "Jane 
Shore,"  a  woman  of  strong  passions  who  by  her 
jealousy  ruins  her  former  friend  Jane  Shore. — 

2.  The  name  given  by  Lillo  in  his  "Arden  of 
Feversham"  to  the  Alice  of  the  earlier  version. 

Alicudi  (a-le-ko'de),  or  Alicuri  (a-le-ko're). 
The  westernmost  of  the  Lipari  Islands,  north  of 
Sicily,  in  lat.  38'=  35'  N.,  long.  14°  15'  E.  It  is 
4  miles  long. 

■Alides  (al'idz).  The  descendants  of  .Ali  the 
fourth  calif. 

Aliena  (a-li-e'na).  The  name  assumed  by  Celi a 
in  Shakspere's  " As  you  Like  it"  when  she 
followed  Eosalind  disguised  as  a  shepherdess. 
See  Alinda. 

Alifanfaron  (a-le-fan'fa-ron).  The  emperor 
of  the  Island  of  Trapoban,  mentioned  by  Don 
Quixote.  When  he  sees  two  flocks  of  sheep  coming 
toward  him  he  says  :  "  Know,  friend  Sancho,  that  yonder 
army  before  us  is  commanded  by  the  Emperor  ■Alifanfaron, 
sovereign  of  the  Island  of  Trapoban,  and  the  other  .  .  . 
by  .  .'  .  Pentapolin."    See  Pemtapolin. 

Aligarh  (a-li-gar').  A  district  in  the  Meerut 
division,  Northwestern  Provinces,  British  In- 
dia, intersected  by  lat.  28°  N.,  long.  78°  E. 
Area,  1,952  square  miles.  Population  (1891), 
1,043,172. 

Aligarh,  Fort.  A  f  ortin  the  district  of  Aligarh, 
defended  by  the  Mahrattas  and  stormed  by  the 
British  under  Lake  1803. 

Alighieri.    See  Dante. 

Alijos  (a-le'Hos).  A  group  of  small  islands  in 
the  Pacific,  west  of  Lower  California. 

Alikhanoff  (a-le-cha'nof),  originally  Ali 
Khan  (a'le  chan).  Born  in  the  Caucasus, 
1846.  A  Eiissian  officer,  governor  of  the  Merv 
oasis,  noted  for  his  share  in  gaining  Merv  for 
the  Eussians  in  1884. 

Alima  (a-le'ma).  A  right  afluent  of  the 
Kongo  Eiver,  having  its  head  waters  near  those 
of  the  Ogowe,  in  French  Kongo.  It  was  dis- 
covered by  Brazza  in  1878,  and  is  navigable  as 
far  as  Leketi. 

Alinda  (a-lin'da).  1.  A  character  in  Lodge's 
romance  "Eosalynde,"  the  story  transformed 
by  Shakspere  into  ' '  As  you  Like  it."  Alinda  is 
the  Celia  of  Shakspere's  play.— 2.  The  daugh- 
ter  of  Alphonso  in  Fletcher's   "Pilgrim."  — 

3.  The  name  assumed  by  young  Archas  when 
disguised  as  a  woman,  in  Fletcher's  "Loyal 
Subject." 


Alioth 

Alioth  (al'i-oth).  [Ar.,  but  of  disputed  deriva- 
tion.] The  name  in  the  Alphonsine  tahles, 
and  still  in  ordinary  use,  of  the  bright  seeond- 


40 


Allen,  Carl  Ferdinand 


Britain  restored  to  the  French  8,000  French  and  Dutch  AUectUS  (a-lek'tus).     The  prime  minister  ol 


prisoners,  and  handed  over  in  perfect  repair  all  the  mili- 
tary "works  which  our  own  soldiers  had  erected  at  the 
Holder.  Pyge,  Hist.  Mod.  Europe,  I.  196. 


magnitude  star  e  Ursaa  Majoris.    The  name  is  also  Alkmaar.  Heinrik  VOn.    Lived  in  the  second 
sometimes  (rarely)  given  to  a  Serpentis,  and  even  to  9  Ser-  Xlf^f  flik  "/""JT*-,"-."       A  German  translator 


pentis. 

Aliris.    See  Feramorz. 

Aliscans  (a-les-kon').  [Also  Alesehans;  fromL. 
Elysii  Campi,  Elysian  Fields,  referring  to  an 
ancient  cemetery  near  Aries.]  A  chanson  of 
the  12th  century,  dealing  with  the  contest  be- 
tween William  of  Orange,  the  great  Christian 
hero  of  the  south  of  France,  and  the  Saracens. 
It  lorms,  according  to  custom,  the  center  ol  a  whole  group 
of  chansons  dealing  with  the  earlier  and  later  adventures 
of  the  hero,  his  ancestors  and  descendants.  Such  are 
"Le  couronneraent  Loys,"  *'La  prise  d'Orange,"  "I,e 
charroi  de  Nimes,"  "Le  moniage  Guillaume."    The  series 


Carausius,  "emperor"  of  Britain,  and  his  mur- 
derer (293  A.  D.).  AUeotus  usurped  the  throne  of 
Carausius  and  retained  it  for  three  years,  but  was  de- 
feated and  slain  by  the  Romans  under  a  lieutenant  of  Con- 
stantius  near  London. 


half  of  the  15th  century.    ^^  ^^^^v.^  ^^^^^ ^^ ■,,-,,.  i.s      rn     itm.-x 

of  the  poem  "Reineke  de  Vos,"  published  in  A116e  Blanche  (al-la    blonsh).  ^  [*•>    Wli™ 
Low  German  at  Bremen  1498.  Walk.']   An  Alpine  valley  south  of  MontBlanc. 

A116e  Verte  (al-la'  vert).     [F.,  'Green  Walk.'] 
,  A  double  avenue  of  limes  beginning  at  the 
western  end  of  the  Boulevard  d'Anvers  in  Brus- 
sels and  extending  along  the  bank  of  the  Wille- 
broeck  Canal.    It  was  formerly  a  fashionable 


Alkoran.     See  Eoran. 

Alkoremmi  (al-ko-rem'me).     The  palace  of 
Vathek,  in  the  story  of  that  name  by  Beckf  ord. 

He  [Vathek]  surpassed  in  magnificence  all  his  prede- 
cessors. The  palace  of  Alkoremmi,  which  his  father  Mo- 
tassem  had  erected  on  the  hill  of  Pied  Horses,  and  which     promenade. 

commanded  the  whole  city  of  Samarah,  was  in  his  idea  Alleghany  (al'e-ga-ni)  Mountains, 
far  too  scanty  :  he  added,  therefore,  five  wings,  or  rather  ■"■^■'"b         •»  ,  >       •  °  , ,    ' .         ,     ,  . 
other  palaces,  which  he  destined  for  the  particular  grati- 
fication of  each  of  his  senses.        Beclford,  Vathek,  p.  20. 


formed  by  these  and  others  is  among  the  most  interesting  Alia  (al'la),  or  Ella  (el'la).     The  king  in  "  The 


of  these  groups.    Sairttsburyf  Fr.  Lit.,  p.  19. 

Alise  (a-lez' ).  A  small  town  in  the  department 
of  C6te-d'0r,  France,  30  miles  northwest  of 
Dijon.     It  is  usually  identified  with  Alesia. 

Aliso  (al'i-so) .    A  fortress  near  the  river  Lippe, 


Man  of  Law's  Tale,"  one  of  Chaucer's  "  Canter- 
bury Tales."  He  marries  the  unjustly  accused 
Constance. 

Allah  (al'a).    [Ar.  'alldh,  for  'al-'ildh,  the  God.] 
God. 


^    .      .  „       .  -^  name 

given  sometimes  to  the  Appalachian  Mountains 
(see  Appalachian),  and  sometimes  to  that  part 
of  this  system  which  lies  west  and  south  of  the 
Hudson;  but  usually  applied,  in  a  restricted 
sense,  to  the  chain  which  in  Pennsylvania  lies 
east  of  the  Laurel  Hill  range.  This  chain  crosses 
the  western  extremity  of  Maryland,  traverses  West  Vir. 
gihia,  and  forms  part  of  the  boundary  between  Virginia 
and  West  Virginia.    Aim  the  AUeghaniee. 


built  by  the  Romans  under  Drusus,  11  b.  c.,  as  Allahabad  (al-a-ha-bad ')•    [Hind.,  '  city  of  Alleghany  Eiver.    See  Allegheny, 


a  military  center  against  the  German  tribes : 
variously  identified  with  Elsen  (near  Pader- 
born),  localities  near  Hamm,  Dortmund,  etc. 

Alison,  Alisoun.     Old  forms  of  Alice. 

Alison  (al'i-sgn),  Archibald.  Born  at  Edin- 
burgh, Nov.  13,  1757:  died  at  Colinton,  near 
Edinburgh,  May  17,  1839.  A  Scottish  clergy- 
man, author  of  "Essays,"  of  which  the  most 
noted  is  that  on  "The  Nature  and  Principles 
of  Taste  "  (1790). 

Alison,  Sir  Archibald.  Bom  at  Kenley,  Shrop- 


Masjid  (mosque),  and  the  serai  of  Khosru.    Allahabad 

was  taken  by  the  British  in  1765  and  by  them  granted  to 

„  ^^  ^  „  tbe  Emperor  of  Delhi  and  later  to  the  Nawah  of  Oudh ;  it 

Shire,  b^a  29,;'l792T  died"ai' Giasgow,-' May^  23      So'mlt  (iKvsil'e!"  ''"'•    ^''^"'''"°"' '""'"'"" 


God.']  The  capital  of  the  Northwestern  Prov-  Allegheny  (al'e-gen-i),  or  AUeghenST  City. 
inoes  of  British  India  and  of  the  district  and  A  city  in  Allegheny  County,  Pennsylvania,  situ- 
division  of  Allahabad,  situated  at  the  junction  atedon  the  Allegheny  River  opposite  Pittsburg, 
of  the  Jumna  with  the  Ganges,  in  lat.  25°  26'  It  is  an  important  railroad  center,  has  extensive  manu- 
N.,  long.  81°  52'  B.  It  is  the  emporium  for  central  factures,  anS  is.the  seat  of  a  K-esWerian  an^^^^^  theo- 
HiAdustan,  a  celebrated  place  of  Hinau  pilgrimage,  the  logical  seminaries.  Population  (1900K  129,896^^ 
seat  of  an  annual  fair,  and  an  important  raUway  center.  Allegheny,  or  Alleghany,  KlVOr.  ine  omer 
Among  the  chief  buildings  are  the  citadel  built  by  Akbar  head  stream  of  the  Ohio  River.  It  rises  in  Potter 
and  one  of  the  chief  British  strongholds  in  India,  the  Juma     County,  Pennsylvania,  flows  through  Cattaraugus  Countj^ 


1867.  A  British  lawyer  and  historian,  son  of  Allahabad.  A  district  of  the  Allahabad  divi- 
Archibald  Alison  (1757-1839);  He  settled  near  gion,  intersected  by  lat.  25°  N.,  long.  82°  E. 
Glasgow  as  sheriff  of  Lanarkshire  in  1836,  and  was  made  ;  '  o  B=i9sniini.QmilPK  Pnn  nRQ1^  1  fi/tS  7^7 
a  baFonet  in  1842.  His  principal  works  are  a  "History  of  ,^s?''  \°^;f  square  miles,  rop.  (i»yi),  i,D4»,  /d  /. 
Europe"  (10  vols.  1833-42),  "Criminal  Law  of  Scotland,"  Allahabad.  A  division  of  the  Northwestern 
a  lif e  of  Castlereagh,  etc.  Provinces,  British  India.    Area,  13,746  square 

Alison,  Sir  Archibald.  Bom  at  Edinburgh,  miles.  Population  (1881),  5,754,855. 
Jan.  21,  1826.  A  British  general,  son  of  Sir  Allain-Targe(a-lau'tar-zha'),FranQoisHenri 
Archibald  Alison  (1792-1867).  He  served  in  the  Kene.  Born  at  Angers,  May  7,  1832:  died  at 
Crimea  at  the  siege  ol  Sebastoppl,  in  India  during  the  ti^  Chateau  de  Targ^  (Maine-et-Loire),  July  16, 
mutiny,  on  the  Gold  Coast  in. the  Ashanti  expedition  ,Qf,„  ,  w.b„„i,  nrtvopatp  nolitician  and  ionr- 
1873-74,  and  in  the  military  expedition  to  Egypt  in  1882.  ^'^V- '.  JT  T®'^?'^  5.?^°  ,  S"  P""]'!''™!  f  "^  i°f'^ 
He  is  the  author  of  the  treatise  "On  Army  Organization"     nalist,  a  fnend  of  Gambetta  and  mmister  under 

him  1881-82.     He  was  also  minister  of  the  in- 

.  . ,  .  terior  in  the  Brisson  ministry  1885. 

western  Chihuahua,  where,  in  1881,  in  a  bloody  Allamahd  (a-la-mon'),  Jean  Nicolas  S6bas- 


AliSOS  (a-le's6s),  Los.    A  dry  torrent  in  north- 


encounter  between  the  Mexican  forces  com- 
manded by  Colonel  Garcia,  and  the  Apaches 
led  by  Geronimo,  the  latter  were  defeated. 
Alithea  (al-i-the'a).  One  of  the  principal 
characters  in  Wyoherley's  comedy  "The 
Country  Wife,"  a  woman  of  the  world,  bril 


tien.  Bom  at  Lausanne,  Switzerland,  1713: 
died  at  Leyden,  March  2, 1787.  A  Swiss  scholar, 
professor  of  philosophy  (1749)  and  later  of 
natural  history  in  the  University  of  Leyden. 
He  was  the  first  to  explain  the  phenomena  of 
the  Leyden  jar. 


liant  and  cooli    She  also  appears  in  Garrick's  Allan  (al'an),  David.  Bom  at  Alloa,  Scotland, 
Country  Girl."  _.-_-•«...,.,,■.,,.■.        ,     .        ,.  -.r,^^ 


New  York,  reenters  Pennsylvania,  flows  southwest,  and 
unites  with  the  Monongahela  at  Pittsburg  to  form  the 
Ohio.  Its  chief  tributaries  are  French  Creek,  the  Clarion, 
and  the  Conemaugh.  Its  length  is  about  360  miles,  and  it 
is  navigable  about  200  miles. 

Allegheny  College.  An  institution  of  learn- 
ing at  Meadville,  Pennsylvania,  incorporated 
in  1817.  It  is  under  the  control  of  the  Metho- 
dist Episcopal  Church. 

AUegri,  Antonio.    See  Correggio. 

AUegri  (al-la'gre),  Grregorio.  Bom  at  Rome 
about  1580:  died  at  Rome,  Feb.  18,  1652.  An 
Italian  composer. 

His  name  is  most  commonly  associated  with  a  "  Mise- 
rere "  for  nine  voices  in  two  choirs,  which  is,  or  was  till 
lately,  sung  annually  in  the  Pontifical  Chapel  during  the 
Holy  Week,  and  is  held  to  be  one  of  the  most  beautiful, 
compositions  which  have  ever  been  dedicated  to  the  ser- 
vice of  the  Eoman  Church.  There  was  a  time  when  it 
was  so  much  treasured  that  to  copy  it  was  a  crime  visited 
with  excommunication.  Not  that  its  possession  was  even  ' 
thus  confined  to  the  Sistine  Chapel.  Dr.  Burney  got  a 
copy  of  it.  Mozart  took  down  the  notes  while  the  choir 
were  singing  it,  and  Choron,  the  Frenchman,  managed  to 
insert  it  in  his  "Collection  "  of  pieces  used  in  Rome  dur- 
ing the  Holy  Week.  Leopold  I.,  a  great  lover  of  music, 
sent  his  ambassador  to  the  Pope  with  a  formal  request  for 
a  copy  of  it,  which  was  granted  to  him. 

Grovef  Diet,  of  Music. 


Aliwal  (al-e-wal').    A  village  in  the  Panjab, 


Feb.  13,  i744:  died  at  Edinburgh,  Aug.  6, 1796.  AUeguash  (al'e-gwosh),  or  AUegash.     A  river 
A  Scottish  historical  and  portrait  painter.  in  northern  Maine,  a  branch  of  the  St.  John. 


British  India,  near  the  Sutlej,  in  lat.  30°  55'  Allan,  Sir  Hugh.    Bom  at  Saltcoats,  Ayrshire,  AUeine,  Edward. 
N.,  long.  75°  30'  E.     Here,  Jan.  28,  1846,  the     Scotland,  Sept.  29,  1810:  died  at  Edinburgh,  AUeine    (al'en),  . 


Dec.  9,  1882."  A  Scottish  merchant,  identified 
with  Canadian  mercantile  interests,  and  foun- 
der of  the  Allan  Line  of  steamships  in  1856. 


Joseph.    Born    at  Devizes, 


England,  1634:  died  Nov.  17,  1668.  An  Eng- 
lish Puritan  clergyman,  ejected  under  the  Uni- 
formity Act  of  1662 :  author  of  "An  Alarm  to 


British  under  Smith  defeated  the  Sikhs 
Aljubarrota  (al-zho-ba-ro'ta).     A  small  place 

in  Portugal,  about  63  miles  north  of  Lisbon.     ^ 

Here,  Aug.  14, 1385,  John  I.  of  Castile  was  defeated  by  Allan  Sir  William.     Bom  at  Edinburgh,  1782 :     the  Unconverted  "  (1672),  etc. 

John  I.  of  Portugal     The  battle  establUhed  the  inde-     ^^^^  ^^         pg^_  23,  1850.     A  Scottish  painter,  AUeine,  Richard.     Bom  at  Diteheat,  Somer 
MSi^^TlJ^-aHdcUal-landtal^a'sk,    bestknowAfromhispicturesof  RussianUfeand    -    —    -"  •   —  -""    -    --      - 

the  governor  of  the  moumers :  by  the  Arabians    Scottish  history.    He  was  elected  president  of 

the  four  stars  which  form  the  bowl  of  the    the  Royal  Scottish  Academy  m  1888. 

"  diaper"  were  called  ' '  the  bier."]    The  bright  AUancie  (a-lau-sa  ),  Le  Seigneur  d  .    A  pseu- 

second-magnitude  star  n  Ursffi  Majoris,  at  the    doiiym  of  Alam  Chartier.  . 

extremityofthebear'stail,  or  "dipper-handle."  AUapaha  (a-lap  a-ha).     -A  river  m  southern 

-   ■  •'  i      .     ^^  GeorgiaandnorthernFlorida,  a  tributary  of  the 

Suwannee. 

AUardice  (al'ar-dis),  Robert  Barclay.  Bom 
1779 :  died  1854.  A  British  officer  and  pedes- 
trian, known  as  "Captain  Barclay." 


It  is  more  usually  called  Benetnasch. 

Alkalurops  (al-ka-lti'rops).  [Ar.  al-Tcalurops,  a 
transliteration  of  the  Gr.  KaTiavpof,  a  herds- 
man's staff.]  A  seldom  used  name  of  the 
fourth-magnitude  star  /x  Bootis,  situated  in  the 
staff  which  Bootes  carries  in  his  right  hand.  It 
is  a  chrome  star. 

Alkes(al'kes).  [Ar.  (i?-Ms,  the  cup.]  The  4J|- 
magnitude  star  a  Crateris. 

AUsSiaar  (alk-mar').  A  town  in  the  province 
of  North  Holland,  Netherlands,  situated  on  the 
North  Holland  Canal  18  miles  north  of  -Am- 
sterdam: noted  as  a  cheese-market.  It  was  un- 
successfully besieged  by  the  Spaniards  in  1673,  and  was 
the  scene  of  several  indecisive  actions  between  the  French 
under  Brune  and  the  Anglo-Kussian  army  under  the  Duke 
of  York  in  the  autumn  of  1799.    Population  (1889),  15,803. 

Alkmaar,  Convention  of.  A  convention  con- 
eluded  at  Alkmaar,  Oct.,  1799,  by  which  the 
Anglo-Russian  army  under  the  Duke  of  York 
evacuated  the  Netherlands, 


set,  England,  1611:  died  Dee.  22,  1681.  .An 
English  Puritan  clergyman,  ejected  under  the 
Uniformity  Act  of  1662:  author  of  "Vindieise 
Pietatis"  (1663),  etc. 

AUeine,  William.  Bom  at  Diteheat,  Somerset- 
shire, in  1614 :  died  at  Yeovil,  Somersetshire, 
Oct.,  1677.  An  English  Puritan  clergyman, 
brother  of  Richard  AUeine.  He  was  ejected  under 
the  Act  of  Uniformity  of  1662 ;  author  of  two  books  on 
the  millennium,  etc. 

AUemaine  (al-man').  An  obsolete  name  of 
Germany. 


iri,s'^^itftoot';;rssivetui'^^T^^^^^^^ 


per- 
His 


mile  in  each 

formed  at  Newmarket  from  1  June  to  12  July,  1809. 
average  time  of  walking  the  mile  varied  from  14  m.  54  sec. 
in  the  first  week  to  21  min.  4  sec.  in  the  last,  and  his 
weight  was  reduced  from  13  st.  4  lb.  to  11  stone. 

Diet.  Nat.  Biog, 


Theodore.     Bom  at  Port  Louis,  Mauritius, 
1762 :  died  at  Toulon,  March  2, 1826.    A  French 
naval  commander. 
Allen(al'en)._  Atownshipin  Michigan, 60  miles 


-,  ,  .     s  ,T        »-ii       •^     T-.  i    south westoi Lansing.  Population  (1900),  1,328, 

AUatius  (a-la'smus)  (Leo  Allacci)^_  Born^at  ^jjen  Arabella.    t°  r<v,o1.iQcT>inVar,c,'=<^-Pi«t. 


Scio,  Greece,  1586 :  died  Jan.  19,  1669.  A  Ro- 
man Catholic  writer,  author  of  "De  Eeelesise 
occidentalis  atque  orientalis  perpetua  consen- 
sione,  etc."  (1648),  etc. 
AUatoona  (al-a-to'na).  A  place  in  northern 
Georgia,  about  35  miles  northwest  of  Atlanta. 
Here,  Oct.  6, 1864,  the  Federals  under  Corse  defeated  the 
Confederates  under  French.    Loss  of  the  .-Federals,  706 ; 


of  the  Confederates,  1,142, 
The  result  of  a  series  of  mischances,  everyone  of  which  AUe  (al'le).  A  river  about  130  miles  long,  in 
would  have  been  foreseen  by  an  average  midshipman  m  the  province  of  Bast  Prussia,  which  joins  the 
Nelson's  fleet,  or  an  average  sergeant  in  Massena's  arm^     Pregel  at  Wehlau. 

was  that  York  had  to  purchase  a  retreat  for  the  allied    Aii-'l.er  (al-bar'),  Henri  d'.     A  pseudonym  of 
forces  at  a  price  equivalent  to  an  unconditional  surrender    -^i^"?^!;  j  °-f„^^'  -^^^^  psBuuuuyui 

He  was  aUowed  to  re-embark  on  consideration  that  Great    Menri  ae  Liapommeraye. 


In  Charles  Dickens's  "  Pick- 
wick Papers,"  a  young  lady,  afterward  Mrs. 
Nathaniel  Winkle. 

Allen,  Barbara.    See  Barbara  Allen's  Cruelly. 

Allen,  Benjamin.  In  Charles  Dickens's  "  Pick- 
wick Papers,"  "a  coarse,  stout,  thick-set" 
young  surgeon,  "with  black  hair  out  rather 
short  and  a  white  face  out  rather  long." 

Allen,  Bog  of.  A  group  of  peat  morasses,  372 
square  miles  in  extent,  in  Kildare  and  Queen's 
counties,  Ireland. 

Allen,  Carl  Ferdinand.  Born  at  Copenhagen, 
April  23,  1811:  died  at  Copenhagen,  Dec.  27,. 
1871.    A  Danish  historian,   author  of  hand- 


Allen,  Carl  Ferdinand 

books  of  Danish  history,  of  a  "  History  of  the 
Three  Northern  Kingdoms  "  (1864-72),  etc. 

Allen,  Charles  Grant  Blairfindie ;  pseudo- 
nyms Cecil  Power,  J.  Arbuthnot  Wilson. 
Born  at  Kingston,  Canada,  Feb.  24, 1848  :  died 
at  Haslemere,  Surrey,  Oct.  25,  1899.  A  British 
naturalist  and  novelist. 

Allen,  Elisha  Hunt.  Born  at  New  Salem, 
Mass.,  Jan.  28, 1804 :  died  at  Washington,  D.  C, 
Jan.  1,  1883.  A  politician  and  diplomatist.  He 
was  a  Whig  member  of  Congress  from  Maine  1841-43,  and 
for  many  years  Hawaiian  chief  justice  and  minister  to 
the  United  States. 

Allen,  Mrs.  (Elizabeth  Chase):  pseudonym 
Florence  Percy.  Born  at  Strong,  Maine,  Oct. 
9, 1832.  An  American  poet  and  general  writer. 
She  is  also  linown  as  Mrs.  Akers  Allen  (from  Paul  Akers, 
the  sculptor,  her  first  husband). 

Allen,  Ethan.  Bom  at  Litchfield,  Conn.,  Jan. 
10,  1737:  died  at  Burlington,  Vt.,  Feb.  13, 
1789.  A  noted  American  Eevolutioijary  com- 
mander, colonel  of  the  "  Green  Mountain  Boys." 
He  captured  Fort  Ticonderoga  from  the  British  May  10, 
1775 ;  was  a  prisoner  1775-78 ;  and  was  later  commander 
of  Vermont  militia.  He  wrote  "  Reason  the  only  Oracle 
of  Man"  (1784). 

Allen,  Harrison.  Bom  at  Philadelphia,  Pa., 
April  17,  1841 :  died  there,  Nov.  14,  1897.  An 
American  anatomist  and  naturalist.  He  was 
assistant  surgeon  in  the  United  States  army  1862-65,  and 
professor  (of  comparative  anatomy  and  later  of  physiology) 
in  the  'University  of  Pennsylvania  from  1865. 

Allen,  Henry.  Bom  at  Northampton,  N,  H., 
Feb.  2,  1748:  died  at  Newport,  E.  I.,  June  14, 
1784.  The  founder  of  a  short-lived  religious  sect 
in  Nova  Scotiaj  named  from  him  "AUenites." 
His  peculiar  doctrine  related  chiefly  to  the  fall,  and  to  the 
creation  of  the  material  world,  which  he  regarded  as  a 
consequence  of  the  fall. 

Allen,  Ira.  Born  at  Cornwall,  Conn.,  April  21, 
1751:  died  at  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Jan.  7,  1814. 
An  American  Revolutionary  soldier  and  poli- 
tician, brother  of  Ethan  Allen.  He  took  part  in 
the  battle  of  Bennington  in  1777,  was  a  member  of  the 
Vermont  legislature  1776-77,  secretary  of  state,  trea- 
surer, and  surveyor-general ;  and  was  sent  as  a  delegate  to 
the  convention  which  ratified  the  Federal  Constitution  in 
1792.  Having  been  appointed  major-general,  he  went  in 
1795  to  Europe  to  purchase  arms.  On  the  return  voyage 
he  was  captured  by  the  English,  and  brought  to  England 
on  a  charge  of  supplying  the  Irish  rebels  with  arms,  and 
was  acquitted  only  after  a  suit  of  eight  years  in  the  Couit 
of  Admiralty.  He  wrote  *'  The  Natural  and  Political  His- 
tory of  Vermont"'  (1798),  etc. 

Allen,  Joel  Asaph.  Born  at  Springfield,  Mass., 
July  19,  1838.  An  American  naturalist,  noted 
as  a  mammalogist.  He  was  appointed  assistant  in 
ornithology  at  the  Museum  of  Comparative  Zodlogy  at 
Cambridge  in  1870,  and  curator  of  the  department  of 
Mammalia  and  birds  in  the  American  Museum  of  Natural 
History,  New  York,  in  1885.  He  accompanied  Agassiz  in 
his  expedition  to  Brazil  in  1865. 

Allen,  John.  Born  at  Colinton,  near  Edin- 
burgh, Feb.  3, 1771 :  died  at  Dulwich,  England, 
April  10,  1843.  A  British  political  and  histori- 
cal writer,  secretary  to  Lord  Holland :  author 
of  "  Growth  of  the  Eoyal  Prerogative  in  Eng- 
land" (1830),  etc. 

Allen,  Philip.  Born  at  Providence,  E.  I.,  Sept. 
1,  1785 :  died  at  Providence,  Dec.  16, 1865.  An 
American  politician.  Democratic  governor  of 
Ehode  Island  1851-53,  and  United  States  sena- 
tor 1853-59. 

Allen,  Ralph.    Bom  1694 :  died  at  Bath,  Eng- 

•  land,  June  29, 1764.  An  English  philanthropist, 
known  chiefly  as  the  friend  of  Fielding,  Pope, 
and  Pitt.  He  was  of  obscure  birth,  but  acquired  a  for- 
tune by  devising  (1720)  a  system  of  cross-posts  for  Eng- 
land and  Wales,  and  made  a  liberal  use  of  his  wealth. 
He  was  the  original  of  AUworthy  in  Fielding's  "Tom 
Jones,"  and  is  well  known  from  Pope's  lines  in  the  "Epi- 
logue to  the  Satires  of  Horace": 

"Let  humble  Allen  with  an  awkward  shame 
Do  good  by  stealth,  and  blush  to  find  it  fame." 

Allen,  Bobert.  Born  in  Ohio  about  1815 :  died 
at  Geneva,  Switzerland,  Aug.  6,  1886.  An 
American  soldier.  He  was  a  graduate  of  the  United 
States  Militai'y  Academy  (1836),  and  was  brevetted  major 
April  18, 1847,  for  gallant  conduct  in  the  battle  of  Cerro 
Gordo,  and  major-general  March  13, 1866.  He  became  assis- 
tant quartermaster-general  with  the  rank  of  colonel,  July 
28,  1866,  and  retired  March  21, 1878. 

Allen,  Samuel.  Bom  in  England,  about  1636: 
died  at  Newcastle,  N.  H.,  May  5,  1705.  An 
English  merchant,  proprietor  and  governor  in 
New  Hampshire. 

Allen,  Thomas.  Born  at  Uttoxeter,  Stafford- 
shire, England,  Dec.  21,  1542 :  died  at  Oxford, 
England,  Sept.  30,  1632.  An  English  mathe- 
matician and  antiquary,  of  great  eminence  in 
his  day.  He  is  best  known  from  Ms  collection  of  MSS. 
of  astronomy,  astrology,  etc.,  copies  of  some  of  which  are 
preserved. 

Allen,  or  Alan,  William.  Bom  at  Eossall, 
Lancashire,  England,  1532:  died  atEome,  Oct. 
16.  1594.    An  English  cardinal  and  controver- 


41 

sialist,  a  graduate  of  Oxford,  appointed  prin- 
cipal of  St.  Mary's  Hall  in  1556.  He  fled  to  Lou- 
vain  in  1561,  and  founded  the  Catholic  seminary  at  Douay, 
Sept,  29,  1568.  In  l!i87  he  was  created  cardinal  by  .Sixtus 
v.,  and  commissioned  to  reorganize  ecclesiastical  affairs 
in  England  after  the  kingdom  should  have  been  conquered 
by  Philip  II.  He  was  implicated  in  various  conspiracies 
against  Elizabeth,  and  became  the  leader  of  the  Spanish 
party  among  Enghsh  Catholics. 

Allen,  William.  Born  at  Pittsfield,  Mass., 
Jan.  2, 1784:  died  at  Northampton,  Mass.,  July 
16, 1868.  An  American  Congregational  clergy- 
man and  author,  president  of  Bowdoin  College 
1820-39. 

Allen,  William.  Bora  at  Edeuton,  N.  C,  1806 : 
died  July  11,  1879.  A  lawyer  and  politician. 
Democratic  member  of  Congress  from  Ohio 
1833-35,  United  States  senator  1837-49,  gover- 
nor of  Ohio  1874-76.  He  was  the  leading  ex- 
pounder of  the  "Ohio  Idea"  (which  see). 

Allen,  William  Francis.  Born  at  Northbor- 
ough,  Mass.,  Sept.  5, 1830 :  died  Dec,  1889.  An 
American  classical  scholar.  He  was  a  graduate  of 
Harvard  (1851),  and  was  appointed  professor  of  Latin  in 
the  University  of  Wisconsin  in  1867.  He  was  the  author  of 
a  series  of  Latin  text-books,  etc, 

Allen,  William  Henry.  Bom  at  Providence, 
E.  I.,  Oct.  21, 1784 :  died  at  Plymouth,  England, 
Aug.  15,  1813.  An  American  naval  comman- 
der. He  served  with  distinction  in  the  war  of  1812,  and 
was  mortally  wounded  while  in  command  of  the  Argus, 

Allen,  William  Henry.  Born  at  Manchester, 
Maine,  March  27,  1808:  died  at  Philadelphia, 
Aug.  29, 1882.  An  American  educator.  He  was  a 
graduate  of  Bowdoin  College  (1833),  professor  of  natural 
philosophy  and  afterward  of  philosophy  and  English  lit- 
erature at  Dickinson  College,  president  of  the  Pennsylva- 
nia College  at  Gettysburg  1865-66,  and  president  of  Girard 
College  1860-82  and  1867-82. 

AUen-a-Dale  (al'en-a-dal').  In  the  Eobin 
Hood  ballads,  a  brave,"gaily  dressed,  and  musi- 
cal youth  whom  Eobin  Hood  assisted  to  elope 
with  his  bride  who  was  to  be  married  against 
her  will  to  an  old  knight.  He  is  usually  introduced 
as  "chaunting  a  round-de-lay": 

The  youngster  was  cloathed  in  scarlet  red. 

In  scarlet  fine  and  gay ; 
And  he  did  frisk  it  over  the  plain 
And  chanted  a  round-de-lay. 

Child's  Eng.  and  Scotch  Ballads,  V.  278. 
[He  appears  as  Robin  Hood's  minstrel  in  Scott's  "  Ivan- 
hoe."] 

AUenburg  (al'len-borG).  A  small  town  in  the 
province  of  East  Prussia,  situated  on  the  Alle 
30  miles  southeast  of  Konigsberg. 

Allendale  (al'en-dal).  A  town  in  Northum- 
berland, England,  27  miles  west  of  Newcastle. 

Allendale.  A  township  and  town  in  Barnwell 
County,  South  Carolina,  67  miles  southwest  ot 
Columbia.    Population  (1900),  town,  1,030. 

Allende  (al-yan'da),  Ignacio.  Bom  in  San 
Miguel  el  Grande  (since  named  San  Miguel  de 
Allende,  in  his  honor),  Jan.  27,  1779:  exe- 
cuted in  Chihuahua,  June  26,  1811.  A  Mexi- 
can patriot,  son  of  a  Spaniard,  Narciso  Allende, 
and  a  captain  in  the  Spanish  army.  With  his 
regiment  he  declared  for  Mexican  independence  Sept., 
1810,  and  joined  the  insurrection  of  Hidalgo.  He  was 
betrayed  into  the  hands  of  the  Spaniards  May  21, 1811, 
and  shot, 

Allende.  A  hamlet  and  hacienda  in  southern 
Chihuahua,  formerly  called  San  Bartolom6,  and 
the  first  Spanish  establishment  in  Chihuahua 
(1570). 

Allende,  or  Allende  San  Miguel.  See  San 
Miguel  de  Allende. 

AUendorf  (al'len-dorf).  A  small  town  in  the 
province  of  Hesse-Nassau,  Prussia,  situated  on 
the  Werra  17  miles  east  of  Cassel. 

AUenstein  (al'len-stin),  A  town  in  the  prov- 
ince of  East  Prussia,  situated  on  the  Alle  63 
miles  south  of  Konigsberg.  Near  here,  Feb.,  1807, 
the  French  under  Soult  defeated  the  Russians  and  Prus- 
sians.   Population  (1890),  18,822. 

AUentOWn  (al'en-toun).  A  borough  in  Mon- 
mouth County,  New  Jersey,  11  miles  southeast 
of  Trenton.     Population  (1900),  695. 

AUentcwn.  A  city,  the  capital  of  Lehigh 
County,  Pennsylvania,  situated  on  the  Lehigh 
50  miles  northwest  of  Philadelphia,  It  has  ex- 
tensive iron  manufactures  and  a  large  trade  in  coal  and 
iron,  and  is  the  seat  of  AUentown  Female  College  and 
Muhlenberg  College.    Population  (1900),  35,416, 

AUer  (al'ler).  A  Tiver  in  northern  Germany 
which  joins  the  Weser  18  miles  southeast  of 
Bremen,  Its  length  is  about  100  miles  and  it  is 
navigable  from  Celle, 

AUerheiligen  (al-ler-hi'li-gen).  [G.,  'All 
Saints.']  A  ruined  Premonstrant  abbey  in  the 
Black  Forest,  Baden,  near  Oberkireh. 

AUerheim  (al'ler-hlm)  on  the  Ries,  or  AUers- 
heim  (al'lers-him).  Avillage  6  miles  south- 
east of  NordUngen,  Bavaria.    Here,  Aug,  3, 1646, 


All  is  True 

the  French  under  Cond6  defeated  the  Imperialists  under 
Mercy  (who  fell).  It  is  sometimes  called  the  second  battle 
of  Nordlingen. 

AUerton  (al'er-ton),  Isaac.  Born  about  1583: 
died  at  New  Haven,  (jonn,,  1659.  One  of  the 
"Pilgrim  Fathers,"  a  colonist  at  Plymouth, 
Massachusetts,  1620,  and  agent  of  the  Plymouth 
Colony  in  Europe, 

AUestree  (ais'tre),  or  Allestry,  Richard. 
Bom  at  Uppington,  Shropshire,  England,  March, 
1619  (1621?):  died  at  London,  Jan.  28,  1681, 
An  English  royalist  divine  and  scholar.  He 
was  appointed  chaplain  in  ordinary  to  the  king  and  regius 
professor  of  divinity  at  Oxford  in  1663,  and  provost  of 
Eton  College  in  1665,  Author  of  "Privileges  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Oxford,"  etc.  (1647),  and  of  several  collections 
of  sermons. 

AUevard  (al-var').  A  town  in  the  department 
of  Is^re,  Prance,  situated  on  the  Breda  23 
miles  northeast  of  Grenoble.  Population  (1891), 
commune,  2,850. 

Alley,  The.    See  Change  Alley. 

Alleyne  (al'en),  Ed'ward.  Born  in  the  parish 
of  St.  Botolph,  London,  Sept.  1,  1566:  died 
Nov.  25,  1626,  A  celebrated  actor,  and  the 
founder  of  Dulwioh  College  (incorporated  1619). 
He  served  with  the  Earl  ot  Worcester's  players,  the  Earl 
of  Nottingham's,  or  the  Lord  Admiral's,  company,  and 
Lord  Strange's  players,  and  also  engaged  in  various  enter- 
prises with  Philip  Henslowe,  Heisfrequentlymentioned 
with  praise  by  contemporary  writers.  His  name  first 
appears  as  an  actor  in  a  list  of  the  Earl  of  Worcester's 
players  in  1586,  and  he  was  said  by  Nash  in  "  Pierce  Peni- 
lesse"  in  1592  to  be  one  of  the  four  greatest  English 
actors.  His  last  known  appearance  was  in  1603-04  when 
he  delivered  a  reception  address  to  James  I.  He  is  said 
to  have  excelled  in  tragedy.  He  built,  with  Henslowe, 
the  "  Fortune  "  Theater  in  1600,  in  which  he  played  at  the- 
head  of  the  Lord  Admiral's  company.  He  began  to  build 
Dulwich  College  in  1613,  and  personally  managed  its 
affairs  after  its  completion. 

All  Fools,  or  All  Fools  but  the  Fool.    A 

tragi-comedy  by  Chapman,  printed  in  1605,  it 
was  first  called  "The  World  on  Wheels"  and  registered 
in  1599,    It  is  considered  the  best  of  his  comedies. 

All  for  Love,  or  The  World  Well  Lost.    A 

tragedy  by  Dryden  produced  in  1678,  it  is  based 
on  Shakspere's  "  Antony  and  Cleopatra,"  In  this  play  he 
abandoned  rime, 
Allia  (al'i-a),  or  Alia  (a'li-a).  In  ancient 
geography,  a  small  river  in  Latium,  Italy,  the 
modem  Aga,  which  joins  the  Tiber  about  10 
miles  north  of  Eome,  On  its  banks  in  390  (388  ?  387  ?) 
B,  c,  the  Gauls  under  Brenuus  defeated  the  Romans.  The 
battle  was  followed  by  the  capture  and  sack  of  Rome. 

Alliance,  The.    See  Farmers'  Alliance. 

Alliance  (a-li'ans).  A  city  in  Stark  County, 
Ohio,  situated  on  the  Mahoning  Eiver48  miles 
southeast  of  (Cleveland.  Population  (1900), 
8,974, 

Allibone  (al'i-bon),  Samuel  Austin.  Bom  at 
Philadelphia,  April  17,  1816 :  died  at  Lucerne, 
Switzerland,  Sept,  2, 1889,  An  American  bibli- 
ographer, at  one  time  librarian  of  the  Lenox 
Library  in  New  York  city.  He  was  the  author  of  a 
"  Dictionary  of  English  Literature  and  British  and  Ameri- 
can Authors"  (3  Vols,  1864-71;  Supplement,  by  Dr,  John 
Foster  Kirk,  2  vols,  1891),  and  of  various  other  works,  in- 
cluding "Poetical  Quotations"  and  "Prose  Quotations," 

AUier  (al-ya'),  A  department  of  France,  capi- 
tal Moulins,  bounded  by  Cher  on  the  north- 
west, NiSvre  on  the  north,  Sa6ne-et-Loire  on 
the  east,  Loire  on  the  southeast,  Puy-de-D6me 
on  the  south,  and  Creuse  on  the  west.  It  was 
formed  chiefly  from  part  of  the  ancient  Bourbonnais. 
Area,  2,822  square  miles.    Population  (1891),  424,382, 

AUier.  A  river  in  central  France,  the  ancient 
Elaver,  which  rises  in  the  mountains  of  Loz6re, 
flows  north,  and  joins  the  Loire  5  miles  west 
of  Nevers,  Its  length  is  about  220  miles,  and 
it  is  navigable  from  Fontanes. 

Alligator  Swamp  (al'i-ga-tor  swomp).  A  large 
swamp  in  North  Carolina,  between  Pamlico 
and  Albemarle  Sounds. 

AUingham  (al'ing-ham),  William.  Born  at 
Ballyshannon,  Ireland,  1828:  died  1889.  An 
Irish  poet.  He  published  "Poems"  (1850),  "Day  and 
Night ''^(1854),  "Lawrence  Bloomfleld  in  Ireland "  (1864), 
etc. 

Allison  (al'i-son),  William  B.  Born  at  Perry, 
Wayne  County,  Ohio,  March  21,  1829,  An 
American  politician.  He  was  Republican  member 
of  Congress  from  Iowa  1863-71,  United  States  senator 
1873-,  and  candidate  for  the  Republican  nomination  for 
President  in  1888, 

All  is  True.  A  play,  probably  by  Shakspere, 
an  earlier  form  of  "Henry  VIIL,"  which  is 
chiefly  by  Fletcher  and  Massinger,  Shakspere's 
share  in  the  latter  not  being  large.  It  isfounded 
on  Holinshed's  "Chronicle "and  Fox's  " Martyrs."  Wot. 
ton  describes  it  as  "  the  play  of  Henry  VIII.,"  but  Lorkin 
says  "it  was  a  new  play  called  All  is  True,  representing 
some  principal  pieces  of  Henry  VIII."  Portions  of  it  are 
now  embedded  in  "Henry  VIII.,"  as  we  have  it.  The 
Globe  Theater  caught  fire  during  its  performance,  March 
29, 1613,  and  the  manuscript  perished. 


Alliz 

Allix  (a.-leks'),  Jacques  Alexandre  Fran- 
?ois.  Born  Sept.  21,  1776:  died  Jan.  26,  1836. 
A  French  general  and  military  writer.  He  served 
as  a  colonel  at  Marengo  in  1800,  and  later  in  the  service  of 
Jerome  Bonaparte,  king  of  Westphalia ;  was  exiled  from 
France  July  24,  1815,  and  recalled  in  1819.  Author  of 
"  SystSme  d'artillerie  de  campagne  "  (1827). 

Allix,  Pierre.  Born  at  Alen^on,  France,  1641 : 
died  at  London,  Marcli  3, 1717.  A  Freneh  Prot- 
estant divine  and  controversialist,  an  exile  in 
London  after  1685. 

Allman  (ai'man),  George  James.  Bom  at 
Cork,  1812:  died  Nov.  24,  1898.  A  British 
zoologist,  regius  professor  of  natural  history 
and  regius  keeper  of  the  Natural  History  Mu- 
seum in  the  University  of  Edinburgh,  1855-70. 

Alloa  (al'6-a).  A  seaport  in  Clackmannanshire, 
Scotland,  situated  on  the  Firth  of  Forth  6  miles 
east  of  Stirling.    Population  (1891),  10,711. 

Allobroges  (a-lob'ro-jez).  In  ancient  history, 
a  Celtic  people  of  southeastern  Gaul,  dwelling 
between  the  Rh6ne  and  the  Is&re,  northward 
to  Lake  Geneva.  They  occupied  also  a  tract  on  the 
western  bank  of  the  Rh6ne.  The  chief  town  of  the  tribe 
was  Vienne.    They  were  subjected  to  Rome  121  B.  0. 

The  Allobroges  were  Celts,  though  their  name  means 
'those  of  another  march  or  district':  they  were  so  called 
doubtless  by  some  of  their  Celtic  neighbours,  but  the 
name  which  they  gave  themselves  is  unknown. 

Rhys,  Celtic  Heathendom,  p.  6. 

AUon  (al'on),  Henry.  Bom  at  Welton,  York- 
shire, England,  Oct.  13,  1818 :  died  at  London, 
April  16,  1892.  An  English  Congregational 
clergyman  and  author,  editor  after  1865  of  the 
"British  Quarterly  Be  view." 

Allouez  (a-lo-a'),  Claude  Jean.  Bom  in 
France,  1620 :  died  in  Indiana,  1690.  A  French 
Jesuit  in  America.  He  explored  the  regions  of  Lake 
Superior  and  parts  of  the  Mississippi  valley,  established  a 
mission  at  Chemorniegon  on  Lake  Superior  in  1665,  and 
rebuilt  Marquette's  abandoned  mission  at  Kaskaskia,  Il- 
linois, in  1676. 

AUoway  Kirk  (al'6-wa  k6rk).  Aruined  church 
in  the  parish  of  Ayr,  Scotland,  near  the  Boon, 
renderedfamousbyBums  in  "  Tam  o'  Shanter." 

All  Saints'  Bay.  A  harbor  on  the  coast  of 
the  state  of  Bahia,  Brazil,  in  lat.  13°  S.,  long. 
38°  30'  "W. 

Allsop  (&l'sop)j  Thomas.  Born  near  Wirks- 
worth,  Derbyshire,  April  10,  1795 :  died  at  Ex- 
mouth  in  1880.  An  English  stock-broker  and 
author.  He  was  the  intimate  friend  of  Coldridge,  and  was 
known  as  his  "favorite  disciple."  He  shared  the  theories 
and  was  also  the  friend  of  such  men  as  Cobbett,  Mazzini,  etc. 

All  Souls  College.  A  college  of  Oxford  Uni- 
versity, founded  in  1437,  by  Archbishop  Chi- 
chele,  to  provide  masses  for  the  souls  of  the  de- 
parted, especially  those  killed  in  the  Hundred 
Years'  War.  The  first  quadrangle,  with  its  fine  gate, 
remains  as  when  first  built ;  the  chapel  possesses  beautiful 
fan -tracery  and  reredos.  The  second  quadrangle,  with  its 
two  towers,  was  built  1720.  The  statutes  of  the  college 
were  formally  issued  April  2,  1443. 

Allstedt  (al'stet).  A  town  in  Saxe-Weimar, 
Germany,  situated  on  the  Rhone  32  miles  north 
of  Weimar,  it  is,  with  its  territory,  an  enclave  sur- 
rounded by  Prussia,  and  is  situated  in  the  Goldene  Aue, 
Population,  about  3,000. 

AUston  (Wstpn),  Washington.  Bom  at  Wac- 
camaw,  S.  C,  Nov.  5, 1779 :  died  at  Cambridge, 
Mass.,  July  9, 1843.  An  American  painter.  He 
was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  (1800),  studied  at  the 
Royal  Academy  and  at  Rome,  and  returned  to  the  United 
States  in  1809.  His  work  covers  a  wide  range,  including 
portraits,  genre,  landscapes,  marines,  historical  paintings, 
etc. 

All's  Well  that  ends  Well.  A  comedy  by 
Shakspere,  played  in  1601.  Portions  of  this  play 
were  written  not  later  than  1593,  but  the  play  as  we  have 
it  was  written  after  1600,  probably  just  before  its  produc- 
tion. It  was  first  printed  In  the  folio  of  1623.  The  plot 
is  from  ''Giletta  of  Narbonne'*  in  Painter's  "Palace  of 
Pleasure,"  who  took  it  in  1566  from  the  Decameron  of 
Boccaccio.  The  story  is  followed  closely,  but  the  coun- 
tess, the  clown,  Lafeu,  and  ParoUes  are  Shakspere's  own. 

All-the-Talents  Administration.  A  name 
given  ironically  to  the  English  ministry  of 
1806-07.  Among  the  leading  members  were  (Jrenville 
(premier).  Fox  (foreign  secretary),  Erskine,  and  Lords 
Fitzwilliam,  Sidmouth,  and  Ellenborough. 

Allwit  (8,1'wit).  A  character  in  Middleton's 
"Chaste  Maid  in  Cheapside,"  contented  to  be 
made  a  fool  of. 

Allworth  (al'wferth),  Lady.  A  rich  widow  in 
Massinger's  play  "A  New  Way  to  pay  Old 
Debts." 

Allworth,  Tom.  In  Massinger's  play  "A  New 
Way  to  pay  Old  Debts,"  a  young  gentleman, 
page  to  Lord  Lovell. 

Allworthy  (alVfer'THi),  Thomas.  In  Field- 
ing's novel  "Tom  Jones,"  a  squire  of  large 
fortune,  the  foster-father  of  the  foundling  Tom 
Jon  es.  He  is  depicted  as  a  man  of  the  most  upright  and 
attractive  character— a  sharp  contrast  to  Squire  Western. 
He  is  a  portrait  of  Fielding's  friend  Ralph  Allen. 


pr 

Al] 


42 

Allyn  (al'in),  Ellen.  A  pseudonym  of  Chris- 
tina Georgina  Rossetti. 

Alma  (al'ma).  In  Spenser's  "Faerie  Queene," 
the  Queen  of  Body  Castle:  the  soul  dwelling  in 
the  body  (the  House  of  Temperance). 

Alma.  A  pseudonym  used  by  Miss  C.M.Yonge 
in  some  of  her  novels. 

Alma,  or  the  Progress  of  the  Mind.  A  poem 
by  Prior. 

Alma  (al'ma).  A  river  in  the  Crimea,  Russia, 
which  flows  into  the  Black  Sea  about  20  miles 
north  of  Sebastopol.  Near  its  mouth,  Sept.  20, 1864, 
the  Allies  (about  27,000  British  under  Lord  Raglan,  about 
22,000  French  under  St.  Arnaud,  and  6,000-7,000  Turks) 
defeated  the  Russians  (35,000-45,000)  under  Menshikofl. 
The  loss  of  the  Allies  was  about  3,400 ;  that  of  the  Rus- 
sians about  6,000. 

Almaach,  or  Almak  (al'mak).  [Ar.,  probably 
'  the  boot.']  The  fine  second-magnitude  triple 
star  y  AndromedsB,  in  the  foot  of  the  constel- 
lation. 

Almack's  (Wmaks).  1.  A  gaming-club  estab- 
lished by  William  Almack  in  Pall  Mall,  London, 
before  1763,  afterward  the  Whig  club  known 
as  "Brook's."  "Among  the  twenty-seven  original 
members  of  Almack's  Club  were  the  Duke  of  Portland  and 
Charles  James  Fox,  and  it  was  subsequently  joined  by 
Gibbon,  William  Pitt,  and  very  many  noblemen."  5.  L. 
Lee,  in  Diet.  Nat.  Biog. 

2.  Famous  assembly-rooms  built  by  Almack  in 
1764,  and  opened  Feb.  20,  1765,  in  King  street, 
St.  James.  "At  the  beginning  of  this  century  admis- 
sion to  Almack's  was  described  as  *the  seventh  heaven 
of  the  fashionable  world,'  and  its  high  reputation  did  not 
decline  before  1840."  (5.  t.  iee,mDict.  NatBiog.)  These 
rooms  are  commonly  called  "  Willis's,"  after  the  next 
proprietor. 

Ima  Dagh.    See  Amanus. 

Alma  Island  (al'ma  i'land).  An  island  in  the 
Saguenay  River,  Canada,  at  the  outlet  of  Lake 
St.  John. 

Almada  (al-ma'da).  A  port  in  the  province  of 
Estremadura,  Portugal,  on  the  Tagus  opposite 
Lisbon. 

Almaden  (al-ma-THen'),  or  Almaden  de 
Azogue  (al-ma-THen'  da  a-tho'ga).  A  town 
in  the  province  of  Ciudad  Real,  Spain,  in  lat. 
38°  44'  N.,  long.  4°  52'  W. :  the  ancient  Sisa- 
pon.  It  is  celebrated  for  its  quicksilver-mines,  wMch 
were  worked  by  the  Romans  and  Moors  and  are  now 
crown  property.    Population  (1887),  8,166. 

Almagest  (al'ma-jest),  The.  See  the  extract. 
The  best  known  of  the  works  of  Ptolemy  is  his  "  Great 
Construction  of  Astronomy  "  (^eydAij  (nivTof  ts  t^s  ao-Tpovo- 
ti-ioM)  in  thirteen  books.  To  distinguish  this  from  the  work 
on  astrology  in  four  books  only,  or  the  "four-book  con- 
struction" (T€Tpa^t^Ao9  o-ui/Tali-s),  the  lengthened  trea- 
tise on  spherical  astronomy  was  called  t\  jmeyiffTij  avvjo^i^ 
("the  greatest  construction")  or  simply  the  jneyiVTi?, 
from  which  the  Arabs,  by  prefixing  their  article,  framed 
the  title  Tdtrir  al  Magisthi,  under  which  the  book  was 
published  in  A.  D.  827,  and  from  this  is  derived  the  name 
Almagest  by  which  Ptolemy's  great  work  is  familiarly 
known.  .  .  .  The  first  book  lays  down  the  mathematics 
principles  of  his  system.  .  .  .  The  second  book  deals  with 
the  problems  connected  with  the  determination  of  the 
obliquity  of  the  sphere.  In  the  third  book  he  fixes  the 
length  of  the  year  at  365^  days  and  explains  his  cele- 
brated theory  of  excentrics  and  epicycles.  The  fourth 
book  treats  of  the  moon,  criticising  the  results  obtained 
by  Hipparchus.  In  \hs  fifth  he  describes  the  astrolabe  of 
Hipparchus  with  which  that  astronomer  discovered  the 
moon's  second  inequality,  called  by  BuUialdus  the  &iiec- 
tion.  The  fiir£A  book  treats  of  eclipses.  The  sewentA  treats 
of  the  stars,  with  reference  to  their  movement  from  west 
to  east,  which  Hipparchus  had  established ;  but  by  redu- 
cing this  motion  from  48"  to  36"  in  a  yfiar  Ptolemy  increases 
the  error  of  his  predecessor.  In  the  eighth  book  he  gives, 
with  slight  variations,  the  celebrated  catalogue  of  the  stars 
drawn  up,  as  we  have  seen,  by  Hipparchus,  and  introduces 
also  a  description  of  the  Milky  Way.  The  ninth  book  treats 
of  the  planets  in  general ;  the  tenth  of  Venus ;  the  eleventh 
of  Jupiter  and  Saturn.  In  the  twelfth  he  gives  us  the  pro- 
gressions and  retrogradations  of  the  planets,  and  in  the 
thirteenth  he  discusses  their  movements  in  hititude,  and 
the  inclinations  of  their  orbits. 

K.  0.  MVMer,  Hist,  of  the  Lit  of  Ahc.  Greece,  III.  264. 

[{D(maXdson.) 

Almagro  (al-ma'gro).  A  town  in  the  prov- 
ince of  Ciudad  Real,  Spain,  14  miles  southeast 
of  Ciudad  Real,  it  has  noted  lace  manufactures  and 
is  the  center  of  a  district  producing  the  wine  of  Valde- 
peiSas.    Population  (1887),  8,712. 

Almagro,  Diego  de.  Born  probably  at  Aldea 
del  Rey,  about  1475,  but  according  to  some  ac- 
counts a  foundling  in  Almagro,  1464 :  executed 
July  10  (12?),  1538.  A  Spanish  soldier,  one  of  the 
conquerors  of  Peru.  He  went  to  Panama  with  Pedrarias 
in  1514,  and  in  1525  joined  Pizarro  and  Luque  in  an  enter- 
prise for  conquest  toward  the  south.  He  was  in  Panama 
whenPizarro  discovered  the  cc^st  of  Peru  in  1528;  but  when, 
after  his  return  from  Spain,  Pizarro  sailed  for  Peru  (Jan., 
1631),  Almagro  followed,  late  in  the  same  year,  with  three 
vessels  and  150  men,  and  joined  him  at  Cajamarca  about 
the  middle  of  February,  1633,  after  the  death  of  Atahual- 
pa.  Here  a  violent  quarrel  (the  second)  between  them 
took  place;  but  a  reconciliation  was  effected  and  Almagro 
took  an  active  part  in  the  march  on  Cuzco.  In  1535  he 
was  sent  to  conquer  Chile,  of  which  he  was  made  governor. 
He  went  as  far  south  as  Coqnimbo,  but  finding  nothing  of 
the  coveted  riches,  turned  back,  laid  claim  to  Cuzco  as 


Almeida 

the  territoi7  assigned  to  him,  and  seized  the  city  by  s'nv 
prise  (AprU  8,  1537),  capturing  Hernando  and  Gonzalo 
Pizarro.  He  was  attacked  by  Alonzo  Alvarado,  who  was 
captured  with  his  whole  army  July  12, 1537.  Almagro  was 
finally  defeated  by  Hernando  Pizarro  at  Las  .Salinas,  near 
Cuzco,  April  26,  1538,  and  he  was  soon  after  captured, 
tried,  and  beheaded. 

Almagro, Diego  de,  sumamed  "The  Youth " or 
"Lad."  Born  at  Panama,  1520:  executed  at 
Cuzco  about  Sept.  25, 1542.  Son  of  Diego  de 
Almagro  and  of  an  Indian  mother.  He  accom- 
panied his  father  to  Chile  (1535-36)  and  after  his  death 
lived  in  poverty  at  Lima.  The  conspirators  who  killed 
Francisco  Pizarro  (June  26,  1541)  had  met  at  his  house, 
but  it  does  not  appear  that  he  was  actively  engaged  with 
them.  They,  however,  proclaimed  him  governor  of  Peru, 
and  part  of  the  country  submitted  to  him  ;  hut  the  royal- 
ists under  Yaca  de  Castro  defeated  him  at  Chupas,  Sept. 
16, 1642.  He  was  arrested  next  day  and  soon  after  be- 
headed. 

Almahide  (al-ma-ed').  A  romance  by  Made- 
leine de  Scud^ry,  foimded  on  the  dissensions 
of  the  Zegris  and  Abencerrages. 

Almahyde  (al'ma-hid).  The  Queen  of  Granada 
in  Dryden's  "Alinanzor  and  Almahyde,  or  The 
Conquest  of  Granada."  The  name  was  taken  from 
Madeleine  de  Scud^ry's  novel  "Almahide." 

Almain  (al-man').  [Early  mod.  E.  also  Al- 
mayn,  Almaigne,  etc.,  OF.  Aleman,  F.  Allemand, 
German,  L.  Alamanni,  Alemanni:  see  Alaman- 
».]     An  old  name  for  Germany. 

Almali.    See  Elmalu. 

Al-Mamun  (al-ma-men').  Bom  786 :  died  833. 
The  seventh  Abbasside  calif  of  Bagdad,  813-833, 
a  younger  son  of  Harun-al-Rashid :  "the  father 
of  letters  and  the  Augustus  of  Bagdad"  (Sis- 
mondi).    Also  Al-Mamoun,  Al-Mamon,  Mamun. 

Almansa  (ai-mam'sa),  or  Almanza  (al-man'- 
tha).  A  town  in  the  province  of  Albacete, 
Spain,  59  miles  southwest  of  Valencia.  Popu- 
lation (1887),  9,686. 

Almansa,  or  Almanza,  Battle  of.  A  victory 
gained  by  the  French  and  Spanish  under  the 
Duke  of  Berwick  over  the  allied  British,  Dutch, 
and  Portuguese  under  Galway,  April  25, 1707. 
It  established  Philip  V.  on  the  Spanish  throne. 

Al-Mansur  (al-man-sor'),  or  Almansor  (al- 
man'sor)  (Abu  Jaflfar  Abdallah).  [-Ar.  4i- 
-MoMswr,  the  Victorious.]  Born  about  712 :  died 
near  Mecca,  Oct.  18,  775.  The  second  Abbasside 
calif,  successor  of  his  brother  Abul-Abbas  Al- 
Saffah  in  754.  His  reign  was  marked  by  numerous 
revolts  which  were  suppressed  with  great  cruelty.  He 
transferred  the  seat  of  government  to  Bagdad,  which  he 
built  with  great  splendor.  He  was  a  patron  of  learning, 
and  under  his  inspiration  many  Greek  and  Latin  works, 
including  Plato,  Herodotus,  Homer,  and  Xenophon,  were 
translated  into  Arabic  aud  other  Oriental  tongues. 

Almansur,  or  Almansor.  Bom  near  Alge- 
ciras,  Andalusia,  939:  died  1002.  The  regent 
of  Cordova  under  the  sultan  Hisham  II.  He 
reconquered  from  the  Christians  the  territory  south  of 
the  Douro  and  Ebro,  extended  his  sway  over  a  consider- 
able portion  of  western  Africa,  and  restored  the  waning 
power  of  the  califate  of  Cordova.  He  is  said  to  have 
starved  himself  to  death,  broken-hearted  over  the,  defeat, 
after  fifty  actions,  of  Calatanazar  by  the  kings  of  Leon  and 
Navarre  and  the  Count  of  Castile. 

Almanzor  (al-man'zor).  The  calif  of  Arabia 
in  Chapman's  "Revenge  for  Honor." 

Almanzor  and  Almahyde,  or  The  Conquest 
of  Granada  by  the  Spaniards.  A  heroic  tra- 
gedy in  two  parts,  by  Dryden,  produced  in  1670. 
It  was  partly  taken  from  Mademoiselle  de  Scud^ry's  "Al- 
mahide." It  is  usually  known  as  "The  Conquest  of  Gra^ 
nada. "  The  character  of  Almanzor,  a  knight  errant  of  ex- 
travagant egotism,  is  caricatured  as  Drawcansir  in  "  The 
Rehearsal." 

Almaraz  (al-mS-rath').  A  smalltown  in  west- 
em  Spain,  on  the  Tagus  40  miles  northeast  of 
Caceres.  The  bridge  over  the  Tagus  was  built  in  1552. 
It  is  580  feet  long  and  25  feet  wide,  and  rises  134  feet 
above  the.water.  It  has  only  two  arches,  and  resembles 
the  great  Roman  works. 

Almaric.    See  Amalric  of  Bkie. 

Alma-Tadema  (al'mS-ta'de-mS,),  Sir  Lau- 
rence. Born  at  Dronryp,  FriesTand,  Nether- 
lands, Jan.  8, 1836.  A  Friesian  painter  in  Eng- 
land, noted  especiallyfor  his  representations  of 
Egyptian,  Greek,  and  Roman  life.  Knighted  in 
1899.  He  settled  in  London  in  1870audwas  naturalized 
1873.  Among  his  works  are  "The  Vintage,"  "Catullus," 
"The  Siesta,"  "Entrance  to  a  Roman  Theatre,"  "Tarqul- 
nius  Superbus,"  "Phidias,"  "An  Audience  at  Agrippas." 

Almaviva  (al-ma-ve'va).  Count,  A  brilliant 
and  too  attractive  nobleman  in  Beaumarchais's 
comedy  "  Le  Barbier  de  Seville."  He  is  the  lover 
of  Rosine,  and  succeeds,  with  the  aid  of  Figaro  the  barber, 
his  former  valet,  in  rescuing  her  from  old  Bartholo  and 
marrying  her  himself.  He  appears  in  the  "  Mariage  de 
Figaro,"  already'tired  of  Rosine  his  wife,  and  in  "LaMi  re 
Coupable  "  as  an  old  and  faded  beau.  He  also  appears  in 
the  operas  hy  Paisiello  and  Rossini  founded  on  "  Le  Bar- 
bier." 

Al-Megnum.    See  Bahalul. 

Almeida  (al-ma'e-da).  A  town  in  the  province 


Almeida 

«f  Beira,  Portugal,  in  lat.  40°  46'  N.,  long.  6° 
50'  W.  It  was  captured  by  the  French  in  1810, 
and  retaken  by  Wellington  in  1811. 
Almeida,  Francisco  d'.  Bom  at  Lisbon  about 
the  middle  of  the  15th  century:  killed  at  Sal- 
danha  Bay,  South  Africa,  March  1,  1510.  A 
Portuguese  commander,  first  viceroy  of  Portu- 

guese  India  1505-09.  He  conquered  Kilwa, 
annanore.  Cochin,  Kalikut,  Malacca,  etc.,  and 
defeated  the  Egyptian  fleet  in  1509. 

Almeida,  Nicorao  Tolentino.  Born  at  Lisbon, 
1745:  died  at  Lisbon,  1811.  A  Portuguese 
poet  and  satirist.  He  published  a  collection 
of  poems  in  1802. 

Almeida-Garrett  (al-ma'da-gar-ref  or  -gar'- 
ret),  Joao  Baptista  d'.  Bom  at  Oporto,  Por- 
tugal, Feb.  4,  1799 :  died  at  Lisbon,  Dee.  10, 
1854.  A  Portuguese  poet,  dramatist,  and  poli- 
tician. He  was  the  author  of  the  poetical  works  "  Ca- 
mSes  "  (1826),  "  Dona  Branca  "  (1826),  "Adozinda"  (1828), 
"Eomanceiro" (1851-53),  and  of  "Auto  de  Gil-Vicente'' 
(1838),  and  other  dramas. 

Almeisam  (al-me-i-sam').  [Ar.  al  meisdn,  the 
proud  marcher.]  A  seldom  used  name  for 
7  Geminorum.     See  Alhena. 

Almelo 


simultaneously  at  the  animal,  slew  each  other.  In  Hades, 
as  a  further  punishment,  they  were  tied  to  a  pillar  with 
serpents,  and  perpetually  tormented  by  the  screeching  of 
an  owl. 


*3  Alpheratz 

Jan.  6,  1711.  A  Dutch  naval  officer,  made 
commander  of  the  fleet  on  the  death  of  De 
Buyter  in  1676.    He  accompanied  William  of  Orange     „„  „„, 

to  England  tn  1688 ;  commanded  the  Dutch  fleet  at  La    AlV.™V.^o    .^..  A 1  ..«.,„ -D'l t>        1/7,1     j-   j 

Hogue  in  1692  ;  and  commanded,  with  Sir  George  Kooke    4iS?*P'^^.°'^  A^^^^^  ^  hOUra.  Born  1711 :  died 
ttie  allies  at  the  destruction  of  the  Spanish  fleet  in  the     1 '  O".       J^  he   lounder   of  the   last   dynasty  of 

Burma  (named  from  him).   He  reigned  1754-60. 

Alonzo  (a-lon'zo).   1.  The  King  of  Naples  in 

Shakspere's  "  Tempest."    He  appears  as  Duke  of 


Spanish  fleet  in  the 
Bay  of  Vigo  1702. 

Almonte  (al-mon'ta),  Juan  Nepomuceno. 

Bom  in  Guerrero,  1812:  died  at  Mexico,  1869. 

A  Mexican  general,  of  mixed  Indian  blood, 

said  to  have  been  an  illegitimate  son  of  the 

revolutionist  Morelos.    He  served  under  Santa  Anna 

in  Texas,  and  was  taken  prisoner  at  the  battle 'of  San 

Jacinto.    After  his  release  he  became  secretary  of  state, 

and  in  1841  was  appointed  minister  to  Washington.    He 

entered  a  formal  protest  (1846)  against  the  annexation  of 

Texas,  and  demanded  his  passport.    In  1846  he  was  a  can-    •  ,  cr       T^ 

didate  for  the  presidency,  and  claimed  to  have  been  elected;  AlOnZO.     bee  JJOrax. 

he  afterward  contributed  to  the  elevation  of  Paredes,  and  AlonZO  Of  Aguilar. 


Savoy  and  Usurper  of  the  Kingdom  of  Mantua  in  the  ver- 
sion of  Dryden  and  Davenant. 

2.  In  Beaumont  and  Fletcher's  "Custom  of  the 
Country,"  a  young  Portuguese  gentleman,  the 
enemy  of  Duarte.— 3.  In  Sheridan's  transla- 
tion of  Kotzebue's  "Pizarro,"  the  commander 
of  the  army  of  Ataliba,  king  of  Quito. 


..       ...       .  ,    ^,  .,^  ^^   w=.-i o A  brave  Spanish  knight 

was  his  mmiater  oi  war.    In  the  war  with  the  United     who  lost  his  lifp  in  tnTiTur  +n  nloTtt  TTJnn.  'CoWi; 
States  he  fought  at  Buenavista,  Cerro  Gordo,  and  Churu-     r°°q7°  L'^il.  ®  ^t?^'?^.*??     ,^  ^  ^^  ^^'^'^- 
busco.    Under  Santa  Anna  Almonte  was  a  second  time     ?^°i"^„T       "^  °^  ™^  heights  of   Granada,  lu 
made  minister  to  Washington,  a  position  which  he  re-     1501.     Ihere  are  several  Spanish  ballads  on  the 
tained  until  1860.    Later  he  was  minister  to  France,  ac-     subject. 

oompanied  the  French  expedition  to  Mexico  in  1862,  and  A  lon^n  thp  lira  vp  and  t.Tio  Pair  Imnaima  A 
was  a  member  of  the  regency  appointed  after  the  city  of  "Toiro  i^i:  ?,  S-  i  „  t  ■  %r  ^ir  imogene.  A 
Mexico  was  taken.   Maximilian  made  him  grand  marshal,     oaiiaa  by     Monk"  Lewis  (M.  G.  Lewis). 

Alopeus  (a-16'pe-us),  Maximilian.    Bom  at 
Viborg,  Finland,  Jan.  21,  1748:  died  at  Frank- 


He  was  the  author  of  an  excellent  treatise  on  the  geog- 
raphy of  Mexico. 


fort-on-the-Main,  May  16,  1822.  A  Russian 
diplomatist,  accredited  minister  plenipoten- 
tiary to  the  court  of  Prussia  in  1790  by  Cathe- 
rine n. 


nf  n^JfJlf  ^  J"  1     i"^^""  w®.  P'"?;?^?^®  Almora  (al-mo'ra).    A  district  in  Kumaun  di- 
of  Overyssel,  Netherlands.    Population  (1889),    vision.  Northwestern  Provinces,  British  India, 

/,'r?*- ,„,     -    ..,  ...       ,         „  ^        .    ,,       intersected  by  lat.  29°  35'  N.,  long.  79°  40'  E. 

Almenara  (kl-ma-na  ra).     A  small  town  in  the  Almora.     The  capital  of  Almora  district  and 
^r7i™?l       Lenda,  Spain,  15  miles  northeast    Kumftun  division,  British  India,  in  lat.  29°  35'  Alora  (a-16'ra).    A  town  in  the  province  of 
^L  irarSkm^fv^'  tfl^l'  l^^"'  *^%^l^^/  fr    N-'  l°''g-  79°  42'  E.  Malaga,  Spain  situated  on  the  Guadalhorce  9 

ger  btarhemberg  and  Stanhope  defeated  the  Almoravides  (al-mo'ra-vidz).  A  Mohammedan    miles  northwest  of  Malaga.   Population  (1887), 
jiiC"!?""  ,..,      -    -,..<        .  ^  .  dynasty  in  northwestern  Africa  and  Spain,     10,543. 

Almeria  (al-ma-re  a).     A  mountainous  proy-    founded  by  Abdallah  ben  Yasim  (died  ft58).  Aloros  (a-lo'ros). 
inoe  m  Andalusia,  bpam,  bounded  by  Murcia     His  successor  founded  Morocco  in  1062.    The  Almoravides    '  ' 

under  Yussuf  defeated  Alfonso  VI.  of  Castile  at  Zalaca  in 
1086  and  the  dynasty  was  established  in  Spain.  It  was 
overthrown  by  the  Almohades  1146-47. 


on  the  northeast,  the  Mediterranean  on  the 
southeast,  east,  and  south,  and  Granada  on  the 
west  and  northwest.  It  contains  important 
lead-mines.  Area,  3,302  square  miles.  Popu- 
lation (1887),  339,383. 
Almeria.  A  seaport  and  the  capital  of  the 
province  of  Almeria,  situated  on  the  Gulf  of 
Almeria  in  lat.  36°  50'  N.,  long.  2°  32'  W. :  the 
Roman  Portus  Magnus.  It  exports  lead,  esparto, 
etc.,  has  a  cathedral,  and  is  well  fortified.  It  was  an  im- 
portant emporium  under  the  Moors.  Population  (1887), 
36,200. 

Almeria  (al-me'ri-a).  In  Congreve's  play  "The 
Mourning  Bride,"  tte  (supposed)  widowed  bride 
of  Alphonso,  prince  of  Valentia. 
utters  the  familiar  words : 


"  Music  hath  charms  to  soothe  a  savage  breast, 
To  soften  rocks,  or  bend  a  knotted  oak." 

Congreve,  Mourning  Bride,  i.  1  (ed.  1710). 

Almod6var,  or  Almoddvar  del  Campo  (al- 
mo-do'var  del  kam'po).  A  town  in  the  province 
of  Ciudad  Real,  Spain,  21  miles  southwest  of 
Ciudad  Real.  Population  (1887),  12,008. 
Almoddvar  (ai-mo-do'var),  Count  of  (Ilde- 
fonso  Diaz  de  Bibera).  Bom  at  Granada, 
1777:  died  at  Valencia,  1846.  A  Spanish  states- 
man. He  was  imprisoned  and  exiled  in  the  reign  of 
Ferdinand  VII.,  was  afterward  minister  of  war  and  presi- 
dent of  the  Cortes,  and  was  minister  of  foreign  affairs 
1842-43. 

Almod6var  del  Rio  (al-mo-do'var  del  re'6).  A 
small  town  in  the  province  of  Cordova,  Spain, 
situated  on  the  Guadalquivir  13  miles  south- 
west of  Cordova.  _ 

Almogia  (al-mo-ne'a).  A  town  in  the  province 
of  Malaga,  Spain,  12  miles  northwest  of  Malaga. 
Population  (1887),  8,346. 

Almohades  (al'mo-hadz).  A  Mohammedan 
dynasty  in  northern  Africa  and  Spain,  which 
superseded  the  Almoravides  about  the  middle 
of  the  12th  century:  so  called  from  the  sect 
of  the  Almoahedun  (worshipers  of  one  god), 
founded  by  Mohammed  ibn  Abdallah.  The  family 
established  itself  in  the  provinces  of  Fez,  Morocco,  Tlem- 
cen.  Gran,  and  Tunis,  and  extended  its  conquests  to  Anda- 
lusia, Valencia,  and  a  part  of  Aragon  and  Portugal.  It 
sustained  a  decisive  repulse  at  Las  IS^avas  de  Tolosa,  July 
16, 1212,  at  the  hands  of  Alfonso  of  Castile,  aided  by  the 
kings  of  Aragon  and  Navarre,  and  became  extinct  in 
Spain  in  1257  and  in  Africa  in  1269. 

Almon  (al'mon),  John.  Bom  at  Liverpool,  Dec. 
17,  1737:  died  at  Boxmoor,  Dec.  12,  1805.  An 
English  publisher  and  political  pamphleteer, 
a  friend  of  John  Wilkes. 

Almouacid  (al-mo-na-theSH').  A  small  town 
situated  on  the  Guazelate  13  miles  southeast 
of  Toledo,  Spain.  Here,  Aug.  11,  1809,  the 
French  under  Sebastiani  defeated  the  Spanish 
under  Venegas. 

Almondbury  (a'mond-ber'''i,  locally  am'bri).  A 
town  in  the  West  fi'iding  of  Yorkshire,  England, 
on  the  Calder,  adjoining  Huddersfield.  Popu- 
lation (1891),  5,117.  _ 

AJmonde  (al-mon'da),  Fhilippus  van.  Bom 
at  Briel,  Netherlands,  1646 :  died  near  Leyden, 


A  new  Berber  revolution  had  talcen  place  in  Korth 
Africa,  and  a  sect  of  fanatics,  called  the  marabouts  or 
saints  (Almoravides,  as  the  Spaniards  named  them),  had 
conquered  the  whole  country  from  Algiers  to  Senegal. 

Poole,  Story  of  the  Moors,  p.  178. 

AlmcLVlst  (alm'kvist),  Karl  Jonas  Ludwig. 
Born  at  Stockholm,  Nov.  28,  1793:  died  at 
Bremen,  Sept.  26,  1866.  A  Swedish  novelist 
and  general  writer.  He  was  the  author  of  "TBmro- 
sens  Bok"  ("Book  of  the  Thorn-Kose "),  "Gabriele  Mi- 
manso,"  "Amalie  Hillner,"  "Araminta  May,"  "Kolum- 
bine,"  "  Marjam,"  etc. 
It  is  she  who  AlmuSecar  (al-mon-ya-kar').  A  seaport  in  the 
province  of  Granada,  Spain,  38  miles  east  of 
Malaga.    Population  (1887),  8,842. 

Almy  (al'mi),  John  J.  Born  April  25,  1815 : 
died  May  16, 1895.  An  American  naval  officer. 
He  was  appointed  commodore  Dec.  21, 1869,  and  rear-ad- 
miral Aug.  24, 1873,  retired  April  24, 1877.  He  had  charge 
successively  of  the  Union  gunboats  South  Carolina,  Con- 
necticut, and  Juniata  during  tlie  Civil  War. 

Alnaschar  (al-nash'ar  or -nas'kar).  The  "Bar- 
ber's Fifth  Brother  "'in  "The  Arabian  Nights' 
Entertainments."  He  invests  his  inheritance  in  glass- 
ware. While  awaiting  customers  he  fancies  himself  already 
a  millionaire,  and  an  incautious  movement  upsets  his 
basket,  breaking  its  contents  and  destroying  all  his  pros- 
pects (hence  the  phrase  "visions  of  Alnasohar,"i.  e. ,  count- 
ing one's  chickens  before  they  are  hatched ;  day-dreams). 

Alnilam  (al-ni-lam').  [Ar.  al-nizdm,  the  string 
of  pearls.]  The  bright  second-magnitude  star 
£  Orionis,  in  the  middle  of  the  giant's  belt, 


The  first  of  the  ten  mythical 
kings  who  reigned  over  Babylonia  before  the 
deluge. 
Alost  (a'lost),  or  Aelst,  or  Aalst  (alst).  A  city 
in  the  province  of  East  Flanders,  Belgium, 
situated  on  the  Dender  16  miles  northwest  of 
Brussels,  it  has  a  trade  in  grain  and  hops,  and  manu- 
factures lace,  cotton,  etc.  It  was  taken  by  Turerme  1667. 
Population  (1890),  25,644. 

Aloysius  (al-6-is'i-us).  Saint  (Louis  Gonzaga). 
Died  1591.'  He  is  commemorated  in  the  Roman 
Church  June  21. 

Alp  (alp)  The  principal  character  in  Byron's 
poem  "The  Siege  of  (Jorinth," a  renegade  shot 
in  the  siege. 

Alp.  The  local  name  of  the  elevated  and  little 
inhabited  meadow  and  pasture  tracts  of  Swit- 
zerland and  Tyrol.    Also  Aim. 

Alp,  or  Alb,  Bauhe.  See  Rauhe  Alp  and  Swa- 
Man  Jura. 

Alp  Arslan  (alp  ars-lan').  Bom  1029:  died 
1072.  A  surname  of  Mohammed  ben  Daud, 
sultan  of  the  Seljuk  Turks,  who  reigned  in  Kho- 
rasan  from  1059  to  1072.  He  succeeded  his  uncle 
Toghrul  Beg  as  chief  ruler  of  the  empire  in  1063,  subdued 
Georgia  and  Armenia  about  1064,  and  conquered  Aleppo 
and  defeated  and  took  prisoner  the  Byzantine  emperor 
Komanus  Diogenes  near  the  Araxes  in  1071,  a  victory  which 
led  to  the  establishment  of  the  Seljuk  empire  of  Eflm. 

Alpena  (al-pe'na).  The  capital  of  Alpena 
County,  Michigan,  situated  on  Thunder  Bay, 
Lake  Huron,  in  lat.  45°  4'  N.,  long.  83°  26'  W. 
It  is  a  center  of  the  lumber  trade.  Population 
(1900),  11,802. 

Alpes,  Basses. 


Alnitak(al-ni-tak').     [Ar.  a?-»j*dfc  the  girdle.]  Sipes,' Hautes.    See  Hautes-Alpes. 
The  fine  tnple  seeond-ma^itude  star  f  Ononis,  Alpes-Maritimes  (alp  mar-e-tem').    A  depart. 

ment  oi  i  ranee,  capital  Nice,  bounded  by  Italy 


at  the  southeastern  end  of  the  belt, 
Alnwick  (an'ik).  The  capital  of  Northum- 
berland, England,  situated  on  the  Alne  in  lat. 
55°  25'  N.,  long.  1°  43'  W.  Here,  1174,  the 
English  under  Glanville  defeated  the  Scots. 
Population  (1891),  6,746. 
A.  L.  0.  E.  A  pseudonym  (standing  for  'A 
Lady  of  England')  of  Charlotte  Maria  Tucker. 
Alogians  (a-16'ji-anz),  or  Alogi  (al'o-ji).  A 
heretical  sect  wliich  existed  in  Asia  Minor 
toward  the  end  of  the  2d  century  A.  D.  Lit- 
tle is  known  of  them.  They  were  called  Alogi  by  Bpiphar 
nius  because  they  rejected  the  doctrine  of  the  Logos  and 
the  Gospel  of  John  (which  they  ascribed  to  the  Gnostic 
CerinthuB).    They  also  rejected  the  Apocalypse. 

Aloidae  (a-16-i'de),  or  Aloiadae  (a-l6-i'a-de), 
or  Aloadse  (a-lo'a-de).  [Gr.  'AhjsWat,  'ATia'id- 
Sac,  'ATM&dm,  sons  oi  Aloeus.  ]  In  Greek  mythol- 
ogy, two  ^ants,  Otus  and  Ephialtes,  sons  of 
Poseidon  by  Iphimedea,  wife  of  Aloeus.  Each 
of  the  brothers  measured  9  cubits  in  breadth  and  27  in 
height  at  the  age  of  nine  years,  when,  according  to  the  Odys- 
sey, they  threatened  the  Olympian  gods  with  war,  and  at- 
tempted to  pile  Mount  Osaa  on  Olympus  and  Pelion  on  Ossa, 
but  were  destroyed  by  the  arrows  of  Apollo.  According 
to  Homer  they  kept  Ares  imprisoned  for  thirteen  months, 
until  he  was  secretly  liberated  by  Hermes.  By  some  writers 
tliey  are  represented  as  having  survived  the  attempt  on 
Olympus,  and  as  having  fallen  victims  to  their  presump- 
tion in  suing  Ephialtes  for  the  hand  of  Hera,  and  Otus 
for  that  of  Artemis.  In  the  island  of  Naxos,  Artemis,  in 
the  form  of  a  stag,  ran  between  the  brothers,  wlio,  aiming 


on  the  north  and  east,  by  the  Mediterranean  on 
the  south,  and  by  Var  and  Basses-Alpes  on  the 
west :  noted  for  its  mild  climate  and  the  health- 
resorts  on  its  coast.  It  was  formed  from  the  terri- 
tory of  Nice  (ceded  by  Italy  in  1860)  and  from  part  of  Var. 
Area,  1,482  square  miles.    Population  (1891),  258,571. 

Alph  (alf).  A  sacred  underground  river  in 
Xanadu,  iu  Coleridge's  poem  "Kubla  Khan." 

Alphard.  (al-fard').  [Ai.  al-fard,  the  solitary, 
because  there  is  no  other  conspicuous  star  very 
near  it.]  The  second-magnitude  star  a  Hydrse, 
or  Cor  Hydrse. 

Alphecca  (al-fek'ka),  or  Alphacca  (al-fak'ka). 
[Ar.  alfehkdh,  the  (broken)  cup  or  platter  oi  a 
dervish :  in  allusion  to  the  shape  of  the  constel- 
lation.] A  usual  name  of  the  second-magnitude 
star  a  Coronse  Borealis,  more  commonly  known 
as  Gemma,  but  also  as  Alf  eta. 

Alphege,  Saint.    See  Mlfkeah. 

Alphen  ,(arfen),  Hieronymus  van.  Born  at 
Gouda,  Netherlands,  Aug.  8,  1746 :  died  at  The 
Hague,  April  2,  1803.  A  Dutch  poet  and  jurist. 

Alpheratz  (al-fe-rats').  [Ar.  Surrat-al-fards, 
the  navel  of  the  horse :  the  star  having  been 
reckoned  as  belonging  to  Pegasus.]  The  usual 
name  of  the  second-magnitude  star  a  Andro- 
medae,  in  the  head  of  the  constellation.  It  is  also 
often  called  Sirrah. 


Alpheus 

Alpheus  (al-fe'us),  Alpheius  (al-fi'iis).  [Qi. 
'AMieiSg.']  In  Greek  mythology,  a  river-god, 
son  of  Oceanus  and  Tethys.  He  is  represented  as 
originally  a  hunter  who  fell  in  love  with  the  nymph  Are- 
thusa.  She  fled  Irom  him  and  transformed  herself  into  a 
well,  and  upon  this  he  became  the  river  Alpheus.  The 
details  of  the  myth  vary. 

Alpheus.  The  principal  river  of  the  Pelopon- 
nesus, Greece,  the  modern  Eufia,  Ruphia,  or 
Eouphiaj  emptying  into  the  Ionian  Sea.  it  flows 


44 


Altamura 


extends  from  the  Brenner  Pass  eastward  to 


Bians   under  Herwarth  von   Bittenfeld,  June  29,  1864. 

the  Semmering  Pass.  Oftentimes  made  to  include  iQ'Jf  Z^mV,""'  XA^^iX  prov 
all  the  Alps  lying  east  of  a  Une  connecting  Lake  Constance  AlSieltt  (als  lelt;.  A  small  TOwn  m  meprov- 
with  Lago  Maggiore.    See  Alps.  mee  of  Upper  Hesse,  grand  duchy  ot  Messe, 

Alps,  Western.    A  division  of  the  Alps  which    situated  on  the  Schwalm  41  miles  southwest 
is  separated  from  the  Apennines  by  the  Pass    of  Cassel. 

of  Giovi  (north  of  Genoa)  and  extends  to  the  Alshain  (al-shan').    A  seldom  used  name  for 
Pass  of  Great  St.  Bernard,    oftentimes  made  to  in-    the  fourth-magnitude  star  (3  Aquilffi._ 
elude  all  the  Alps  lying  west  of  a  line  connecting  Lake  Alshemall   (al-she-ma'li).      [Ar.   al-semdli,  the 
Constance  with  Lago  Maggiore.    See  Al^s.  ,      northern.     See  AlgenuU.'i     The  fourth -magni- 


in  part  Of  Its  course  underground,  and  was  tor  this  reason  Aipiyarras  (al-po-Har  rasj,  or  AlpUXaraS.    A     ^^^g  g^gj.  n  Ijeonis,  in  the  head  of  the  animal 


fabled  to  flow  under  the  sea  to  Sicily.  Olympia  was  on 
its  banks.  Its  northern  and  southern  head  streams,  both 
known  as  Ruphia  (the  northern  also  as  Ladon),  unite  on 
the  borders  of  the  nomarchies  of  Messenia,  Arcadia, 
Achaia,  and  Elis. 

Alptairk  (al-ferk').  [Ar.  Tcawdldb-al-firq,  stars 
of  the  flock.]  The  third-magnitude  double  star 
B  Cephei. 

Alphonso.    Bee_Alfonso. 


mountainous  region  in  the  provinces  of  Grana-   a  jgj     gge  Alsea. 
da  and  Almeria,  Spain,    it  contains  many  romantic    ai  C!i'va+  (a^  si-riit'^ 
valleys.    After  the  fall  of  the  Moorish  kingdom  of  Granada  ""i  ??J-??„  VT^^vlwlfl  'l 


[Ar.,  'the  road  or  way'; 


in  1492  it  was  the  refuge  of  the  Moriscos  in  Spain. 
Al  Bakim  (al  ra-kem')-  A  fabulous  dog  that 
accompanied  and  guarded  the  Seven  Sleepers. 
The  name  occurs  in  the  Koran  (in  reference  to  the  Sleepers) 
and  has  been  variously  interpreted  as  a  brass  plate,  a  stone 
table,  the  name  of  the  dog,  and  the  name  of  the  valley  in 


AipEoisUS    a    Saicta    Maria    (al-fon's6s   a     wUch  the  sleepers' cave  was  situated 
sangk'ta  ma-re'a),  or  Alfonso  de  Cartagena  A}'^?dus,  orAluredus, .  See  Alfred  of  Beverler,. 


(al-fon'so  da  kar-ta-Ha'na).  Bom  at  Carta 
gena,  Spain,  1396:  died  July  12,  1456.  A 
Spanish  prelate  and  historian.     He  succeeded 


mer  government  of  eastern  France.  It  formed 
after  the  Revolution  the  departments  of  Haut-Khin  and  Bas- 
Khin,  and  is  now  part  (see  Alsace-Lorraine)  of  the  German 
Empire,  comprising  the  districts  (Bezirke)  of  Upper  Alsace 
and  Lower  Alsace.  It  is  bounded  by  the  Khine  Palatinate 
len  (from  which  it  is  separated  by  the 
Uhine)  on  the  'east,  by  Switzerland  on  the  south,  and  by 
France  and  German  Lorraine  on  the  west.  The  \!osges  are 
on  its  western  frontier.    Its  soil  is  fertile,  and  it  has  impor- 


his  father,  Paulus,  as  bishop  of  Burgos;  was  deputed  in  Alsace  (al-aas'),  L-  Alsatia,  G.  ElsaSS.    Afor- 

1431by  John  XL  of  Castile  to  attend  the  Council  ot  Basel;     ^  -'' * -ci-— «-      -^  . 

and  succeeded  in  reconciling  Albert  V.  of  Austria  with 
Ladislaus,  king  of  Poland.  His  principal  work  is  a  history 
of  Spain  from  the  earliest  times  down  to  1496  (printed 
1646). 

Alphonsus  of  Lincoln  (al-fon'sus  ovling'kon). 

A  story  resembling  that  of  Hugh  of  Lincoln  and 

Chaucer's  "  Tale  of  the  Prioress,"  purporting  to 

be  composed  in  1459,  reprinted  by  the  Chaucer 

Society  in  1875.    It  is  attributed  by  Hain  and 

others  to  Alphonsus  a  ^ina. 
Alphonsus(al-fon'sus),  Emperor  of  Germany. 

A  tragedy  attributed  to  Chapman,  printed  in 

1654,  after  his  death.    It  was  played  at  Black- 
friars  in  1636,  and  was  then  a  revival. 
Alphonsus,  King  of  Arragon,  The  Comical 

History  of.    A  play  by  Robert  Greene,  written 


probably  borrowed  in  Arabic  from  Latin  strata 
«fo.]  The  bridge  over  which  all  must  pass  who 
enter  the  Mohammedan  paradise,  it  is  of  incon- 
ceivable narrowness,  finer  than  the  edge  of  a  razor ;  hence 
those  burdened  by  sins  are  sure  to  fall  oft  and  are  dashed 
into  hell,  which  it  crosses.  The  same  idea  appears  in 
Zoroastrianism  and  among  the  Jews. 

Alsleben  (als'lSrben).  A  small  town  in  the 
province  of  Saxony,  Prussia,  situated  on  the 
Saale  30  miles  south  of  Magdeburg. 

Alsop  (ai'sop),  Kichard.  Bom  at  Middletown, 
Conn.,  Jan.'  23,  1761:  died  at  Flatbush,  L.  I., 
Aug.  20,  1815.  An  American  author,  one  of 
the  "Hartford  Wits"  and  chief  writer  on  the 
' '  Echo."  He  published ' '  Monody  on  the  Death 
of  Washington,"  and  other  poems, 
on  the  north,  by  Baden  (from  which  It  is  separated  by  the  AlSOp,  Vmcent.  _  Uied  May  «,  I  /Ud.     An  Jing- 


Alright    Island  (41-rit'  i'land).     One   of  the 
Magdalen  Islands,  in  the  Gulf  of  St.  Lawrence. 
Alroy.    See  Wondrous  Tale  of  Ahoy. 


Ballersbach,  near  Herborn,  Prussia,  1588 :  died 
at  Weissenburg,  Transylvania,  Nov.  8, 1638.  A 
(Jerman  Protestant  theologian  and  voluminous 
writer,  professor  of  philosophy  (1615)  and  (1619) 
of  theology  at  Herborn. 


lish  nonconformist  divine  and  controversialist. 
He  wrote  "Antisozzo  "  (1676),  "Mischief  of  Impositions  " 
(1680),  "Melius  Inquirendum  "  (1679),  etc. 
tant  iron- and  coal-mines,  and  considerable  manufactures.    Ai_i.»j   /al'Htfit)    .TnliaiiTi   Hplnriph      Bom  at 
Its  chief  city  is  Strasburg.  German  is  the  language  ot.the  AlStedJal^Stetj^^JOUann^llMn^^^^^^        J30m  ai 
largest  numberof  the  inhabitants.  Itwasapartot  ancient 
Gaul  and  afterward  of  the  Frankish  kingdom.    In  the  9th 
and  10th  centuries  it  was  a  part  of  Lotharingia,  and  later  of 
the  duchy  of  Swabia,  and  gradually  came  to  be  divided  be- 
tween imperial  cities,  bishops,  and  other  spiritual  rulers, 

etc.    Part  ot  it  was  conquered  by  France  in  the  Thirty      -     „„ 

Years' War,  and  ceded  to  her  inl648.  Strasburg  was  seized  Alster  (al'ster).  A  small  tributary  of  the  Mbe 
by  Louis  XIV.  in  1681,  and  the  remainder  of  Alsace  was  ^iiidi  traverses  Hamburg,  forming  two  basins, 
rraltresStoftreVranco'Grrma^nil'"''""''"^'"     one   (the   larger)  .outside   the   town   (Aussen 

Alster),  andonewithm  it  (Bmnen  Alster).  The 
latter  is  surrounded  with  fine  buildings  and  is 
a  favorite  pleasure-resort. 
Alston,  or  Alston  Moor.  See  Aldstone. 
Alstroemer  (al'stre-mer),  Jonas.  Bom  at 
AlingssBS,  West  Gothland,  Sweden,  Jan.  7, 
1685  :  died  June  2, 1761.  A  Swedish  merchant, 
distinguished  as  a  promoter  of  industrial  re- 

__    _     __  established  in  London  in    Area,  1,370  square  miles.    Population  (1890),    Z?!™  ^^  ^'^^'^f'^' 

1857  for  those  who  are  interested  in  the  subject    471,609.  Alhi,™,f  /ki  +a 'mnl 

of  mountains,  as  explorers,  or  artists,  or  for  Alsace-Lorraine  (al-zas'lor-rau'),  Gr-  Elsass-    ._„  ?™".1„  „?;j™  i^, 
scientific  purposes.  Lothringen.    An  imperial  territory  (Eeiehs- 

Alpini  (al-pe'ne),  L.  AlpinUS,  Prospero.   Bom    land)  of  the  German  Empire,  capital  Strasburg, 
at  Marostiea,  Venetia,  Nov.  23,  1553:  died  at    bounded  by  Luxemburg,  Prussia,  and  the  Ehine 

' Palatinate  on  the  north,  by  Baden  (from  which 

it  is  separated  by  the  Ehine)  on  the  east,  by 
Switzerland  and  Prance  on  the  south,  and  by 
France  on  the  west.  It  is  traversed  by  the  Vosges ; 
soil  generally  fertile,  producing  grain,  wine,  tobacco,  etc., 
and  it  has  important  iron-  and  coal-mines,  and  large  manu- 
factures of  iron,  cotton,  etc.  It  is  divided  into  3  districts. 
Upper  Alsace,  Lower  Alsace,  and  Lorraine.  Its  govern- 
ment is  vested  in  the  imperial  government  and  in  a  pro- 
vincial committee  of  68  members.    It  sends  16  deputies 


as  early  as  1592,  and  printed  in  1599.    It  was  /^TTi-m  Aj-4-i 

called  "comical"  only  because  its  end  is  not  Alsace,  Lower,  _G.  Unter-Elsass.    A  district 
tragical.  '  of  Alsaoe-Lorraine,_occupying  the  northern 

Alpiew  (al'pii).  In  Mrs.  Centlivre's  comedy 
"  The  Basset-Table,"  Lady  Reveller's  waiting- 
woman,  a  pert,  adroit  soubrette.  The  name  is 
taken  from  alpieu,  a  term  in  the  game  of  basset  imply- 
ing the  continuance  ot  the  bet  on  a  card  that  has  already 
won. 


Alpine  Club.    A  club  established  in  London  in 


portion  of  Alsace.  The  chief  city  is  Strasburg. 
Area,  1,866  square  miles.  Population  (1890), 
621,505. 

Alsace,  Upper,  G.  Ober-Elsass.  A  district  of 
Alsace-Lorraine,  occupying  the  southern  por- 
tion of  Alsace.    Its  chief  town  is  Miilhausen. 


Padua,  Italy,  Feb.  6,  1617.  An  Italian  bota- 
nist and  physician,  author  of  works  on  the 
natural  history  of  Egypt,  etc. 

Alpnach  (alp'nach),  or  Alpnacht  (alp'naoht). 
A  commime  in  the  canton  of  Unterwalden, 
Switzerland,  8  miles  southwest  of  Lucerne. 

Alpnach,  Lake.  The  southwestern  arm  of  the 
Lake  of  Lucerne. 

Alps  (alps).  [F.  Alpes,  It.  Alpi,  G.  Alpen,  etc., 
L.  Alpes,  Gr.  "A^iTreis,  "AXirua,  '&^j3eM,  a  Celtic 
name,  'the  white  (mountains).'  Cf.  AXbion.'\ 
The  most  extensive  mountain  system  in  Eu- 
rope, comprising  apart  of  southeastern  France, 
most  of  Switzerland,  a  part  of  northern  Italy,  /f ?"atia 
a  part  of  southern  Germany,  and  the  western  ■«■*»'>'"«*' 
part  of  Austria-Hungary.  ' 
vided  into  the  Maritime,  Oottian, 
tian,  Norio,  Carnic,  Venetian,  and  Julian 
division  is  into  the  Western,  Central,  and  Eastern  Alps. 
The  Western  Alps  include  the  Ligurian  Alps,  Maritime 
Alps  Cottian  Alps,  Graian  Alps,  Montagues  des  Maures  and 
Esterel  Mountains,  Mountains  of  Provence  (or  of  Vaucluse, 
Ventoux  group),  Alps  of  Dauphin^,  Limestone  Alps  of 
Savoy,  and  the  Mountains  of  Chablais  and  Faucigny.  The 
Central  Alps  include  the  Pennine  Alps,  Lepontine  Alps, 
RhiBtian  Alps,  (Jtzthaler  Alps,  Bernese  Alps,  Fribourg 
Alps,  Emmenthal  Alps,  Urner  and  Bngelberg  Alps,  Todi 
range,  Schwyzer  Alps,  St.  Gall  and  AppenzeU  Alps,  Vo- 
rarlberg  and  AUgau  Alps,  North  Tyrolese  and  Bavarian 
Alps  Luganer  Alps,  Bergamasker  Alps,  Ortler  Alps,  Hons- 
bere'  Alps,  Adamello  Mountains,  and  Tridentine  Alps. 
The  Eastern  Alps  include  the  Zillerthal  Alps,  Hohe  Tau- 
ern  Niedere  Tauern,  Carinthian  and  Styrian  Alps,  Styrian 
Nieder  Alps,  KitzbiUiler  Alps,  Salzburg  Alps,  Upper  Aus- 
trian Alps,  North  Styrian  Alps,  Lower  Austrian  Alps, 
Lessinian  Alps,  Cadoric  Alps  (Dolomite  Alps),  Venetian 
Alps  Carnic  Alps,  Karawanken,  Bacher,  and  Santhaler 
Alps,  and  Julian  Alps.  There  are  also  various  outliers  ot 
the  system  in  Hungary  and  Croatia,  etc.  (Bakony  Forest, 
Mountains  of  Cilli,  etc.).  The  length  ot  the  range  from 
the  Pass  of  Giovi  (north  of  Genoa)  to  Semmering  Pass  is 
over  600  miles ;  and  its  width  is  from  90  to  180  miles.    Its 


A  tribe  of  North  Ameri- 
can Indians  which  formerly  lived  on  San  Fran- 
cisco bay,  California.     See  Costanoan. 

Altai  (al-tl').  A  mountain  system  which  lies 
partly  in  the  government  of  Tomsk,  Siberia, 
and  is  continued  eastward  into  Mongolia.  The 
highest  elevation,  the  Bjelucha  (White  Moun-. 
tain),  is  about  11,000  feet.  The  main  range  is 
also  known  as  the  Ektag  Altai. 

Altaic  (al-ta'ik).  A  term  applied  to  various 
' '  Turanian  "  or  unclassified  languages  in  north- 
ern Asia :  usually  in  the  compound  Ural-Altaic. 
See  Turanian. 


ot  the  population)  is  Roman  Catholic.  The  prevailing  Ian. 
guage  is  German,  except  in  Lorraine,  where  French  is 
chiefly  spoken.  It  was  ceded  by  France  to  Germany  in 
1871,  as  a  result  of  the  Franco-German  war.  Area,  6,603 
square  miles.  Population  (1896),  1,640,986. 
The  Latin  name  of  Alsace, 

name 


to  the  Reichstag.    The  prevailing  religion  (78  per  cent.  ^Jtal    Mining   District.      A  territory   in   the 
..ii,  n-n^s.-.Tj     „„r.„n,„i,„    Ti,»T>™™,i,„<i,i!,„.    gQ^jj^gpjj part  of  the  government  of  Tomsk,  Si- 

beria, noted  for  mineral  wealth.     Its  capital  is 
Barnaul. 

Altair  (al-tar'),  or  Atair  (a-tar').    [Ar.  aUiasr 
.—  ----     ,,,...,.„  ,  ,  aZ-ta«?-,  the  flying  eagle.]    The  standard  first- 

'•"trw  J  ancientirdr  •Alsatia  (al-sa'shia).    Formerly  a  cant  name    magnitude  star  a  AquilK. 

,,  GrkrPennte  Rht    (Alsace  being  a  debataMe  ^ound  or  scene  of  ^Itamaha  (ai"ta-ma-ha').     A  river  in  (Jeorgia 

fulian  Alps.  The  modern    frequent  contests)  for  Whitetnars,  a  aistnct  m    .^jjigi^  jg  formed  by  the  junction  of  the  Oconee 

Londonbetween  the  Thamesand  Fleet  street,    and  Ocmulgee,  and  flows  into  the  Atlantic  55 

and  adjoining  the  Temple,  which  possessed  cer-    ^^^^^  southwest  of  Savannah.     Its  length  is 

tain  privileges  of  sanctuary  denved  from  the     ^^^^^  ^gp  ^^^^_ 

convent  of  the  Carmelites,  or  White  Fnars,  Altamirano(al-ta-me-ra'n6),Ignacio Manuel, 
founded  there  m  1241.     The  locality  became  the    g^^.^  j^  Guerrero  about  1835:  died  Feb.  14, 


resort  of  libertines  and  rascals  of  every  description,  whose 
abuses  and  outrages,  and  especially  the  riot  in  the  reign 
ot  Charles  II.,  led  in  1697  to  the  abolition  of  the  privilege 
and  the  dispersion  of  the  Alsatians.  The  term  AUsatia  has 
in  recent  times  been  applied  offensively  to  the  English 
stock-exchange,  because  ot.the  supposed  questionable 
character  of  some  of  its  proceedings. .  The  name  first  oc- 
curs in  Shad  well's  plays  "  The  Woman  Captain  "  (1680)  and 
"The  Squire  of  Alsatia  "  (1688).    See  WMtefriars. 

Alsatia,  The  Sciuire  of.    See  Squire. 

Alsea  (al-se')-  [From  Alsi,  their  name  for 
themselves.]  A  tribe  of  North  American  In- 
dians, which  formerly  occupied  20  villages  on 
both  sides  of  Alsea  River,  Oregon,  and  is  now 
on  the  Siletz  reservation,  Oregon.  One  of  these 
villages  was  Yahats.     See  Yakonan. 


highest" peak"i's"Mont'  Blanc;  li.lSl  feet  (on  the  borders  Alscn  (al'sen),  Dan.  AlS.     An  island  20  miles 
of  France  and  Italy;  highest  in  Switzerland  the  Monte    j  j^  ^he  Little  Belt,  lat.  55°  N.,  long.  9° 

..» ^.    ....A   jto    r..jor'3ttt^   Tipiffht   flnmit    7.700  feet.       Its      _-,vi      ...  .         .       n    _  . • _i.  CH_1.1 i„ 


Kosa);   and  its  average  height  about  7,700  feet, 
largest  glacier  is  the  lletsch,  about  13  miles  long.    See, 
further,  the  special  articles  Pennine,  Maritime,  Lepontine 

Alps,  Eastern.    A  division  of  the  Alps  which 


50' E.,  belonging  to  the  province  of  Schleswig- 


1893.  A  Mexican  poet,  orator,  and  journalist, 
of  pure  Indian  blood,  said  to  have  been  a  de- 
scendant of  the  Aztec  monarchs.  He  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Constituent  Congress  ot  1861,  and  Joined  the 
army  during  the  French  invasion,  attaining  the  rank  ot 
colonel.  He  published  "Clemencia,"  "Julia,"  etc.  He 
died  ih  Italy. 

Altamont  (al'ta-mont).  1.  In  Eowe's  play 
"The  Fair  Penitent,"  the  much-wronged  but 
forgiving  husband  of  Calista  (the  Fair  Peni- 
tent). He  kills  "that  haughty  gallant,  gay 
Lothario  "who  has  wronged  him. — 2.  In  Thack- 
eray's novel  "Pendennis,"  the  name  assumed 
by  the  returned  convict  Ajnory.  He  is  the  first 
husband  of  Lady  Clavering  and  father  of  the 
emotional  Blanche  Amory. 
Altamont,  Frederick.    See  Bunce,  John. 


Holstein,  Prussia,  its  chief  town  isSrad^erbuTgy^e  Altamura'(al-ta-mo'ra).  A  city  in  the  p^^^^^^ 
inhabitant^  are  chiefly  Danish.  It  was  a  strategic  point  mce  of  Ban,  Italy,  28  miles  southwest  of  Ban. 
for  the  Danes  in  1848-49,  and  was  conquered  by  the  Prus-     It  contains  a  cathedral,  founded  by  the  emperor  Freaer- 


Altamnra  '  45  Alva 

vaulting  in  the  aisles.    The  west  front  is  Romanesque  in  .°f.  ^""^^^^  .?;'^r  °*.     ,/,   ^^  ^t°J^>-       „  Natui'geseliiohte  des  Pf erdes "  (1810),  "  Ver- 

charaoter,  with  a  great  rose  and  imposing  lion-porch  and  AltenzellC  (al-ten-tsel'le).  A  former  Cistercian     gleichende  Osteologie  "  (1821-31). 

much  sculpture,  espeolally  scenes  from  the  life  of  Christ.     monasterynearNosseii,  in  Saxony,  secularized  Alton  (al'ton).     A  town  in  Hampshire,  Eng- 

Altar  (al-tarM,  or  Altar  de  OoUanes  (al-tar'    in  1544.  land,  25  miles  north  by  east  of  Portsmouth. 

da  kol-ya'nes),  or  Capac-Urcu  (ka'pak  or'ko).  Alteratl  (It.  pron.  al-te-ra'te),  The.    A  private    Population  (1891),  4,671. 

A  volcano  in  the  eastern  range  of  the  Andes    musical  academy,  founded  in  1568  at  Florence  Alton.    A  city  in  Madison  County,  Illinois,  situ- 

of  Ecuador,  east  of  Eiobamba,  17,730  feet  high    by  seven  Florentine  noblemen,    it  devoted  it-    ated  on  the  Mississippi  21  miles  north  of  St 

(Reiss  and  Stiibel).  self  to  the  cultivation  of  the  musical  dram^  and  under  Louis.    It  has  Important  manufactures  and  trade  andfa 

Altar,  The.     See  Ara.  Ba»S"°^'  °^^'^  "^^  produced.     See  the  seat  of  Shurtlefl  College.    PopuSn  (19^) "u^ZlO 

Altaroche(al-ta-rosh'),  Marie  Michel.    Bom  ^Iterf  (al-terf).    [Ar.]    The  seldom  used  name  ■^M^^-,1E}°'^^K  f  seaport  in  the  province 

^t}^^T%'  P'^y-'ie-Ddme,   Prance,  April  18,     of  the  fourth-magnitude  star  A  Leonis,  in  the    °f Jf ^fTIf"?!?  ^?r^7''''S-' ^' v '''^'^  "^  *¥ 

1811 :  died  at  Vaux,  May  14,  1884.    A  French    mouth  of  the  animal  ^^?^^  ^^^  °*  ^^'^  ^^^®  ^^1°^  Hamburg  and  ad- 

joumalist,  poet,  and  dramatist:   early  editor  Alter  Pritz  fal'ter  frits)      FG    'Old  Fritz  M   A  JO\°i?g ,".  "i  lat.  53°  33' N.,  long.  9°  57' E. 

of  "ChnrivniH  "  Alier  X  r«z  ^^  bei  iiilh;.      m.,   yiu  rruz.  j    a     it  is  the  largest  city  in  the  province,  and  has  extensive 

A14.„^S.  ;--i/^--    4.     f       ^      ro        <i.-i,*  nickname  of  Frederick  the  Great.  foreign  and  domestic  trade  and  important  mamSactures 

AltaS  Torres  (al'tas  tor'res).    [Sp.,  'high  tow-  Alth£ea(al-the'a),orAlthea.    [Gr.  a;Wm'<2.]    In     It  was  formerly  the  seat  of  an  observatory  which  was  re- 

ers.  ]     See  Madngal.  Greek  legend,  a  daughter  of  Thestius,  wife  of  °.'P^?'l  to  Kiel  in  1874.    it  received  the  privileges  of  a 

Alt-Breisach.    See  JBreisack.  (Eneus,kingofCalydon,andmotherofTydeus,  fatfonntmi^m'^m  "'"'*'"' '"^  ®'^^'*'' "^^-    ^°P°- 

Altdorf  (Switzerland).    See  Altorf.  Meleager,  and  Deianeira.  AhZ  Tn%a 'r^'t..  l.t^    a.,-i  ..  i,    * 

Altdorf(alt'dorf),orAltorf(al'torf).    Asmall  Althea.     The  name  under  which  RichardLove-     a  «fnvvhvr>,i£=tSr,lV.'  ^^k?'^!.^^'^  ^^tS' 

town  in  Middle  Franconia,  Bavaria,  situated    lace  poetically  addressed  a  woman,  supposed  A'*°^^^L?tS'„1f^      Fitt^^^^^'^^f  ?'^^^  ^^?^- 

on  the  Schwarzach  13  miles  southeast  of  Nu-  to  be  Lucy  Sacheverell,  who  was  also  celebrated    Pp°°?v1vn?;V«  o^"tLT^r,.«lw=.fc^  -1^°"^  ^i 

remberg.    It  was  the  seat  of  a  university  from  1623  to    under  the  name  of  Lucasta.  fv,  "^t^l  „^  tk     A^f  Pennsylvania  Railroad,  at 

1S09,  which  was  united  in  the  latter  year  with  that  of  Althpn  (F  uron  al  ton'^   TpTiati  or  Tmti     Rorn  Ykt  ^ff^^?^  ^^^  Alleghany  Mountains,  in  lat. 

Erlangen.  in  pt^i^^dLd  in  FrancI  17^^    A  P^^^^^  ^°     ^^    ^-  ^°"S-   78°  25'  W.,   noted  for  the 

iUtdorfer  (alt'dor-fer),orAltorfer(al'tor-fer),  IL  sJnof  ago^ernoTof '^  Persian^ro^iee;  ^rl'ttn^nfoorTpt^"''  ""*'  railway-cars. 

Albrecht.    Born    at  Altdorf    Bavaria,  1488:     who  introduced  the  cultivation  of  madder  into  F^Tf^'^^^T^'iV*A  ^  rn.,^  ^.      r^^. 

died  at  Ratisbon,  Bavaria,  1538.    A  German  prance     He  was  sold  as  a  slave  at  Smyrna,  but  made  ■^*0"  (al'torf ),  or  Altdorf  (alt'dorf).     The 

painter  and  engraver.     His  chief  work,  "  The     his  escape  to  France,  bringing  with  him  some  seeds  of  capital  of  the  canton  of  TJri,  Switzerland,  situ- 

Battle  of  Arbela,"  is  at  Munich.  madder,  the  exportation  of  which  was  forbidden  under  ated  near  the  Reuss  and  near  the  southeastern 

Altea  (al-ta'a).     A  seaport  in  the  province  of  J',™^'.'^  °'  death.  extremity  of  the  Lake  of  Lucerne,  on  the  St. 

Alicante,  Spain,  25  miles  northeast  of  Alicante.  -^I  l  ''^^  »         Thing.  Gotthard  route,  20  miles  southeast  of  Lucerne. 

Population  (1887),  5  790  Althorp,  Viscount.     See  Spencer,  third  Earl.  it  is  celebrated  in  the  legends  of  William  Tell,  to  whom  a 

Altemira  (al-te-mi'ra).      A  tragedy  by  Lord  Altilia  (al-te'li-a)      A  smiall  place  in  central  statue  wag^CTected  here  in  1861.    Population  (1888),  2,561. 

Orrery,  produced  in  1702,  after  his  death.  S^ly  a''°'i*  20  miles  north  of  iBenevento.    The  /^^^AfiS,!;^^^  c„     >,,^     . 

■"  ^  ,  »    o        o     CO,!,   .  Eoman  walls  Of  the  ancient  town  (the  Samnite  Sffipinum),  AltOrr  (in  Bavaria).     See  Altdorf . 

It  is  a  roar  of  passion,  love  (or  what  passed  for  it),  jeal-     about  two  miles  from  the  modern  site,  remain  practically  Altorfcr.     See  Altdorfer. 
ouay,  despair,  and  murder.    In  the  concluding  scene  the     perfect.    The  plan  is  a  square  with  rounded  angles  and  a    A  Itfit.t.ltic  (alt-pt'tiTiP''^    nr   Alton  nttiiKr  CHI' 
slaughter  is  terrific.    It  all  takes  place  in  presence  of  an     gate  strengthened  by  massive  square  towers  in  the  middle     +:„  5?;5°  „\       r=,!!,^fi '+^Lr=^   t?     ^^  ^  • 
unobtrusive  individual,  who  carries  the  doctrine  of  non-     of  each  side,  oriented  toward  the  cardinal  points.    The     Mn-ei  ting;.     A  small  town  in  Upper  Havana, 
intervention  to  its  extreme  limit.    When  the  persons  of     masonry  is  reticulated,  except  that  of  the  gate-arches.   An     Bavaria,  on  the  Morn  51   miles  northeast  of 
the  drama  have  made  an  end  of  one  another,  the  quietly     inscription  ascribes  the  construction  to  Nero.  Munich.    It  is  a  famous  pilgrim  resort  on  account  of  a 

Sfl'ffi  /*°  f"'"'*^^'?*"™?"^'*"'*.,'^!.™'*'''?®™?^'??'  Altin  (al-tin'),  or  Teletskoi  (ta-let-skoi').     A     miraculous  image  of  the  Vu-gin,  which  it  is  said,  was 
that  there  was  so  much  virtue,  love  and  honor  in  it  all      ,   ,       4g  miles  lonff  and  abmit  20  broad   in  wpst      brought  from  tlS  East  in  the  7th  centurj^. 
that  he  could  not  find  it  m  his  heart  to  interfere  though     ^'"'^i..,   ™"ss  long  ana  aoout  ju  oroaa,  m  west-    .       *  ..  '  ;• 

his  own  son  was  one  of  the  victims.  em  Siberia,  m  lat.  51°  30'  N.,  long.  87°  30'  E.,  Altranstadt  (alt  ran-stat).     A  village  of  Prus- 

Doran,  Eng.  Stage,  1. 133.     which  empties  into  a  tributary  of  the  Obi.  sian  Saxony  9  miles  southeast  of  Merseburg, 

Alten(al'ten),  Count  Karl  August  von.  Bom  Alting  (al'ting),  Johann  Heinrich.  Born  at  where  a  treaty  was  concluded  1706,  between 
at  Burgwedel,  near  Hanoverf  Oct.  20,  1764:  Emden,  Prussia,  Feb.  17,  1583:  died  at  Gron-  Charles  XII.  of  Sweden  and  Augustus  H.  of 
died  at  Bozen,  Tyrol,  April  20, 1840.  A  Hano-  ingen,  Aug.  25,  1644.  A  German  Protestant  Saxony,  by  which  the  latter  lost  Poland.  A 
yerian  general,  .romma^nder  of  the  "German    theologian  professor  of  dogmatics  ^'Zl^'^n^'iT^iX^^o^'To^^Tr^^^^^^'-^l 

Legion  "m  British  service.  He  served  in  the Penin-  oerg  (loia;,  ana  later  (i0.i/;  or  tneology  at  ugious  toleration  was  secured  to  the  Protestants  in 
sular  and  Waterloo  campaigns,  and  was  Hanoverian  min-     Gromngen.     He  opposed  the  Remonstrants  in     Silesia. 

Ister  of  war  and  foreign  affairs.  the  synod  of  Dordrecht.  Altrincham,  or  Altringham  (al'tring-am).   A 

Alten  Fiord  (al'ten  fyord).  A  fiord  on  the  Alting,  Jakob.  Born  at  Heidelberg,  Sept.  27,  town  in  Cheshire,  England,  8  miles  southwest 
northern  coast  of  Norway,  in  lat.  70°  N.  1618:  died  at  Groningen,  Aug.  20, 1676.    A  son    of  Manchester.    Population  (1891),  12,424. 

Altena  (al'te-na).    A  town  in  the  province  of    of  J.  H.  Alting,  professor  of  Oriental  languages  Altringer.    See  Aldringer. 
Westphalia,  Prussia,  situated  on  the  Lenne    (1643)  and  of  theology  (1667)  at  Groningen.  Altstadten  (alt'stad-ten),  or  Altstetten  (alf- 
40  miles  northeast  of  Cologne.    It  is  noted  for    His  works  on  Hebrew  are  notable.  stet-ten).    A  town  in  the  canton  of  St.  Gall, 

iron  and  steel  manufactures,  and  for  its  castle.  Altis  (al'tis).  [Gr.  'A/lTif.]  The  sacred  pre-  Switzerland,  in  lat.  47°  23'  N.,  long.  9°  32'  E. 
Population  (1890),  10,488.  cinct  and  nucleus  of  the  ancient  Olympia,  in    It  has  cotton  manufactures.  Population  (1888), 

Altenahr  (al'ten-ar).    A  village  in  the  Rhine    Greece.  8,430. 

Province,  Prussia,  situated  on  the  Ahr  30  miles  Altisidora  (al'tis-i-do'ra).  A  character  in  the  Altstrelitz  (alt'stra-lits).  The  former  capi- 
south  of  Cologne.  Near  it  is  the  ruined  castle  "Curious  Impertinent,"  an  episode  in  "Don  tal  of  Mecklenburg-Strelitz,  situated  south  of 
of  Altenahr  or  Are,  destroyed  early  in  the  18th    Quixote  " :  an  attendant  of  the  duchess.     She    Neustrelitz. 

century.  torments  Don  Quixote  by  pretending  to  be  in  Altvater  Mountains  (alt'fa-ter  moun'tanz), 

Altenberg  (al'ten-bera).    A  town  in  the  king-    love  with  him.  or  Moravian  Snow  Mountains.    A  group  of 

dom  of  Saxony,  situated  in  the  Erzgebirge  21  Altkirch  (alt'kerch).    A  small  town  in  Upper    mountains  in  the  Sudetic  system,  situated  in 

miles  south  of  Dresden :  noted  for  its  tin-mines.    Alsace,  Alsace-Lorraine,  situated  on  the  111  18    northern  Moravia  on  the  frontier  of  Austrian 

Altenburg  (duchy).     See  Saxe-Altenburg.  miles  northwest  of  Basel:  capital  of  the  Sund-    Silesia.    The  highest  point.  Gross  Altvater,  is 

Altenburg  (al'ten-bora).     The  capital  (since    gau.  about  4,850  feet  high. 

1826)  of  Saxe-Altenburg,  Germany,  near  the  Altmark  (alt'mark).    The  nucleus  of  Brandon-  Altwasser  (alt'vas-ser).    A  town  in  the  prov- 

Pleisse  25  miles  south  of  Leipsic.    it  contains  a    burg  and  the  Prussian  monarchy :  known  first    ince  of  Silesia,  Prussia,  on  the  Polsnitz  41 

c&tle- (founded  in  the  11th  century),  famous  from  the     as  the  Nordmark,  now  in  the  province  of  Sax-    miles  southwest  of  Breslau.    It  has  mines  of  brown 

"RobbeiT  of  the  Princess"  in  1455.    Ancient  Saxon  resi-     ony,  Prussia.    See  Nordmark  and  Brandenburg,     coal,  and  was  formerly  a  watering-place.     Population 

dencep^ulation  (1890)  31,439  Altmcycr  (alt'mi-er),  Jean  JaCQUes.    Born  at   iW9'"»-,  ..,.     ,      „        , ,  ^       .v.      ■       i 

^tendorf  (al'ten-dorf).    A  town  near  Essen,     Luxemburg,  Jan.  24,  1804:  died  at  Bmssels,  "H    ,  ?  il^""^*^' •  ^^''-  f"^'"!'  ^^^  '™^^'i^ 

Rhine  Province,  Pmssia.    Population  (1890),     gept.  15,  1877.    A  Beigian  historian.   Among  hi     of  aPaci<J™,  the  virgins,  f^our  stars  near  each 

IJ'^l^-    ^       „  ^,       .      .„         .      ^,.  worksarCHistoiredes  relations  commerciales  etpoli-     other  in  Cams  Major.]     The  third-magmtude 

Altenesch  (alten-esh).     A  village  m  Olden-    tiques  des  PaysBas,"  etc.,  "jBSsum6  de  I'histoire  mo-     star  ri  Cams  Majoris. 

burg,  Germany,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Ochtum  derne''(1842),  and  various  works  on  Dutch  and  Belgian  his-  Alula  (al'li-la)  Borealis  and  AustraliS.  [L., 
9  miles  northwest  of  Bremen.  Here  m  1234  the  J^^' ^.iti  /..«./  ..i>  »  •  ■  -o  •  iu  'northern'  and  'southern  wing.']  The  two 
Stedinger  were  nearly  exterminated  by  the  Altmuhl  (ait  mul).  A  river  m  Bavaria,  the  fourth-magnitude  stars  v  and  f  Ursse  Majoris, 
Crusadlrs.  ancient  Alcimona  or  Alcmona,  which  joins  the    which  mark  the  southern  hind  foot  of  the  beast 

Altenessen    (al-ten-es  'sen).      A    coal-mining    l^^nuDe  at  Jlellieim  14  miles  southwest  ot  Ka-     xi,  which  is  a  fine  binary  star  with  a  period  of  only  61 
i^rmm    noof   Fecon     Tfliino    PrmHnoo     Priiaaia       tisbon.    It  crosses  the  Franconian  Jura.    Its  length  is     years,  is  also  known  as  S  .^crfa. 
p7^i„^-„     naom 'l9  9Q?     iTOVince,   ±Tussia.     about  126  miles,  and  it  is  connected  with  the  Main  system  Alumbagh.     See  Alambagh. 
Population  (1890),  12,295.  by  the  Ludwigs-Canal  at  Dietfurt.  Aluredus      See  Alfred  of  Beverley 

iUtenkmjhen  (al-ten-ker'chen).  A  small  town  Alto-Douro  (al'to-do'ro)..  A  region  in  the  Aluta  (a-io'ta),  or  Alt  (alt),  or  Olt  (olt).  A 
m  the  Rhine  Province,  Prussia,  situated  on  the  southern  part  of  Traz-os-Montes  and  the  north-  rfver  which  rises  in  eastern  Transylvania,  flows 
Wied  34  miles  southeast  of  Cologne.  em  part  of  Beira,  Portugal,  near  the  Douro,     south  and  west,  and  breaks  through  the  Car- 

Altenkirchen,     An  ancient  countship  in  the    noted  for  its  (port)  wine.  pathians  at  the  Rotherthurm  Pasi,  and  then 

neighborhood  of  Altenkirchen.  Altofronto,  Giovanni.    See  Male/vole.  flows  south  through  Wallachia,  and  joins  the 

Alten-Otting.    See  Altotting.  Alton  (Sl'ton),  Johann  Samuel  Eduard  d'.    Danube  opposite  Nicopolis.    Its  chief  tributary 

Altenstein  (al'ten-stin),  Karl  (Baron  von  Bom  at  St.  Goar,  Pmssia,  July  17, 1803 :  died  is  the  Oltetz.  Length,  about  300  miles.  Also 
Stein  znm  Altenstein).  BomatAnspaoh,  Ba-    at  Halle,  July  25,  1854.    A  German  anatomist,    Aloota. 

varia,  Oct.  7, 1770:  died  at  Berlin,  May  14, 1840.  son  of  J.  W.  E.  d' Alton,  author  of  "Handbueh  Alva(al'va;  Sp.al'va),orAlba(al'ba),Dukeof 
A  Prussian  statesman,  minister  of  finance  1808-  der  menschlichen  Anatomic  "  (1848-50),  etc.  (Fernando  Alvarez  de  Toledo).  teornl508: 
1810,  and  minister  of  public  worship  1817-38.  Alton  (al'ton),  Johann  Wilhelm  Eduard  d'.  died  at  Thomar,  Portugal,  Jan.  12, 1582.  A  fa- 
Altenstein.  A  summer  castle  of  the  dukes  of  Bom  at  Aquileia,  Austria-Hungary,  Aug.  11,  mous  Spanish  general.  He  fought  in  the  various 
Saxe-Meiningen,  in  the  Thuringjan  forest  10    1772:  died  at  Bonn,  Prussia,  May  11,  1840.    A    campaignsof  the  emperor  Charles  v.  and  ot  Philip  IL;de- 


Alva 

cided  the  victory  of  MlQilbergj  1647 ;  was  commander 
against  Metz  in  1552  and  later  in  Italy ;  was  sent  aa  gov- 
ernor to  the  Netherlands  in  1567,  and  there  became  noto- 
rious for  his  cruelty,  established  the  "Council  of  Blood" 
(which  see);  put  to  death  Egmont,  Hoorn,  and  many 
others ;  and  was  generidly  successful  against  William  of 
Orange  down  to  1572.  He  returned  to  Spain  in  1673  and 
conquered  Portugal  in  1580. 

Alva  de  Liste,  or  Alva  de  Aliste,  Count  of. 

Same  as  Alba  de  Liste.    See  Senriques  de  Guz- 
man, Imis. 
Alvarado  (al-va-ra'THo),  Alonso  de.    Bom  at 
Burgos  about  1490 :  died.in  Peru,  1556.  A  Sp^n 


46 

died  Aug.  21,  1867.     A  Mexican  general.    He  .   ,„.„ 

joined  the  revolt  of  MoreloB  in  Nov.,  1810,  and  was  prom-    .","  _  J?„„  f'   ,;  „+/s„x 

inent  in  the  civil  wars  and  in  the  war  with  the  United  AlyaiTieS  (a-ii-ai  ez; 


Amadis  of  Gaul 

omberis  "  (1791).    His  writings  were  collected  ta  ten  vol- 
[Gr.  'Ah)dTT7K.2    A  king 


States.  In  Feb.,  1864,  he  began  the  revolt  at  Acapulco 
which  spread  until  Santa  Anna  fled  from  the  country  in 
Aug.,  1866.  Alvarez  was  made  acting  president  at  Cuer- 
navaca,  Oct.  4, 1855 ;  but  unable  to  reconcile  the  conflict- 
ing cabals,  he  transferred  the  ofiice  to  Comonfort,  Dec.  8, 
1865,  and  returned  to  his  home  at  Acapulco.  He  aided 
Juarez  against  the  French,  and  was  commander  of  the 
6th  army  division  when  he  died. 
Alvarez,  Don.  In  Dryden's  tragedy  "Don  Se- 
bastian," a  former  counselor  to  Don  Sebastian, 
at  the  period  of  the  play  a  slave. 


ifrveTfu^^Lto^uest'o?  '^^L'^ft  S  AlvaryVva'ri)  (Achenbach). Max.,  Atenor 

life  nothing  is  known.    In  1534  he  went  to  Peru  w  ith  Pedro 


de  Alvarado  (who  was  not  related  to  him),  remained  with 
Pizarro,  and  was  sent  to  conquer  Ohachapoyas,  a  region 
on  the  upper  Maranon.    Called  back  by  the  revolt  of  Inca 


singer,  son  of  the  painter  Andreas  Aehenbach, 
born  at  Diisseldorf  in  1858 :  died  1898.  He  first 
appeared  in  Weimar,  removing  to  New  York  in  1884.  After 
several  successful  seasons.he  returned  to  Hamburgin  1889. 


Manco,  he  was  detached  with  400  men  to  relieve  Cuzoo.  Alvear    (al-ve-ar'),   CarlOS   Maria.     Born  in 


Almagro,  meanwhile,  had  seized  that  city,  and  Alvarado's 
refusal  to  acknowledge  him  led  to  a  battle  at  the  river 
Abancay,  .Tuly  12, 1637,  where  Alvarado  was  defeated  and 
captured  with  his  whole  force.  He  escaped  from  Cuzco 
at  the  end  of  the  year,  joined  Pizarro,  and  commanded  his 
cavalry  at  the  battle  of  Las  Salinas,  April  26, 1638,  captur- 
ing Almagro  next  day.  He  then  returned  to  Chachapoyas 
and  carried  his  conquests  eastward  to  the  Huallaga.  He 
Joined  Vaca  de  Castro  in  1641,  took  part  in  the  campaign 
against  the  younger  Almagro,  and  was  at  the  battle  of 
Ctaupas,  Sept.  16, 1642.  Soon  after  he  went  to  Spain,  re- 
ceived tlie  title  of  marshal,  and  returned  with  Uasca  in 
1646.  He  was  a  judge  in  the  military  court  which  con- 
demned Gonzalo  Pizarro  and  Carbajad  to  death.    Gasca 


Buenos  Ayres  about  1785 :  died  in  Montevideo 

about  1850.    He  received  a  military  education  Alypius  (a-lip'i-us) 


of  Lydia  who  reigned  about  617-560  B.  o.,  the 
father  of  Croesus.  He  made  various  conquests  in  Asia 
Minor,  and  carried  on  war  against  Cyaxares  of  Media.  Hi» 
tomb  north  of  Sardis,  near  Lake  Gygsea,  was  one  of  the 
most  notable  monuments  of  antiquity. 

If  the  measurements  of  Herodotus  are  accurate,  and 
modem  travellers  appear  to  think  that  they  do  not  greatly 
overstep  the  truth,  the  tomb  of  Alyattes  cannot  have  fallen 
far  shor^  of  the  grandest  of  the  Egyptian  monuments.  Ita 
deficiency  as  respects  size  must  have  been  m  height,  for 
the  ai-ea  of  the  base,  which  alone  our  author's  statements 
determine,  is  above  one-third  greater  than  that  of  the 
Pyramid  of  Cheops.  As,  however,  the  construction  was- 
of  earth  and  not  of  stone,  a  barrow  and  not  a  pyramid,  it 
would  undoubtedly  have  required  a  less  amount  of  servile 
labour  than  the  great  works  of  Egypt,  and  would  indicate 
a  less  degraded  condition  of  the  people  who  raised  it  than 
that  of  the  Egyptians  in  the  tune  of  the  pyramid-builders. 
Rawlinson,  Herod.,  I.  363. 


in  Spain,  and  in  1812  became  a  member  of  the 
constitutional  assembly  of  the  Platine  states. 
He  joined  the  party  of  Posadas ;  was  sent  to  command  the 
besieging  army  at  Montevideo,  which  capitulated  in  June, 
1814;  was  worsted  in  a  struggle  with  Artigas,  and  in  Jan., 
1815,  succeeded  Posadas  as  supreme  director,  butwas  soon 
deposed  by  a  mutiny  of  the  troops.  He  commanded  the 
Argentine  forces  against  the  Brazilians  in  Uruguay,  1826, 
and  won  the  indecisive  victory  of  ItuzaingA,  Feb.  20, 1827. 
He  was  minister  to  the  United  States  in  1823.  During  the 
dictatorship  of  Hosas  he  was  banished. 


The  (unidentified)  author 


made  him  governor  of  Cuzco,  and  in  1563  he  was  sent  to  Alvensleben  (al'vens-la-ben),  Albrecht,  Count 

von.  Born  at  Halberstadt,  Prussian  Saxony, 
March  23, 1794 :  died  at  BerUn,  May  2, 1858.  A 
Prussian  politician  and  diplomatist.    As  min- 


goveru  Charcas,  where  he  put  down  a  rebellion.  On  the 
rebellion  of  Giron,  Alvarado  marched  against  him  with 
1,000  men  (Nov.,  1563),  but  was  defeated  at  Chuquingua, 
near  the  river  Abancay,  May  21, 1554.  It  is  said  that  the 
murtilication  of  this  defeat  caused  his  death, 

Alvarado,  Diego  de.    Died  in  Spain,  1540.    A 


of  a  Greek  treatise  on  the  elements  of  music. 
"  The  work  consists  wholly,  with  the  exception  of  a  short 
introduction,  of  lists  of  the  symbols  used  (both  for  voice- 
and  instrument)  to  denote  all  the  sounds  in  the  forty-flve 
scales  produced  by  taking  each  of  the  fifteen  modes  in  the 
three  genera  (diatonic,  chromatic,  enharmonic)."  Smithy 
Diet.  Gr.  and  Rom.  Biog.  .  , 

Alz  (alts).  A  tributary  of  the  Inn,  m  Upper 
Bavaria,  the  outlet  of  the  Chiemsee. 

Alzei,  or  Alzey  (alt'si).  A  town  in  the  prov- 
ince of  Rhine  Hesse,  Hesse,  situated  on  the 
Selz  19  miles  southwest  of  Mainz.  It  is  an  old 
Roman  town,  and  is  noted  in  the  Nibelungen  cycle.  It 
was  sacked  by  Spinola  in  1620,  and  by  the  French  1688-89. 
Population  (1890),  6,801. 


Zollverein  (which  see). 


Spanish  soldier,   either  brother  or  uncle  of  Alvensleben,  Gustav  VOn.    Born  in  Eiohen 
Pedro  de  Alvarado,  who  went  with  him  to  Peru    -     -  -  -.,        .        ~  ...._.    

in  1534. 

Alvarado,  Pedro  de.  Bom  in  Badajoz,  1485: 
died  at  Guadalajara,  Mexico,  June  4,  1541.  A 
Spanish  cavalier,  famous  as  a  companion  of 
Coyt^s  in  the  conquest  of  Mexico.  He  went  to 
the  West  Indies  in  1,510,  and  in  1611  joined  the  expedition 


barleben,  Prussian  Saxony,  Sept.  30,  1803 
died  at  Gemrode  in  the  Harz,  June  30,  1881.' 
A  Prussian  general  of  inf antiy,  chief  of  staff 
in  the  military  department  of  the  Rhine  prov- 
inces and  "Westphalia.  He  served  in  the  staff  1866, 
and  commanded  an  army  corps  1870-71,  distinguishing 
himself  at  Sedan  and  elsewhere. 


of  Velasquez  to  Cuba,  where  he  received  a  grant  of  land.  Alvensloben,  GustaV  Hermann  VOn.      Bom 


In  1518  he  commanded  a  vessel  in  the. expedition  of  Gri- 
jalva  to  Yucatan,  and  in  the  following  year  followed 
Cortes  in  the  Mexican  conquest.  He  was  Ipresent  at  the 
seizure  of  Montezuma,  and  when  Cortes  went  to  meet 
Narvaez,  Alvarado  was  left  in  command  of  the  force  at 
Mexico.  During  Cort^s's  absence  the  Mexicans  rose  and 
besieged  the  Spaniards.    In  the  disastrous  nocturnal  re- 


ucBiCfiCU  Lilts  nyautaLua,      xu   1.11c  uioctai/iuuD  iiui;luiiiiii  ic-  f^  j.         A-       —     •.        T»  1.  TT"    T. 

treat  (the  noche  triste,  July  1, 1620),  Alvarado  commanded  Alvensleben,  KonStantin  VOn.    Born  at  Ji^ioh- 


the  rear-guard  and  escaped  with  difiiculty,  saving  his  life, 
according  to  the  tradition,  by  leaping  a  great  gap  in  the 
causeway,  at  a  spot  still  called  "Alvarado's  Leap."  In 
the  subsequent  operations  and  the  siege  of  Mexico  he  took 
a  prominent  part.  In  Dec,  1523,  he  was  sent  with  420 
Spaniards  and  a  large  force  of  Indians  to  conquer  Guate- 
mala ;  after  a  desperate  battle  with  the  Quiche  Indians 
near  Quezaltenango,  he  marched  to  Utitlan,  burned  that 
town  after  conquering  the  inhabitants  (April,  1524),  de- 


ister  of  finance,  1836-42,  he  developed  the  ^jgjj-do  (alt-ser'do).  In  "Orlando  Purioso," 
-y.n        :„  /_i,;.i,  „.^  ^^^  ^^^  ^^  Trcmizcu,  defeated  by  Orlando. 

Alzire  (al-zer').  A  tragedy  by  Voltaire,  pro- 
duced Jan.  27, 1736,  in  which  he  contrasted  the 
virtues  of  the  noble  natural  man  and  those  of 
Christianized  and  civilized  man.  The  heroine, 
Alzire,  is  a  noble  Pem-vian  captive. 

Alzog  (alt'soG),  Johannes.  Bom  at  Ohlau,, 
Silesia,  June  29, 1808:  died  at  Freiburg,  Baden, 
Feb.  28,  1878.  A  German  Roman  Catholie 
church  historian,  professor  at  Posen,  Hildes- 
heim,  and  Freiburg.  He  was  the  author  of  "Lehr- 
buch  der  Universalkirchengeschichte"  (1840,  "Manual  of 
General  Church  History  "),  "Grundriss  derPatrologie,"  etc. 

Alzubra  (al'za-bra).  [Ar.  ]  The  rarely  used 
name  of  a  little  star  of  the  fifth  magnitude,  72. 
Leonis,  in  the  animal's  hind  quarters. 


at  Rathenow,  Brandenburg,  Jan.  17,  1827.  A 
Prussian  lieutenant-general.  He  participated  in 
the  wars  against  Denmark  and  Austria,  and  commanded 
an  Uhlan  regimentin  the  Franco- Prussian  war,  distinguish- 
ing himself  in  the  battles  of  Colombey-Nouilly,  Vionville, 
and  Gravelotte, 


enbarleben,  Prussian  Saxony,  Aug.  26,  1809:  Amadah  (a-ma' 


A  place  in  Nubia  on  the- 


ah  (a- 

died  at  Berlin,  March  27,  1892.     A  I'rassian    bend  of  the  Nile  near  Derr,  noted  for  the  tern- 

general,  brother  of  Gustav  von  Alvensleben,    pie  of  Thothmes  III. 

commander  of  the  3d  army  corps  in  the  war  of  ./tmadeo    (a -ma-da '6),   Giovanni  Antonio. 


1870-71,  at  Vionville,  Mars-la-Tour,  Gravelotte, 
the  investment  of  Metz,  on  the  Loire,  and 
elsewhere, 


feated  another  army  near  Lake  Atitlan,  and  founded  the  Alves   EranCO    (al'veS   brang   ko),    Manoel 


old  city  of  Guatemala,  July  26,  1624.  He  returned  to 
Spain  to  meet  charges  of  defrauding  the  royal  treasury 
and  was  acquitted,  and  returned  to  Guatemala  in  1630 
as  governor,  with  a  large  number  of  colonists.  In  1S34 
he  headed  an  expedition  of  400  men  against  Quito,  claim- 
ing that  that  region  was  not  included  in  the  grant  made 
to  Pizarro,  and  was  thus  open  to  conquest.  Landing 
on  the  coasts  he  led  his  men  over  the  mountains  in  a 
terrible  march,  during  which  large  numbers  perished. 
Near  Riobamba  he  met  the  forces  of  Almagro  and  ijenal- 
cazar,  and  was  induced  to  retire,  receiving,  it  is  said,  a 
large  sum  of  gold  from  Pizarro:  most  of  his  men  re- 
mained. Returning  to  Guatemala,  he  took  part  in  the 
conquest  of  Honduras,  which  was  added  to  his  govern- 
ment. In  1540  he  went  to  Mexico,  was  engaged  in  sub- 
duing a  revolt  in  Jalisco,  and  died  there  from  wounds  re- 
ceived by  a  fall  with  his  horse. 

Alvarenga  (al-va-reng'ga),  Manuel  Ignacio 
da  Silva.  Bom  in  Sao  Joao,  d'el  Rei,  Minas 
Geraes,  1758:  died  at  Rio  de  Janeiro,  Nov.  1, 
1812.  A  Brazilian  jpoet.  His  songs  and  odes 
are  among  the  finest  in  the  Portuguese  language. 

Alvarenga  Peixoto,  Ignacio  Jos6  de.  Born 
in  Rio  de  Janeiro  about  the  end  of  1748 :  died 
in  Angola  early  in  1793.    A  Brazilian  poet  and 


Born  at  Bahia,  June  7, 1797 :  died  at  Nietheroy, 
Rio  de  Janeiro,  July  13, 1855.  A  Brazilian  law- 
yer and  statesman.  He  entered  political  life  as  dep- 
uty in  1830,  and  soon  became  a  leader  of  the  liberal  party. 
He  was  chosen  senator  in  1887,  was  five  times  minister 
(1835, 1837, 1840,  1844,  and  1846),  and  was  premier  May, 
1847,  to  Jan.,  1849.  In  Dec,  1854,  he  was  created  Visconde 
de  Caravellas. 

Alvinczy  (&l'vin-tse),  or  Alvinzi,  Joseph, 
Baron  von  Barberek.  Born  at  Alvincz,  Tran- 
sylvania, Feb.  1,  1735:  died  at  Budapest,  Nov. 
25, 1810.  An  Austrian  field-marshal.  He  served 
in  the  Seven  Years'  War,  attaining  the  rank  of  colonel ; 
unsuccessfully  attempted  to  storm  Belgrad  in  1789;  dis 


Born  near  Pavia  about  1447 :  died  Aug.  27, 1522.. 
The  most  remarkable  of  the  Lombard  sculptors. 
He  was  associated  early  with  the  Mantegazze  in  the  works, 
of  the  faf ade  of  the  Certosa.  With  his  brother  Protasius. 
he  also  made  the  tomb  of  San  Lanfranco  in  the  church  of 
that  saint  near  Pavia.  He  made  the  monument  to  Medea 
Colleone  (or  Coleoni)  at  Basella  near  Bergamo,  and  the 
chapel  and  tomb  of  Colleone  himself  at  Bergamo,  1509. 
In  1490  he  was  appointed  chief  architect  of  the  Certosa  at 
Pavia,  and  made  a  new  design  for  the  fa<;ade  which  was- 
subsequently  carried  out  by  his  successors.  He  constructed 
the  cupola  of  the  cathedral  at  Milan,  and  two  important 
monuments  of  the  chapel  of  the  Borromei  at  Isola  Bella. 

Amadeus  (am-a-de'us),  It.  Amadeo  (a-ma-- 
da'6).  Bom  May  30, 1845 :  died  at  Turin,  Jan. 
18,  1890.  Duke  of  Aosta,  the  second  son  of" 
Victor  Emmanuel  II.,  elected  king  of  Spain 
Nov.,  1870.  He  entered  Madrid  Jan,  2,  1871,. 
and  abdicated  Feb.  11,  1873. 


tinguished  himself  at  Neerwinden  in  1793;  was  defeated  at    A  mart  Ail  s  V      Rnrn  nt  Rmiro-pt    Snvnv    1249 
T}„S.i.„i,„„t„„  i7Qi!-,.nmTnand<.jinn  tboiinnepTihine^be-  ■":?*?''!:?¥?   *r     J5orn  atrsourgei,  oavoy,  i.i*» 


Hondachooten  1793 ;  commanded  on  the  upper  Rhine 
came  commander  in  Italy  in  1796 ;  and  was  defeated  by 
Bonaparte  at  Arcole  1796,  and  at  Rivoli  1797. 

Alvord  (ai'vord),  Benjamin.  Bom  at  Rutland, 
Vt., Aug.  18,1813:  diedOct.16,1884.  AnAmer- 
ican  general  and  military  -writer.  He  served  in 
the  Mexican  war,  attaining  the  rank  of  brevet  major  (Aug. 
16, 1847),  and  in  the  Civil  War.  He  became  brevet  briga- 
dier-general April  9,  1865,  and  brigadier-general  and  pay- 
master-general Aug.  4, 1876. 


revolutionist.  For  takmg  part  in  the  revolutionary  ^j-^aid  (al-wid').  [■'^r-  «2  'awdid,  the  sucking 
?Sr^eScf  rcS^rteTt^Te-p^^t^irM'^.''^'    ?tTet'.fo'ciS?ed  bvSie^Arabsrf  tZloZ- 

^T^TT^^:r l^^d°Lfr'lt^ff  S°c^l^?5°/    mS^destr&'oniM^^^^^^^^ 
ra'ya^DlOgO.    Died  ^'.ear  B^a  Oct  5,  1557.         g  Rastahan  on  some  star-maps. 

A  Portuguese  (generally  known  ^^y  Juslndian  »  (ai'war),  orUlwar  (ul'war).  A  state  of 
name  Caramurd)  who  m  1510  was  «hjPWTecked  ^iwar  (a^  w  ^  j^teTsected by  lat.  27° 30'  N., 
on  the  coast  of  Brazil  near  Bahia.   He  succeeded        jv  >  '  ti.  ^_  n-nAe,v  British  control 

in  saining  the  friendship  of  the  Tupinamhd  Indians,  and  long.  76°  30  J!i.  It  is  unaeramisn  control, 
subsequently  brought  about  friendly  relations  between  Area,  3,051  square  miles.  Population  (1891), 
them  and  the  first  Portuguese  colonists.  767,786. 

Alvarez    (al'va-res),    Francisco.     Bom  at  Alwar.    The  capital  of  the  state  of  Alwar,  in 
Coimbra,  Portugal:  died  after  1540.  .A  Portu-    lat.  27°  34'  N.,  long.  76°  35'  E.     Population 


guese  traveler  in  Abyssinia,  author  of  "Verda- 
deira  Informaeam  do  Presto  Joao  das  Indias' 
(1540,  "  True  Information  about  Prester  John 
of  the  Indies").  „ 

Alvarez  (al'va-reth),  Juan.  BomatConcepcion 
de  Atoyac  (now  Ciudad  Alvarez),  Jan.  27, 1780 : 


died  1323.    A  count  of  Savoy,  surnamed  "  The 
Great,"  who  reigned  from  1285  to   1323,  and 
was  the  ancestor  of  the  house  of  Savoy  (later- 
Italian  djmasty).  He  increased  the  possessions 
of  Savoy  by  marriage  and  conquest,  and  was 
made  prince  of  the  empire  1313. 
Amadeus  VI.    Born  1334 ;  died  1383.   A  count, 
of  Savoy,  surnamed  "  The  Green  Count,"  a 
grandson  of  Amadeus  V.    He  reigned  1343-83, 
and  acquired  various  territories  in  Piedmont 
and  elsewhere. 
Amadeus  VII.    A  count  of  Savoy,  surnamed 
"The  Red,"  a  son  of  Amadeus  VI.  He  reigned 
1383-91,  and  acquired  Nice. 
Amadeus  VIII.    Bom  at  Chambfiry,  Savoy, 
Sept.  4,  1383 :  died  at  Geneva,  Jan.  7,  1451.  A 
count  (later  duke)  of  Savoy,  son  of  Amadeus 
Vn.    He  succeeded  as  count  in  1391,  was  created  duke- 
in  1416,  and  abdicated  in  1434.    He  was  elected  pope  in 
1439,  and  reigned  as  Felix  V.  1440-49. 
Amadeus,  Lake.    A  salt  lake,  about  150  miles 
long,  on  the  boundary  of  South  Australia  and 
western  Australia,  about  lat.  24°  8. 
Mayl,  1797.    An  Austnan"poet7see"retary"of  Amadis  of  Gaul  (am'a-dis  ovgai).    Thelegen- 
the  imperial  court  theater  (1794).    He  published    dary  hero  of  a  famous  medieval  romance  of  ehiv- 
"Gedicme"(l780.1784),  "DoolinvonMainz"(1787),  "Bli-     airy,  the  center  of  a  Cycle  of  romances:  *'■'" 


(1891),  52,398. 
Alxinger  (aik'sing-er),  Johann  Baptist  von. 

Bom  at  Vienna,  Jan.  24,  1755:  died  at  Vienna, 


the-^ 


AmadisofGaul  47  Amathus 

°^S®*.S*JJj®  heroes  of  chivalry.  He  Is  represented  fitana.'}    The  oldest  existing  code  of  maritime    Fletcher's  "  Spanish  Curate,"  the  wife  of  Bar- 

Sfn«?VrtaSsiTf  Brtttanv    Sr^^f^L^S"^.'^^^  1»'^'  <'o^V^^^  ^bout  the  time  of  the  first  Cru-    tolns,  "as  ounWig  as  she  's  sweet." 

Wrt^,?rhlsmo°L":S>l£^-Beffn:oraXf^^^^^^^^  sade  by  tte  anthorities  of  Amalfi,  which  then  Amarante  (a-ma-?an'ta).      A  small  town  in 

by  a  Scottish  knight ;  was  educated  at  the  court  of  the  possessed  considerable  commerce  andmaritime    northern  Portugal,  north  of  Oporto, 

king  ot  Scotland  ;  and  fell  in  love  with  Oriana,  daughter  power.  Amaranth  fam'a-ranthl    T.ailv      A   oiiarantar 

rest  ol  his  life  performed  there  and  elsewhere  a  number     o^ittel,  Germany,  Oct.  24,  1739 :  died  at  Wei-  Amarapura  (am'a-ra-p6'ra).    A  decayed  town 

of  wonderful  exploits.  mar,  April  10, 1807.     Duchess  of  Saxe-Weimar-    of  Burma,  on  the  Irawadi  6  miles  northeast 

It  is  to  Herberay  that  the  famous  romance  of  Amadis  Eisenach,  wife  of  Duke  Ernest,  and  mother  of     of  Ava.    It  contains  the  fonner  royal  palace     It  was 

of  Gaul  owes  most  of  its  fame.    According  to  the  most  Duke  Karl  August,    she  was  regent  1769-75.  and  is     ''"'I*  '»  1^83,  and  was  for  many  years  capital  of  Burma 

probable  story,  the  Amadis  was  ongmally  translated  by  celebrated  as  a  patroness  of  literature  and  art  psnpciaUv   AmarnoiTi'haCoTy.'o  ^o  =i«'v,"\  mv         ii.        jixi. 

the  Spaniard  Montalvo  from  a  lost  Portuguese  original  o'f  as  the  friend  of  Wi^iCd'Herder?aSd  G^elhe  '  ''P*"'^'      AS,™Vn^?r^-  ^f'^f  "^^  ha).  The  authorof  the 

the  fourteenth  century.    There  is  absolutely  no  trace  of  a  A  malie  f  a-ma'le-e1    or  Ama  lia   Marip  TrioA       fT^r  v         ? ?"  J^'^  "^^'^  "^  uncertain,  but  it  is  believed 

French  original,  the  existence  of  which  has  been  assumed  „rjti      S^T   r.       oi    t  ST?   3  •   "iat       on  ^l^?'    .'"'  ^®'"""  ■'°'  *°  ^^  ^^^^^  'J^an  the  nth  century  A.  D. 

by  French  critics.    In  form  the  Amadis  is  a  long  prose  eriKe.    iJorn  Dee.  ^l,  1818 :  died  May  20,  1875.  Amaravati  (a-ma-ra'va-te).  In  Hindu  mvthol- 

roman  d'aventures,  distinguished  only  from  its  French  Princess    of    Oldenburg,  eldest  daughter    of    ogy,  the  cauital  of  Indra's  heaven  in  tho  vicin- 

companions  and  predecessors  by  a  somewhat  higher  strain  Grand  Duke  Augustus,  and  wife  Of  Oth6,  Kinff    itv  of  Mem  '       "  °  "^"^ 

of  romantic  sentiment,  and  by  a  greater  abundance  of  nf  ftmnpa  Cmamoil  ■N^/^Tr   99   lasB's  aIl.  V-       ..        - ,    ..^    -w^. 

giants,  dwarfs,  witches,  and  other  condiments,  which,  .°*  ^?.^^<=?..(™?™®a,^oj- 2?,  1836).  Amargoza  (a-mar-go'zii)  Kiver.     A  small 

even  in  its  most  luxuriant  day,  the  simpler  and  more  aoa-  Auiaue   (a-ma  le-e),    JYlarie   FrieaeriKe  AU-     river  in  eastern  California,  which  flows  into 

demic  French  taste  had  known  how  to  do  without.    It  guste.   Duchess  ID.  Saxony:  pseudonym  Ama-    Death  Vallev 

?ht,''l^3riXvol'^mitrrk^X^.ST54''o?^H''e'J:     too^'^fae^rn^'dfamnVL^'Ltr   nl^K^        ^''o^^^H^'  ¥^^^^:   ^°^  '''  ^^1^™°' 
beray  undertook  t6  give  a  French  version  of  it.    lie,  in     i°'"-      A  trerman  dramatist.  Sister  of  King    May  9,  1810:  died  there,  Sept.  20,  1870.    An 
his  turn,  had  continuators,  but  none  who  equalled  his     ^o^n   ot    baxony:    author  of   "Der   Oheim,''     Italian   publicist.     He  was  appointed  professor  of 
popularity  or  power.  .  .  .  The  book  became  immensely     "Die  Fiirstenbraut,"  "  Vetter  Heinrich,"  etc.     criminal  law  in  the  University  of  Palermo  in  1841.    Author 

f^^J^l^^tJi  'V*'?  S."' '  w^  '^®  "™i^  reading  book  for  AmalingS  (am'a-lingz).    A  royal  Gothic  family     »'  "Critica  di  una  scienza  deUe  legislazioni  comparate  " 
foreign  students  of  French  for  a  considerable  period,  and     „„^/i  t„  t.^X.  „,"i„j  .^'    j.v,„  rcX*i,     j.-n  4.1,     j-    ''     (1857). 

it  was  highly  thought  of  by  the  best  critics  (sSch  as  Pas-     ^aid  to  have  ruled  over  the  Goths  till  the  divi-    iraa,k    Michele       Bom  at  Palermo    Tnlv  7 
quier)  of  its  own  and  the  next  generation.    It  had  more-     Sion  of  the  nation  into  Ostrogoths  and  Visi-     isnc.  ,5:i^"+^A°- ^„„  ?^,^L  1^^^^  *VJ'?.  ^' 

over  a  great  influence  on  what  came  alter  it.    To  no  single     goths,  when  they  ruled  over  the  Ostroeoths  till     t-? '  ■        ^  f  ^°^^^'^^'  ''T^  }^°'  l****"-  ^'^  Italian 
book  can  be  so  clearly  traced  the  heroic  romances  of  the     the  extinction  of  the  malfi  line  in  Thporlmnp  the     Jlistonan,  statesman,andOrientalist,memberof 
early  seventeenth  century.       SairMury.  Fr.  Lit.,  p.  236.     Great  526      Also  IZ?  J-heodoric  the     ^he  Italian  senate.    His  chief  works  are  "  La  guerra 

Amadis    of   Greece.     A   continuation  of  the     """'''' ''^°-     -i^^so  ^mais.  del  VesproSiciliano"  (1841),  "StoriadeiMusulmannidl 

seventh  book  of  "'AmnrtiE  nf  ftonl  »  tV,mif»li  if        ""^  kings  [of  the  Goths]  were  chosen  by  the  voice  ol     Sicilia    (1863-73). 

is  the  ninth   not  the^iVMh  book  of  theTfrts      "l"- \'''*?"f'*  P,'.°Pl'  from  certain  great  fa^milies,  two  of  AmariUas  (a-ma-rel'yas).     See  Ahumada. 
IS  me  nintn,  not  tne  eighth  Book  ot  the  series,     which,  the  Amalings  and  the  Balthings,  are  known  to  us   Amarinna  (a-mii-TiTi'Tia'l      See  Arnhnrix 
ItwasinSpanish  andsaidtobebyFelicianodeSUva.  It     byname.    The  Amalings  were  said  to  be  descended  from    A^o^S?^^  >a  ^s  ^^?  na;.     Hee  ^Wftonc. 
relates  the  exploits  of  the  son  of  Lisuarte  of  Greece  who     a  hero  [the  fourth  in  descent  from  Gaut,  the  eponymous  Amai-bin  (a-mar  sm).      ['  bm  (1.  e.  the  moon- 
was  the  son  of  Esplandian,  the  son  of  Amadis  (of  Gaul).        ancestor  ol  the  Goths]  whose  deeds  had  earned  for  him     god)   sees.']     A  Babylonian  king  of  the  old- 
[Mr.  Southey]  has  mentioned  that  in  Amadis  of  Greece     fhetitleolAm^a,  "the  mighty";  the  name  of  the  Balth-     Babylonian  period,  residing  in   iJr.     His  name 
may  be  found  the  original  of  the  Zelmane  of  Sidney's     ]?SV/ ,?^"''^%.F°^  '",?  ^^"^  ^°°''  5?  """■  English  word     is  found  on  several  archaic  cuneiform  inscriptions  which, 
"  Arcadia,"  the  Florizel  ol  Shakespeare's  "  Winter's  Tale,"     „  l"^"-  ..;  ■  •  J-heAm^ings  became  the  royal  line  ot  the     however,  do  not  give  much  mformation  concerning  his 
and  Masque  ol  Cupid  in  the  "Faery  Queene."  Ostrogoths,  while  the  Visigoths  chose  their  kings  from  the     person  or  reign. 

i)u«J<,j7,  Hist,  ol  Prose  Fiction,  I.  378.     Balth'ngs.  Bratttej/,  Story  of  the  Goths,  p.  13.  ^ma,ru,  Tupac.     See  Tupac  Amaru. 

Amadis  de  Gr^ce.    An  opera  by  Lamotte,  pro-  Amalric  of  B6ne  (a-mal-rSk'ov  ban),  or  Amau-  Amarnshataka  (a-ma-rS-sha'ta-ka).   An  erotic 

ducedinl704.  ry  of  Ohartres  (a-mo-re'ov  shart'r).    Born  at    poem  in  Sanskrit,  mystically  interpreted,  in 

Amadu,  Sultan.    See  Bambara.  ?™S'  ^®^^  Chartres,  France :  died  about  1206.     a  hundred  stanzas,  written  by  a  king  named 

Amager  (a'ma-ger),  or  Amak  (a'mak).     An    ■*■  ^  renoh  theologian  and  mystical  philosopher,    Amaru,  but  by  some  attributed  to  the  phlloso- 

island  of  Denmark,  in  the  sound,  opposite  Co-    recused  by  the  ecclesiastical  authorities  of  pan-    pher  Sankara,  who  assumed  the  dead  form  of 

penhagen.  Area,  29  square  miles.   Population    *heism_.  _  See  Amalricians.  that  king  in  order  to  converse  with  his  widow. 

(1890),  19,700.  Amalricians  (am-al-nsh'ianz).    The  followers  Amar  yBorbon  (a-mar'  e  bor-bon'),  Antonio. 

Amaimon  (a-mi'mon),  or  Amaymon  (a-mi'-    °l  Amalnc  (Amaury)  of  BSne  (in  the  diocese    A  Spanish  general  who,  from  1803  to  1810,  was 

mon),  orAmoymon(a-moi'mon).  In  medieval    of  Chartres),  a  pantheist  who  was  condemned    viceroy  of  New  Granada.    He  was  unprisoned  at 

demonology  one  of  the  four  kines  of  hell  of     "^  '''^^  University  of  Paris  (in  which  he  was  a    Bogota,  July  20,  isio,  and  in  August  was  sent  out  of  the 

whiohhe  governed  the  eastern  portion.    A^mo-    Pi'o/essor  of  logic  and  exegesis),  by  the  Pope,     country  by  the  revolutionary  junta. 

deus  is  his  lieutenant  and  first  prince  ofhisrealm.   Shak-     and  by  a  synod  of  Pans.    Ten  of  them  were  Amaryllis,  AmanlllS  (am-a-ril  is).    [L.  Ama- 

spere  alludes  to  him  in  the  "Merry  Wives  of  Windsor,"    burned  as  heretics.  ryllis,  Gr.  'A/^apvlXi^.^     1.   A  shepherdess  or 

li.  2,  and  "1  Hen.  iv.,"  ii.  4.  Amals.    See  Amalings.  country  maiden  in  the  "Idyls",  of  Theocritus 

Amalarius(am-a-la'ri-us).  Died 837.  Adeacon  Amalthsea  (am-al-the'a),  or  Amalthea.     [Gr.    and  "Eclogues"  of  Vergil.— 2.  In  Spenser's 

and  priest  in  Metz,  who  became  abbot  of  Horn-    'ApidWem.]    In  Greek  mjrthology,  the  nurse  of    "Colin  Clout's  Come  Home  Again,"  a  personage 

bach,  and  was  head  of  the  church  at  Lyons    Zeus,  probably  a  goat.    In  Eoman  legend,  the    described  with  adulation,  intended  for  Alice 

during  the  deposition  of  Agobard,  833-837.    His    Sibyl  who  sold  to  Tarquin  the  Sibylline  books.    Spenser,  Countess  of  Derby,  with  whose  family 

work  "De  ecclesiasticisofflciis- describes  the  order  of  Amambara  (a-mam-ba'ra).     A  tributary  of  the     Spenser  claimed  an  alliance.   It  was  for  her  that 

service  observed  in  the  Roman  Church  m  the  9th  century.     Niger,  south  of  the  Binu^'  ^  Milton  wrote  his  "Arcades."-3.  In  Fletcher's 

Amalasontha  (am"a-la-son  tha),  or  Amala-  Amana  (a-ma'na),  orAbana  (ab'a-nS).  [Heb.,    pastoral  "The  Faithful  Shepherdess,"  a  shep- 

suentha,  or  Amalasimtha,  or  Amalaswin-     'faithful,  steady.']    A  river  which  rises  in  the    herdess  who  is  in  love  with  Perigot,  and  uses. 

tha.    Born  498:  killed  535  (534?).    Daughter  of    Anti-Lebanon  and  flows  through  Damascus  (2    foul  means  to  part  him  from  Amoret.— 4.  In 

Theodorio,  ^ng  of  the  East  Goths,  and  regent    xi.  y.  12) ;  the  modern  Nahr  Barada.   The  name    Buckingham's  ' '  Rehearsal,"  a  female  Character 

of  the  East-Gothio  kingdom  526-535  (534  ?).  jg  also  applied  to  the  district  of  the  Anti-Leb-    intended  to  cast  ridicule  on  Dryden.    The  part 

Ajnalecite  (a-mal   e-sit).    A  tnbe  of  North    anon  (Cant.  iv.  81).  was  taken  by  Ann  Eeeve,  whose  intrigue  with 

American  Indians,  chiefly  of  New  Brunswick.  _Ajnanda    (a-man'da).      In   Gibber's   comedy    Dryden  was  noticed  in  the  play. 

iiee  Abnaki.  "Love's  Last  Shift,"  and  in  its  continuation  Amasa  (am' a-sa).     [Heb.,   'burden.']    A  som 

Amalek  (am  a-lek).    A  graiidson  of  Esau  and    ^j  Vanbrugh  "The  Relapse,"  a  virtuous  and    of  Abigail,  sister  of  David,  and  Jether,  an  Ish- 

prinoe  ot  an  Aiab  tribe ;  also,  the  people  de-    charming  woman,   deserted  by  Loveless,   to    maelite.    He  joined  Absalom  in  his  rebellion,  and  was 

scended  trom  him.    in  biblical  history  the  Amalekites     whom  she  was  married  verv  vounff  but  wliose     ™^"*^  commander  of  his  forces.    After  his  defeat  he  was 

are  represented  as  a  nomadic  tribe.    In  the  time  ol  Abra-     Inve  alio  rotra^no  J  J        St  "°°     pardoned  by  David  and  offered  the  command  ol  the  army 

ham  they  are  mentioned  as  inhabiting  the  district  south-    .  j   ,      °.      ..    ,,- ,...        .   .  .      ,  in  place  ol  Joab.    Later  J oab  treacherously  slew  him. 

west  of  the  Dead  Sea  (Gen.  xiv.  7) ;  in  the  Mosaic  period  AmanClOla  (a-man  do-la).  A  town  m  the  prov-  Amasia  (a-ma'se-a)  A  citv  in  the  vilavet  of 
they  are  spread  out  over  the  entire  desert  of  et-Tih  as  far  ince  of  Ascoli,  Italy,  45  miles  south  of  Ancona.  Sivas  Asiatic  Turkev  in  la t  40°  40'  N  Iohp- 
as  the  Egyptian  boundary  and  the  Sinaitic  peninsula  (Ex.  Amants  maffnifloiips  fa-mon'  man  ve  fek'l  ?ko  Kn'"^  ii^  ^L-^  t  ,  ..^  ,  /'  ^* 
xvii.  8-ie;  Num.  xiii.  30);  later  they  extended  then'  TTf^  a  "IfsnillCtues  (a-mon  man-ye-te^  ),  35°  50' E.,  on  the  Yeshil-Irmak:  the  later  resi- 
settlements  into  the  territory  of  the  tribe  ol  Ephraim  -"CS.  A  sort  Ot  dramatic  potpourri  by  Molifire,  dence  of  the  kings  of  Pontus,  and  the  birthplace 
(Judges  xii.  16).    They  attacked  the  Israelites  when  wan-     written  at  the  order  of  the  king  in  1670.  of  Strabo      Population   about  30  000 

were"doStoelttf^nXn^Bf™U^^^  Amanus  (a-ma'nus).    [Gr.  V«wif.]    In  ancient  Amasis,  Amosis.     SeeAahmes.   '      ' 

r7!?9)^°°S™^^defeSfdXtZfdynStt'nihU^^^^^^  geography,  a  mountain  group,  the  modern  Alma  Amat  (imaf),  Felix.    Born  at  Sabadell,  near- 

(1  Sam.  XXX.),  and  the  last  of  them  were  kiUed  by  600  Dagh,  a  branch  ot  Mount  laurus,  on  the  borders  Barcelona,  Spain,  Aug.  10,  1750:  died  near  Sa- 
Simeonites  on  the  mountain  of  Seir  (1  Chron.  iv.  43).  of  Cihcia  and  Syria.  leut,   Sept.  28,  1824.    A  Spanish  ecclesiastic- 

Amalekites  (am'a-lek-its).    See  Amalek.  Amanvillers  (a-mon-ve-yar').  A -yillage  north-    and  writer,  archbishop  of  Palmyra  to  i7a>-fe'6M« 

Amalfi  (a-mal'fe).  A  seaport  in  the  province  west  of  Metz  of  which  the  name  is  sometimes  infidelium.  He  became  confessor  to  Charles  IV.  in  isoe, 
of  Salerno,  Italy,  on  the  Gulf  of  Salerno  22  given  to  what  is  commonly  called  the  battle  of  and  is  the  author  of  an  ecclesiastical  history,  "Tratado. 
miles  southeast  of  Naples,     it  has  manufactures  of     Gravelotte.  de  la  Iglesia  de  JesuCristo-' (179^1803). 

paper,  macaroni,  etc.,  and  contains  a  cathedral  (see  be-  Amapala  (a-ma'pa-la).  A  seaport  on  the  Amat,  Manuel  de.  Bom  in  Catalonia  about, 
low)  and  a  Capuchin  monastery  (now  a  hotel).  It  was  island  of  Tigre  in  the  Gulf  of  Fonseca  on  the  1705:  died  at  Barcelona  about  1780.  A  Spanish 
lrfl°i,^^l'r%TSn*°coSSn'"u^re?ec°t?v1^^^^^^  P^oifi?  «oast  of  Honduras.  It  exports  Central  iXf  ,A"fiaiSl"t*dfeen?nUrwVi^^^^^^ 
and  became  an  important  commercial  center  in  the  middle     American  products.  eenei-al  oTchHe  17655l'  aSd  vicefo-?oTpem  1761  76     In 

ages.    It  contained  the  oldest  MS..0I  the  Pandects  (which  Amarakantaka    (am'^-a-ra-kan'ta-ka).       [Skt.,     f^"  he  oaSied  out  the  d«cr™fo7the  e^^^^  the 

8ee),andwasthebirthplaceofGioja,mventorolthecoin-     '  peak  of  the  immortals.']  A  place  of  pilgrimage    Jesuits. 

Ksar^aclnifstyief  S  m'lsX 'f'^^erSe  tol'^nd  }^  ^^"^^^  ^^  *^^  table-land  east  of  theVindhyas.  Amateur  Casual,  The,  or  Amateur  Lambeth. 
light  courses,  essentiaUy  of  the  early  13th  century.  There  Amarakosha  (am'''a-ra-ko'sha).  [Skt.,  'the  Casual.  The  pseudonym  of  James  Green- 
is  a  three-aisled  vestibule  of  two  bays;  the  nave  has  immortal  vocabulary,  or  the  vocabulary  of  wood,  an  English  reporter  on  the  "Pall  Mall 
mosaics,  antique  columns,  and  a  richly  carved  and  gilded  Amara.']  A  celebrated  vocabulary  of  the  olas-  Gazette,"  who,  under  this  name,  recounted  his 
broLedoo^fof  The  ihtefpSrtlS!' which  be^^^^^^  sical  Sanskrit,  ascribed  to  Amarasinha.  adventures  in  the  casual  ward  in  a  London 

relief s,  were  cast  at  Constantinople  in  1066.    Population,  Amarant  (am'a-rant).     A  giant  killed  in  the    workhouse. 

about  6,000.  Holy  Land  by  &uy  of  Warwick.  Amathus  (am'a-thus).     [Gr.  "A/m6oc.1    In  an- 

Amalfitan  Code  or  Tables.   [}Sli.tahula Amal-  Axa&ia,nta,  (am-a-ran'ta).    In  Beaumont  and    cient  geography,  a  city  of  Phenician  origin  on. 


Amathus 

the  southern  coast  of  Cyprus,  near  the  site  of 
the  modern  Limasol.  It  contained  a  sanctuary 
of  Aphrodite. 

Amati  (a-ma'te).  A  celehrated  Italian  family 
of  violin-makers  which  flourished  at  Cremona 
in  the  16th  and  17th  centuries,  its  most  noted 
members  were  Andrea,  his  sons  Antonio  and  Geronimo, 
and  Nioolo,  son  of  Geronimo. 

Amatltlan  (a-ma-te-tlan').  A  town  in  Guate- 
mala, Central  America,  south  of  Guatemala. 
Population  (1889),  7,500. 

Amatitlan  Lake.  A  lake,  9  miles  long,  in 
southern  Guatemala,  near  Amatitlan. 

Amatongaland.    See  Tongaland. 

Amatus  Lusitanus  (a-ma'tus  M-si-ta'nus). 
Born  1511 :  died  1568.  A  Portuguese  physician, 
of  Hebrew  descent.  He  is  said  to  have  been  the 
second  author  to  describe  the  valves  in  the  veins.  He 
wrote  an  account  of  seven  hundred  remarkable  cases  in 
medicine  and  surgery  (1651-66). 

Amaury  of  Chartres.    See  Amalric  ofBhie. 

Amaury  (a-mS,'ri  or  a-mo-re')  I.,  or  Amalric 
(am-al'rik).  Bom  1135:  died  1173.  King  of 
Jerusalem  (Count  of  Joppa),  a  younger  son 
of  Baldwin  U.,  and  the  successor  of  his  brother 
Baldwin  III.,  1162.  He  invaded  Egypt  in  1168,  march- 
ing as  far  as  Cairo,  but  was  driven  out  by  Saladin,  by  whom 
he  was  put  upon  the  defensive  in  1170. 

Amaury  II.,  or  Amalric  (of  Lusignan).  Died 
1205.  King  of  Cyprus  1194,  and  titular  king  of 
Jerusalem  1198  (through  his  marriage  with  Isa- 
bella, widow  of  Henry,  count  of  Champagne). 
He  was  unable  to  maintain  himself  against  the  Moslems, 
and  died  at  Ftolemais. 

Amaury,  Giles.  The  grand  master  of  the 
Templars  in  Scott's  tale  ' '  The  Talisman."  He 
conspired  against  King  Bichard  and  was  killed 
by  Saladin. 

Amaxiki,  Amaxichi.    See  Levkas. 

Amaziall(am-a-zi'a).  [Heb.]  Thesonof  Joash, 
king  of  Judah"797-792  B.  c.  (840?  811?  B.  c). 

Amazirghs  (a'ma-zergz).  The  Berbers  of 
northern  Morocco. 

Amazon  (am'a-zon).  [Pg.  Rio  Amuzonas,  Sp. 
Bio  de  las  Aniazonas,  P.  Fleuve  des  Amazones, 
G.  Amazonenstrom ;  formerly  Orellana;  in  its 
upper  course  Maraflon  or  Tunguragua,  in  its 
middle  course  SolimSes.']  The  principal  river 
of  South  America,  and  the  largest  in  the  world. 
It  has  two  chief  head  streams.  One  is  the  Maraflon 
(Tunguragua)  which  rises  in  Peru  about  lat.  10°  30'  S. ; 
the  other  is  the  Ucayale  (which  has  for  its  southern- 
most head  stream  the  Apurimac).  The  Ucayale  rises  in 
Peru  about  lat.  15°  S.  The  Maraiion  (Amazon)  flows 
northwest  between  ranges  of  the  Andes,  turns  east  near 
lat.  5°  S.,  enters  Brazil  about  long.  70°  W.,  and  after  dis- 
charging water  through  several  narrow  channels  into  the 
Lower  Tocantins  or  Pari  River,  thus  cutting  off  the  island 
of  Marajd,  flows  into  the  Atlantic  near  the  equator.  It  is 
connected  on  the  north  with  the  Orinoco  by  the  Cassi- 
quiare  and  Negro.  The  basin  of  the  Amazon  comprises 
about  2,500,000  square  miles.  Its  leading  tributaries  are, 
on  the  north,  the  Napo,  19a,  Japur^,  and  Negro ;  on  the 
south  the  Huallaga,  Javary,  Jutahy,  Jurud,  Puriis,  Ma- 
deira, Tapajbs,  and  Xingii.  Its  length,  to  the  source  of 
the  Apurimac,  is  probably  about  3,300  mil*^,  though  often 
given  as  4,000.  It  is  navigable  about  2,300,  for  steamships 
about  2,200  miles.  The  width  of  the  main  mouth  is  50 
miles;  and  at  the  Peruvian  frontier  the  river  is  1  mile 
wide.  The  mouth  was  discovered  by  Pinzon  in  1500,  and 
OreUana  descended  it  in  1541.  Steamers  first  plied  on  it 
in  186.8.  In  1867  it  was  made  a  free  highway  to  all  na- 
tions. 

Ajuazonas  (a-ma-z6'nas).  The  largest  state  of 
Bi-azil,  capital  Manaos,  occupying  the  north- 
western part  of  the  country  and  bordering  on  Ve- 
nezuela, Colombia,  Ecuador,  Peru,  and  Bolivia. 
It  is  largely  occupied  by  forests.  Area(claimed), 
753,439squaremUes.  PopiUation(1890),207,610. 

Amazonas.  A  department  of  northern  Peru, 
west  of  Loreto.  Area,  14,129  square  miles. 
Population,  about  34,000. 

Amazonas.  A  territory  in  southern  Venezuela, 
bordering  on  Brazil.  Area  (claimed,  including 
avast  area  of  disputed  territory),  90,928  square 
miles.  Population,  with  Alto  Orinoco  (1891), 
45,197  (a  mere  estimate,  as  there  are  hardly  any 
civilized  inhabitants). 

Amazonia  (am-a-z6'ni-a).  A  name  sometimes 
given  to  the  valley  of  the  Amazon. 

Amazons  (am'a-zonz).  [L.  Amazon,  Gr.  'Afia- 
i^urv,  a  foreign  name  of  unknown  meaning;  ac- 
cording to  (Sreek  writers,  from  d-  priv.,  without, 
and|Uaf<if,  abreast:  apopular etymology,  accom- 
panied by,  and  doubtless  originating,  the  state- 
ment that  the  right  breast  was  removed  in  order 
that  it  might  not  interfere  with  the  use  of  the 
bow  and  javelin.]  1 .  In  Greek  legend,  a  race  of 
women  supposed  to  have  dwelt  on  the  coast  of 
the  Black  Sea  and  in  the  Caucasus  Mountains. 
The  Amazons  and  their  contests  were  a  favorite  theme  in 
Grecian  art  and  story.  They  were  represented  as  forming 
a  state  from  which  men  were  excluded,  as  devoting  them- 
selves to  war  and  hunting,  and  as  being  often  in  conflict 
with  the  Greeks  in  the  heroic  age. 


48 

But  it  is  in  the  famous  legend  of  the  Amazons  that  we 
must  look  for  the  chief  evidence  preserved  to  us  by  classi- 
cal antiquity  of  the  influence  exercised  by  the  Hittites  in 
Asia  Minor.  The  Amazons  were  imagined  to  be  a  nation 
of  female  warriors,  whose  primitive  home  lay  in  Kappa- 
dokia,  on  the  banks  of  the  Thermodon,  not  far  from  the 
ruins  of  Eoghaz  Keui.  From  hence  they  had  issued  forth 
to  conquer  the  people  of  Asia  Minor  and  to  found  an  em- 
pire which  reached  to  the  iBgean  Sea.  The  building  of 
many  of  the  most  famous  cities  on  the  .^gean  coast 
was  ascribed  to  them,— Myrina  and  Kyme,  Smyrna  and 
Ephesos,  where  the  worship  of  the  great  Asiatic  goddess 
was  carried  on  with  barbaric  ceremonies  into  the  later  age 
of  civilised  Greece.  Now  these  Amazons  are  nothing 
more  than  the  priestesses  of  the  Asiatic  goddess,  whose 
cult  spread  from  Carchemish  along  with  the  advance  of 
the  Hittite  armies.  She  was  served  by  a  multitude  of 
armed  priestesses  and  eunuch  priests ;  under  her  name 
of  Ma,  for  instance,  no  less  than  six  thousand  of  them 
waited  on  her  at  Komana  in  Kappadokia.  Certain  cities, 
in  fact,  like  Komana  and  Ephesos,  were  dedicated  to  her 
service,  and  a  large  part  of  the  population  accordingly 
became  the  armed  ministers  of  the  mighty  goddess.  Gen- 
erally these  were  women,  as  at  Ephesos  in  early  days, 
where  they  obeyed  a  high-priestess,  who  called  herself 
the  queen-bee.  When  Ephesos  passed  into  Greek  hands, 
the  goddess  worshipped  there  was  identified  with  the 
Greek  Artemis,  and  a  high-priest  took  the  place  of  the 
high-priestess.  Sayce,  Hittites,  p.  78. 

2.  A  fabled  tribe  of  female  warriors  said  to 
have  existed  in  South  America.  The  report  origi- 
nated in  an  Indian  myth  which  was  found  from  the  West 
Indies  to  Paraguay,  and  still  exists  among  the  Caribs  and 
others :  it  is  interesting  from  its  relation  to  the  Old  World 
myth. 

Amazons,  The.  An  earlier  English  form  of  the 
Portuguese  name  of  the  Amazon  River,  still  in 
occasional  use. 

Amazons,  Battle  of.    See  Battle  of  Amazons. 

Ambala  (am-ba'la),  or  Umballa  (um-bal'a). 
A  division  of  the  Panjab,  British  India.  Area, 
4,014  square  miles.  Population  (1881),  1,729,- 
043. 

Ambala.  A  district  in  the  division  of  Ambala, 
intersected  by  lat.  30°  30'  N.,  long.  77°  E. 
Area,  2,754  square  miles.  Population  (1891), 
1,033,427.     ■ 

Ambala.  The  capital  of  the  division  and  dis- 
trict of  Ambala,  situated  in  lat.  30°  24'  N., 
long.  76°  49'  E.,  an  important  station  on  the 
Sind,  Panjab,  and  Delhi  Railway.  Population, 
including  cantonment  (1891),  79,294. 

Ambalema  (am-ba-la'ma).  A  town  in  the 
state  of  Tolima,  Colombia,  situated  on  the 
Magdalena  55  miles  west  of  Bogota.  It  is 
the  center  of  an  extensive  tobacco  district. 
Population  (1886),  est.,  9,731. 

Ambassadors,  The.  A  painting  by  Holbein 
the  younger,  in  the  National  Gallery,  London. 
It  is  believed  to  represent  Dinteville,  French  ambassador 
at  St.  James's  in  1633,  and  Nicolas  Bourbon,  a  poet.  It 
was  formerly  thought  to  portray  Sir  Thomas  Wyatt  with 
Leland, 

Ambassi,  or  Ambasse.    See  S^  Salvador. 

Ambato  (am-ba'to).  A  tovm  of  Ecuador,  65 
miles  south  of  Quito.  Population  (1889),  about 
14,000. 

Ambelakia  (am-be-la'ke-a).  A  small  town  in 
the  vale  of  Tempo,  Thessaly,  18  miles  north- 
east of  Larissa. 

Amber  (am'ber).  A  decayed  town  near  Jey- 
pore,  India,  the  former  capital  of  the  state  of 
Jeypore. 

Amberg  (am'bere).  A  town  in  the  Upper  Pa- 
latinate, Bavaria,  situated  on  the  Vils  32  miles 
northwest  of  Ratisbon:  the  former  capital  of 
the  Upper  Palatinate.  It  has  manufactures  of  kon, 
arms,  beer,  etc.  A  victory  was  gained  here  by  the  Aus- 
trians  under  the  archduke  Charles  over  the  French  under 
Jourdan,  Aug.  24, 1796.    Population  (1890),  18,983. 

Amber  Islands,  or  Electrides  (e-lek'tri-dez). 
[Gr.  al  'H^KTpi'dcf .]  A  name  given  by  the  Greeks 
in  later  times  to  the  islands  in  the  North  Sea 
off  Denmark,  Germany,  and  Holland.  Elton, 
Origins  of  Eng.  Hist.,  p.  41. 

Ajnber  Witch,  The.  An  opera  by  W.  V.  Wal- 
lace, words  by  Chorley,  first  produced  in  Lon- 
don Feb.  28, 1861.  It  was  founded  on  a  popular  Ger- 
man romance  of  the  same  name  by  Meinhold,  published 
in  1843. 

Ambert  (on-bar').  A  town  in  the  department 
of  Puy-de-D6me,  France,  situated  near  the 
Dore  37  miles  southeast  of  Clermont-Ferrand. 
It  has  manufactures  of  cheese  and  paper. 
Population  (1891),  commune,  7,907. 

Ambioriz  (am-bi'o-riks).  A  chief  of  the  Bbu- 
rones  in  Gaul,  famous  in  the  campaigns  against 
the  Romans  54-53  B.  c. 

Ambitious  Statesman,  The,  or  The  Loyal 
Fa'VOrite.  A  tragedy  by  Crowne,  acted  in  1679. 

Ambitious  Stepmother,  The.  A  tragedy  by 
Nicholas  Rowe,  printed  in  1700. 

Ambleside  (am'bl-sJd).  A  town  in  the  Lake 
District,  Westmoreland,  England,  1  mile  north 
of  Lake  Windermere,  noted  for  its  picturesque 


Ambrones 

scenery.  Near  it  are  Rydal  Mount,  Fox  How,  Qrasmere, 
etc.  It  contains  Koman  antiquities.  Population  (1891), 
2,360. 

Ambleteuse  (on-bl-t6z').  A  decayed  seaport 
in  the  department  of  Pas-de-Calais,  France, 
7  miles  north  of  Boulogne. 

Amboella  (am-bwa'la).  A  Bantu  people  living 
in  the  interior  of  Af nca,  near  the  head  streams 
of  the  Zambesi,  about  lat.  15°  S.,  long.  19°  E. 

Amboim  (am-bwing').     See  Mbuiyi. 

Ambois  (on-bwa'),  Bussy  d'.  The  principal 
character  in  Chapman's  play  of  that  name :  a 
self-confident  and  arrogant  adventurer,  with 
some  real  loftiness  of  character. 

Ambois,  Clermont  d'.  The  brother  of  Bussy 
d' Ambois,  a  scholar  and  philosopher.  He  is  the 
central  flgnre  in  Chapman's  play  "The  Kevenge  of  Bussy 
d'Ambois."  He  commits  suicide  aftor  the  death  of  his 
patron  Guise. 

Amboise  (on-bwaz').  A  town  In  the  depart- 
ment of  Indre-et-Loire,  France,  situated  on 
the  Loire  14  miles  east  of  Tours,  it  is  famous 
for  its  castle,  a  favorite  residence  of  the  Valois  kings,  oc- 
cupying a  high  rock- platform  from  which  rise  its  3  cylin- 
drical, cone-roofed  towers.  Two  towers  built  at  the  base 
of  the  rock,  42  feet  in  diameter  and  over  100  feet  high,  con- 
tain spiral  passagesby  which  horses  and  vehicles  can  mount 
to  the  platform  above.  In  the  gardens  is  the  Chapel  of  St. 
Hubert,  one  of  the  richest  existing  examples  of  the  florid 
Pointed.  Here  Leonardo  da  Vinci  is  buried.  It  was  the 
scene  of  the  Conspiracy  of  Amboise  in  1560.  Later  it  be- 
came a  political  prison.  Abd-el-Kader  was  confined  in  it 
1847-62.  It  is  now  the  property,  of  the  Comte  de  Paris. 
Population  (1891),  commune,  4,480. 

Amboise,  Conspiracy  of.  An  unsuccessful 
conspiracy  of  Huguenots  under  La  Renaudie 
to  seize  the  king  (Francis  II.),  iirst  at  Blois 
and  afterward  at  Amboise  in  1560,  and  remove 
him  from  the  influence  of  the  Guises.  Cond6 
was  the  real  chief  of  the  conspirators. 

Amboise,  Edict  of.  An  edict  of  pacification 
between  the  French  Catholics  and  Huguenots, 
authorizing  (1563)  the  Reformed  worship  in  the 
houses  of  the  nobility,  throughout  all  the  do- 
mains of  the  justiciary  nobles,  and  in  one  city 
of  each  bailiwick.  It  ended  the  first  war  be- 
tween the  two  parties. 

Amboise,  Georges  d'.  Bom  at  Chaumont-sur- 
Iloire,  France,  1460:  died  at  Lyons,  1510.  A 
French  statesman  and  cardinal,  minister  of 
Louis  Xn.  1498,  and  director  of  his  foreign 
policy. 

Amboise,  League  of.  See  Amboise,  Conspir- 
acy of. 

Amboyna  (am-boi'na).  [Malay  ^jm6m».]  One 
of  the  chief  islands  of  the  Moluccas,  situated  in 
lat.  3°  41'  S.,  long.  128°  10'  E.,  consisting  of 
two  parts  connected  by  a  narrow  isthmus.  Its 
chief  product  is  cloves.  It  was  settled  by  the  Portuguese 
in  the  16th  century,  and  was  taken  by  the  Dutch,  to  whom 
it  now  belongs,  in  1606.  Length,  32  miles.  Area,  264  square 
miles.    Population,  31,610. 

Amboyna.  A  residency  of  the  Dutch  East  In- 
dies, comprising  Amboyna,  Ceram,  Banda  Isl- 
ands, Timor-Laut,  etc. 

Amboyna.  A  seaport,  capital  of  the  island 
and  residency  of  Amboyna.  Population,  about 
9,000. 

Amboyna^  or  The  Cruelties  of  the  Dutch  to 
the  English  Merchants.  A  tragedy  by  Dryden, 
produced  in  1673.  Part  of  the  plot  was  taken  from 
one  of  the  Italian  novels  of  Cinthio,  the  10th  of  the  fifth 
decade,  and  part  has  reference  to  occurrences  of  the  time. 

Ambracia  (am-bra'shi-a).  [(Jr.  'A/ippaiUa,  ear- 
lier 'A/itrpaida.}  The  ancient  name  of  Arta 
(which  see). 

Ambracian  Gulf  (am-bra'shi-an  gulf).  See 
Arta,  Gulf  of. 

Ambree  (am'bre),  Mary.  A  woman  who  is 
said  to  have  fought  at  the  siege  of  Ghent  in 
1584  to  revenge  her  lover's  death.  She  is  fre- 
quently mentioned  in  old  ballads,  and  is  the  subject  of 
one  preserved  by  Percy.  Ben  Jonson  refers  to  her  in  the 
"  Epicoene"  and  "Tale  of  a  Tub  "  and  in  "The  Fortunate 
Isles,"  where  he  quotes  the  words  of  this  ballad.  Fletcher 
also  mentions  her  in  "The  Scornful  Lady."  Theballadhi 
Percy's  "Reliques"  is  often  quoted  by  the  writers  of  Jon- 
son's  time,  and,  like  him,  they  frequently  gave  the  name 
of  Mary  Ambree  to  any  remarkable  virago  who  adopted 
man's  attire. 

Ambriz  (am-brez').  A  coast  town  of  Portu- 
guese Angola,  West  Africa,  and  capital  of  the 
*'concelho"  (county)  of  the  same  name,  its 
chief  export  is  coffee,  which  is  brought  down  from  the 
Mutemu  and  Encoge  mountains.  It  was  occupied  by  the 
Portuguese  in  1866.  Population,  about  2,600,  of  mixed 
African  origin,  mostly  from  Loanda. 

Ambrones  (am-bro'nez).  [L.  Ambrones  (Livy), 
Gr.  "Afi^poyve^  (Strabo).]  A  German  tribe  men- 
tioned by  Livy  and  Strabo  in  connection  with 
the  Teutones,  whose  near  neighbors  they  seem 
to  have  been  on  the  North  Sea,  and  with  whom 
they  were  allied  in  the  <3imbrian  wars.  They 
suffered  a  crushing  defeat  by  Marins  at  Aquse  SextiBB,  102 
B.  0.    There  is  no  certain  record  of  their  subsequent  f  atet 


AmbroB 

Ambros  (am'brds),  August  Wilhelm.  Bom 
at  Mauth,  Bohemia,  Nov.  17,  1816:  died  at 
Vienna,  June  28, 1876.  An  Austrian  composer 
and  writer  on  music.  His  chief  literary  work 
is  a  "Gesehichte  der  Musik"  (1862-78),  a  very- 
high  authority  in  its  department. 

Ambrose  (am'broz)^  L.  Ambrosius  (am-bro'zi- 
ns),  of  Alexandria.  Died  about  250.  A  Bo- 
man  nobleman,  a  friend  of  Origen. 

Ambrose,  L.  Ambrosius,  Saint.  Bom  at 
Treves,  Gaul,  probably  340:  died  at  Milan, 
April,  397.  One  of  the  fathers  of  the  Latin 
Church.  He  was  educated  at  Eome,  appointed  consular 
prefect  In  Upper  Italy  about  869,  and  elected  (while  a  ci- 
vilian and  unbaptized)  bishop  of  Milan  in  371.  He  was 
the  champion  of  the  Catholics  against  the  Arians  and 
pagans.  For  his  cruelty  in  the  massacre  of  Thessalonica 
the  emperor  Theodosius  was  excommunicated  by  Am- 
brose and  forced  to  do  penance.  Among  his  works  are 
*'De  ofliciis  ministrorum,"  "Hexaemeron,"  hymns,  etc. 
He  is  the  reputed  author  of  the  Ambrosian  ritual. 

He  was  elected,  while  still  an  unbaptized  catechumen 
and  governor  of  the  province,  to  the  post  of  Bishop  of 
Milan,  baving  entered  the  church  with  his  troops  to  quell 
the  fury  of  the  partisans  of  the  two  rival  candidates. 
While  he  soothed  the  people  with  his  wise  words,  a  little 
child,  so  the  story  runs,  suddenly  called  out  "  Ambrose  is 
Bishop  " ;  the  words  were  caught  up  and  carried  round  the 
church  by  the  rapturous  acclamation  of  the  whole  multi- 
tude. Hodgkin,  Italy  and  her  Invaders,  I.  187. 

Ambrose,  Isaac.  Bom  at  Ormskirk,  Lanca- 
shire, England,  1604:  died  1664.  An  English 
nonconformist  divine  and  devotional  writer, 
author  of  "Lookingunto  Jesus"  (1658). 

Ambrose  and  tbe£mperor  Tbeodosius.  A 
painting  by  Bubens,  in  the  Imperial  Gallery  at 
Vienna.  The  archbishop,  in  full  canonicals,  stands  with 
his  attendants  before  the  door  of  the  cathedral,  and  for- 
bids the  emperor  to  enter. 

Ambrose's  Tavern.  An  old  tavern  in  Edin- 
burgh, now  destroyed,  the  scene  of  Wilson's 
"Nootes  AmbroslansB." 

Its  location  was  the  site  of  the  new  Register  House,  In 
the  rear  of  the  old  ^Register  House ;  and  it  is  approached 
from  West  Register  Street  by  the  narrow  alley  running 
now  between  the  new  Re^ster  House  and  the  new  Caf6 
Boyal.    Button,  Literary  Landmarks  of  Edinburgh,  p.  55. 

Ambrosian    Library  (am-bro'zlan  li'bra-ri). 

[Named  for  St.  Ambrose.]     A  library  at  Mi- 

,  Ian,  founded  by  Cardinal  Borromeo  in  1609. 

It  contains  164,000  printed  volumes  and  8,100 

MSS. 

Ambrosiaster  (am-br6'zi-as-t6r),  or  Pseudo- 
Ambrosius  (su"'d6-am-br6'zius).  ['The  spu- 
rious Ambrosius.']  The  name  usually  given  to 
the  unknown  author  of  "  Commentaria  in  Xin. 
Epistolas  B.  Pauli,"  which  has  found  its  way 
into  the  Benedictine  edition  of  the  works  of 
Ambrose.  The  author  is  sometimes  identified 
with  the  Boman  deacon  Hilary. 

Ambrosio,  or  the  Monk.  A  romance  by  Mat- 
thew Gregory  Lewis,  published  in  1795.  A  sec- 
ond edition  was  issued  in  which  many  objectionable  pas- 
sages were  omitted.  He  gained  the  sobriquet  of  "  The 
Monk  "  and  "  Monk  Lewis  "  from  this  book. 

Ambrosius.    See  Ambrose. 

Ambrosius  (am-bro'gius),  or  Ambrose,Pather. 
The  last  abbot  of  St.  Mary's,  Edward  Glen- 
dinning,  in  Scott's  novel  "  The  Abbot." 

Ambrosius  AureUanus  (am-bro'zius  a-re- 
li-a'nua),  Welsh  Emrys.  Lived  about  440. 
A  leader  of  the  Eomans  and  Bomanized  Brit- 
ons, said  to  have  been  a  descendant  of  Con- 
stantino, elected  emperor  in  Britain,  Gaul, 
and  Spain  under  Honorius.  He  drove  back  the 
Saxon  invaders  and  confined  Henglst  for  some  years  to 
the  Isle  of  Thanet 

Ambundu  (am-bSn'do).    See  Kimbundu. 

Ameland  (a'me-lant).  An  island  in  the  North 
Sea,  north  of  the  province  of  Friesland,  Neth- 
erlands, to  which  it  belongs.    Length,  13  miles. 

Amelia  (a-ma'le-a).  A  town  in  the  province 
of  Perugia,  Italy,  45  miles  north  of  Bome :  the 
ancient  Ameria.    It  has  a  cathedral. 

Amelia  (a-me'lia).  Born  Aug.  7,  1783:  died 
Nov.  2, 1810.  An  English  princess,  the  fifteenth 
and  youngest  child  of  Geo^e  III. 

Amelia.  The  heroine  of  Fielding's  novel  of 
that  name  (published  1751),  a  virtuous  and  de- 
voted wife,  said  to  be  the  portrait  of  Fielding's 
own  wife,  she  is  represented  as  having  suffered  an  in- 
Jury  to  her  nose  (like  Mrs.  Fielding),  which  impaired  her 
popularity  among  Fielding's  readers.  Thackeray  consid- 
ered her  "  the  most  charming  character  in  English  fiction. " 

Amelia.    See  Sedley,  Amelia. 

Amelia  Island  (a-me'lia  i'land).  A  small 
island  off  the  northeastern' coast  of  Florida. 

Am61ie-les-Bains  (a-ma-le 'la-ban').  [For- 
merly Arles-les-Bains:  the  name  was  changed  in 
1840  in  honorof  the  wife  of  Louis  Philippe.]  A 
health-resort  in  the  department  of  I^r^n^es- 
Orientales,  France,  20  miles  southwest  of  Per- 
pignan.    It  has  sulphur  springs. 


49 

Amelot  de  la  Houssaye  (am-ia  d6  la,  s-sa'), 
Abraham  Nicolas.  Bom  at  Orleans,  France, 
Feb.,  1634:  died  at  Paris,  Dec.  8,  1706.  A 
French  publicist,  author  of  "Histoire  du  gou- 
vemement  de  Venise"  (1676),  etc. 

Amelotte  (am-lof),  Denis.  Bom  at  Saintes, 
France,  March  15,  1606:  died  at  Paris,  Oct.  7, 
1678.  A  French  theologian,  author  of  a  trans- 
lation of  the  New  Testament  (1666-68). 

Amen.    See  Amun. 

Amends  for  Ladies.  A  play  by  Nathaniel 
Field,  published  in  1618. 

Amenemhat  (a-men-em'ha.t)  I.,  Se-hotep-ab- 

Ra.  An  Egyptian  king,  the  founder  of  the  12th 
dyn  asty,  who  reignedabout  2466b.  c.(Brugsch). 
He  was  a  successfuf  ruler  and  general,  and  founded  the 
temple  of  Amun  in  Thebes.  There  is  considerable  docu- 
mentary evidence  concerning  his  reign.  Also  Anwnemha. 

Amenemhat  II.,  Nub-kau-Ba.  An  Egyptian 
king,  the  third  of  the  12th  dynasty,  who  reigned 
about  2400  B.C.,  and  of  whom  little  is  known. 
Also  Amenemha. 


Ames 

North  America  and  South  America,  it  was  visited 
by  the  Northmen  about  JOOO  (7)  and  was  discovered  by 
Columbus  in  1492.  The  mainland  was  probably  reached 
by  Cabot  in  U97.  (See  Columbm,  Caiot.)  The  name  .4m«-- 
ica  was  proposed  by  Waldseemiiller  (a  teacher  of  geog- 
raphy in  the  college  of  Saint-Di6  among  the  Vosges)  in  a 
treatise  called  "Cosmographia, "  published  in  1507.  Length 
about  10,500  miles ;  greatest  breadth,  over  3,000  miles 
Area  (estimated),  about  15,700,000  square  miles.  Ponula- 
tion  (estimated  1891),  121,713,000. 

America.  A  wooden  keel  schooner-yacht  de- 
signed and  built  by  George  Steers  of  New  York, 
for  Commodore  J.  C.  Stevens  of  the  New  York 
Yacht  Club,  in  1851.  Her  original  dimensions  were : 
length  over  all,  100  feet  6  inches ;  length  on  water-line, 
90  feet  i  inches ;  beam,  22  feet  6  inches ;  draught,  11  feet 
6  inches.  In  1851,  at  the  time  of  the  World's  Fair  in 
London,  Commodore  Stevens,  having  crossed  the  Atlantic 
in  the  America,  entered  her  in  the  race  of  Aug.  22  open 
to  yachts  of  all  nations  for  a  £106  cup.  The  course  was 
around  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  the  America  beat  the  whole 
fleet  of  18  yachts  by  about  7  miles.  Aug.  28  she  sailed  a 
race  with  the  English  schooner  Titania  over  a  40-mile 
course,  beating  her  out  of  sight.  The  cup  (£106)  which 
she  won  in  1861  was  given  (1857)  tathe  New  York  Yacht 
Club  and  made  a  prize  open  to  challenge  by  yachts  of 
all  nations.    There  have  been  (1902)  eleven  unsuccessful 


Amenemhat  III.,  Maa-en-Ea.    An  Egyptian  

king,  the  sixth  of  the  12th  dynasty,  who  reigned     attempts  to  recover  It. 

about  2300  B.  c.  (Brugsch).    He  constructed  Lake  America,  British.    See  British  America. 

Moeris  and  the  Labyrinth.    (See  Moeria,  LalyrintA.)    In-  America,  Central.     See  Central  America. 

scriptions  of  his  time  have  been  found  on  the  rocks  in  America,  North.     See  North  America. 

the  peninsula  of  Sinai.    There  is  also  a  mark  (with  an  in-   America   !Rn<!Sia.n      An  old  namfi  fnr  AluaVo 

scription)  on  the  rocks  of  Semneh  showing  the  height  of   A^lS^o '  «ir,;S,       a„ri.^  7i.   ?        ■      -^^^'^^• 

the  inundation  of  the  Nile  in  the  14th  yeir  of  his  reign.  America,  South.     See  South  America. 

(See  Nile.)   Also  Amemmha.  America,  Spanish.     See  Spanish  America. 

Amenemhat  IV.,  Maat-kheru-Ba.  AnEgyp-  American  Colonization  Society,  The.  A  so- 
tiau  king,  the  seventh  of  the  12th  dynasty,  eiety  organized  at  Washington,  JDistriot  of  Co- 
who  reigned  about  2266  B.  c.  (Brugsch).  Also  lumbia,  Jan.  1, 1817,  for  the  purpose  of  coloniz- 
Amenemha.  ing  free  American  negroes,   it  purchased  in  i82i  a 

Amenhotep  (a-men-ho'tep)  I.,  or  AmenonhiS  *?»<=*  "'lan*  near  CapeMesurado,  Africa,  where  it  founded 
(am-e-uo'fis),  Ser-ka-Ra.  Ai  Egyptian  fing  j^wle  ^47^'"^""'  "^^'"^  "^"^^  *°  independent  re- 
*v^  l^?2?«  °^  ^^l  18th  dynasty,  who  reigneJ  ^erican  Cousin,  Our.  A  drama  by  Tom 
about  1666  B.  c.  (Bnzgsch).  He  was  successful  Taylor,  produced  in  1858.  in  this  playE.  A.  Sothem 
m  campaigns  in  Jithiopia  (Kush)  and  Libya,  made  a  name  by  his  clever  development  of  the  originally 
Also  Amenhe^.  small  part  of  Lord  Dundreaiy. 

Amenhotep  II.,  or  Amenophis,  Aa-kheperu-  American  Party,  or  Know-nothing  Party. 

Ra.    An  Egyptian  king,  the  seventh  of  the    ^  United  States  polities,  a  party  which  advo- 
18th  dynasty,  who  reigned  about  1566  B.  c.    cated^he  control  of  the  govemment  by  native 
(Brugsch).    He  made  a  successful  campaign  in  Asia, 
which  is  commemorated  in  an  inscription  in  a  temple  at 
Amadah  in  Nubia.  There  are  also  inscriptions  bearing  his 
name  in  the  temple  of  Amun  at  Eamak.    Also  AmemJtetp. 

Amenhotep  III.,  or  Amenophis,  Maat-neb 


citizens.  As  it  was  at  the  outset  a  secret  fraternity  and 
its  members  refused  to  give  information  concerning  it, 
they  received  the  name  of  "Know-nothings."  In  1855  it 
discarded  its  secret  machinery.  The  party  nominated 
Fillmore  for  President  in  1856,  and  was  poweriul  for  sev- 
Ti  "a^^t:, L.        i~^i If' '."t; ,.~7i~      eralyears.    (^^z  waAev  Antimasonic  Party.) 

^-    t.I^^\.^%  l^n.^nn°l'^r  AmericanPhilosophicalSociety.  Ascientific 

society  founded  at  Philadelphia  by  Franklin  m 


18th  dynasty,  who  reigned  about  1500  b 
(Brugsch).    He  was  a  successful  warrior  and  a  great 
builder.    The  two  colossal  statues  of  Memnon  near  Thebes 
are  portrait-statues  of  him.    See  Memrum. 

Amenophis  III.  was  as  great  in  peace  as  in  war.  In 
his  reign  Egypt  lost  none  of  her  military  x)restige,  and 
from  some  large  scarabsei  —  one  of  which  is  in  the  Gizeh 
Palace  — we  learn  that  under  his  rule  Egypt  stretched 
from  Mesopotamia  to  the  country  of  Karo  in  Abyssinia. 
At  the  same  time  that  he  consolidated  the  empire  left  him 
byprecedingmonarchSjAmenophis  raised  along  the  banks 
of  the  Nile  monuments  which  for  their  grandeur  and  the 


periection  of  their  workmanship  are  unsurpassed.    The 

temple  at  Gebel-Barkal,  in  the  S&dan,  was  erected  by  this    ... 

king ;  so  also  was  that  at  Soleb,  near  the  third  cataract —  AmerlgO  VespUCCl. 

and  souvenirs  of  him  may  be  found  at  Asstlan,  Elephan-    A  Tna'refnn-p+    fA  '  me-ra   -FnlH■^ 

«„i  fioh«i.siuii»h  iri.ir/h  Tflr»>,  H,os»™„»„;„afiir.™_  Amersioort  ( a  mers-iort;, 


tin^,  Gebel-Silsileh,  El-Kab,  TOrah,  the  Serapeum  at  Mem- 
phis, and  SerbAt-el-Hadim.  He  added  considerably  to 
£arnak,  and  built  that  portion  of  the  temple  at  Luxor 
that  bears  his  name.  He  also  erected  on  the  left  bank  of 
the  Nile— opposite  to  Luxor — a  sacred  edifice  which  once 
must  have  been  one  of  the  most  important  in  Egypt.    Be- 


1744,  reorganized  in  1768,  and  united  with  the 
Jesuits  or  Society  for  the  Promotion  of  Useful 
Knowledge  in  1769,  the  date  of  its  definite  es- 
tablishment. Franklin  was  its  first  president. 
American  Volunteers,  The  (ofBcial  title,  The 
Volunteers  of  America).  A  religious  organ- 
ization founded  in  March,  1896,  by  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Ballington  Booth,  who  separated  from  the  Sal- 
vation Army.  It  was  designed  to  be  essentially 
American  in  constitution  and  method. 

ucd. 

£  town  in  the 


province  of  Utrecht,  Netherlands,  on  the  Eem 
26  miles  southeast  of  Amsterdam,  it  was  an  im- 
portant seat  of  the  Jansenists,  and  has  a  noted  Church 
of  St.  Mary.  It  has  fiourishing  manufactures  and  trade. 
Population  (1889),  commune,  16,449. 


stroyed  completely  by  causes  unknown  to  us,  all  that  is  AmeS  (amz),   Adolbcrt.     Born    at   Bockland, 
«„_  „    ^  ..  ...  i.!....^  ,  ..ii.j  i,_i>,.    Uaine,  Oct.  31, 1835.     Aii  American  general  in 

the  Civil  War.  He  was  graduated  from  West  Point  in 
1861,  and  took  part  In  the  battles  of  Bull  Run,  Oaines's 
Mill,  Malvern  Hill,  Fredericksburg,  Chancellorsville,  An- 
tietam,  Gettysburg,  and  others.  He  was  brevetted  major- 
general  of  volunteers  March  13,  1865,  and  major-general 
of  the  regular  army  1866,  and  promoted  to  the  full  rank  of 
lieutenant-colonel  July  28, 1866.  He  was  provisional  gov- 
ernor of  Mississippi  1868-70,  Republican  United  States  sen- 
ator from  that  State  1870-74,  and  its  governor  1874^76.  Hu 
was  appointed  brigadier-general  of  volunteers,  1898. 

Ames,  Fisher.  Bom  at  Dedham,  Mass.,  April 
9, 1758 :  died  at  Dedham,  July  4, 1808.  A  noted 
American  orator,  statesman,  and  political 
wnter.  He  was  graduated  from  Harvard  College  in 
1774,  began  the  practice  of  law  at  Dedham  in  1781,  was 
a  member  of  the  Massachusetts  ratifying  committee  in 
1788,  and  was  a  Federal  member  of  Congress  from  Massa- 
chusetts 1789-97.  He  declined  the  presidency  of  Harvard 
College  in  1804.  He  wrote  the  "Laoooon"and  other  essays 
to  rouse  the  opposition  against  France. 

Ames,  Joseph.  Bom  at  Yarmouth,  England, 
Jan.  23,  1689:  died  at  London,  Oct.  7,  1759. 
An  English  antiquary  and  bibliographer,  pub- 
lisher of  "Typographical  Antiquities"  (1749, 
ed.  by  Herbert  1785-90).  This  work  is  the 
"  foundation  of  English  bibliography." 


now  left  of  it  are  the  two  enormous  colossi  —  called  by  the 

Arabs  S&namat — which  originally  stood  at  the  entrance. 

Mariette,  Outlines,  p.  39. 

Amenhotep  IV.,  or  Amenophis,  Khu-n-Aten 

('splendor  of  the  sun's  disk').  An  Egyptian 
king,  the  tenth  of  the  18th  dynasty,  who  reigned 
about  1466  B.  C.  (Brugsch).  He  was  an  innovator 
in  religion,  substituting  the  new  worship  of  Aten  (the 
sun's  disk)  for  that  of  Amun  and  the  other  Egyptian 
deities.  He  also  moved  the  capital  from  Thebes  to  a  place 
in  middle  Egypt,  the  modern  Tel-el- Amarna. 

Ameni  (a-ma'ne),  or  Amenemhat.  An  Egyp- 
tian official  under  Usertesen  I.  An  inscription 
recording  the  events  of  his  lite  has  been  found  in  a  rock- 
tomb  at  Beni-Hassan.  It  contains  a  reference  to  a  famine 
which  has,  by  some,  been  supposed  to  be  that  which  oc- 
curred during  Joseph's  sojonm  in  Egypt. 

Amenities  of  Literature.    A  work  by  Isaac 

D'Israeli,  completed  in  1841. 
Amenophis.    See  Amenhot^. 
Amentnes.    See  Amenti. 
Amenti  (a-men'te).    In  Egyptian  mythology, 

the  under  world ;  the  world  of  the  dead. 
Ameria  (a-me'ri-3,).     The  ancient  name  of 

Amelia  in  Italy. 
America    (a-mer'i-ka).     [It.  Sp.  Pg.  Amer- 


ica, F.  AmArique,  Gr"  Ameriica;  from  NL.  Ames,  Joseph.  Bom  1816:  died  1872.  An Amer- 
America  (1507),  after  Americ/us  Vesputius  (It.  ican  painter,  chiefly  noted  for  his  portraits. 
Amerigo  Vestpucd),  an  Italian  explorer.  See  Ames,  Mrs.  (Mary  Clemmer,  later  Mrs.  Hud- 
Vespucci.2  The  western  continent  or  grand  son).  .  Bom  at  Utiea,  N.  1.,  1839:  died  at 
division  of  the  world,  including  North  Amer-  Washington,  D.  C,  Aug.  18,  1884.  An  Ameri- 
ica, South  .America,  and  adjacent  islands.    See    can  writer,  and  the  Washington  correspondent 


Ames 

of  the  New  York  "Independent."  She  pub- 
lished novels,  poems,  sketches,  etc. 
Ames,  Oakes.  Born  at  Easton,  Mass.,  Jan.  10, 
1804 :  died  May  8,  1873.  An  American  manu- 
facturer, capitalist,  and  politician.  He  was  inter- 
ested in  tlie  building  of  the  Union  Pacific  Kaili-oad,  was 
Republican  member  of  Congress  from  Massachusetts  1863- 
1873,  and  was  censured  by  the  House  for  his  connection 
with  the  Credit  Mobilier  (which  see). 

Ames  (Latinized  Ameslus),  William.  Bom 
at  Ipswich,  England,  1576:  died  at  Eotterdam, 
Nov.,  1633.  All  English  Puritan  theologian 
and  casuist  residing  in  the  Netherlands.  He 
wrote  "  Medulla  Theologise,"  "De  Couseientia" 
(1632),  "Coronis,"  etc. 

Amesbury  (amz'ber"i).  A  town  in  Essex 
County,  Massachusetts,  situated  on  the  Merri- 
mack 34  miles  north  of  Boston.  It  was  the 
residence  of  Whittier.  Population  (1900),  9,473. 

Amesha  Spentas,  mod.  Pers.  Amshaspands. 
[Pers.,  'Immortal  Holy  Ones.']  The  seven  su- 
preme spirits  of  A'^^estan  theology.  At  their  head, 
as  their  creator,  stands  Ahuramazda.  The  others  are 
moral  or  physical  abstractions.  They  are  Vohu  Manah, 
'good  mind,' Asha  Vahishta,  'best  righteousness,'  Khsha- 
thra  Vairya,  'the  wished-for  kingdom,"  Spenta  Armaiti, 
'holy  haimony,'  Eauryatat,  'wholeness,  saving  health,' 
Ameretat,  'Immortality.'  In  the  later  religion  they  be- 
came guardian  geniuses  respectively  of  the  flocks,  fire, 
metals,  the  earth,  waters,  and  trees.  They  are  related  to 
Ahuramazda  as  are  the  Adityas  in  Vedic  theology  to 
Varuna.    See  Adityas. 

Amestris  (a-mes'tris).     See  the  extract. 

Amestris,  the  daughter  of  Otanes  according  to  Herodo- 
tus, of  Onophas  according  to  Ctesias,  was  the  favourite 
wife  of  Xerxes,  and  bore  him  at  least  Ave  children.  Her 
crimes  and  cruelties  are  related  by  Ctesias  at  some  length, 
and  are  glanced  at  by  Herodotus.  She  may  be  the  Vashti 
of  Esther,  whose  disgrace  was  perhaps  only  temporary. 
She  lived  to  a  great  age,  dying,  as  it  would  seem,  only  a 
little  before  her  son  Artaxerxes. 

Bawlinson,  Herod.,  I'V^  258. 

Ameto  (a-ma'to).  A  prose  idyl  of  Boccaccio, 
with  poetical  interludes.  Seven  nymphs  over  whom 
Ameto,  a  young  hunter,  presides  recount  the  story  of  their 
loves,  and  each  story  concludes  with  eclogues,  which  were 
the  first  in  the  Italian  language. 

Amga  (am'ga).  A  river  of  eastern  Siberia, 
about  500  miles  in  length,  which  joins  the  Al- 
dan in  about  lat.  63°  N.,  long.  134°  E. 

Amhara  (am-ha'ra).  The  central  province 
of  Abyssinia,  including  Dembea,  Begemeder, 
Lasta,  Medja,  Gojam.     The  capital  is  Gondar. 

Amharic  (am-har'ik),  or  Amarinna  (a-ma- 
rin'a).  The  language  of  the  Abyssinian  prov- 
ince Amhara,  and  of  Shoa:  since  the  14th 
century  the  court  and  official  language  of  Abys- 
sinia. As  long  as  the  ancient  Oeez  flourished,  Amharic 
was  only  a  provincial  dialect  of  southern  Abyssinia. 
Within  the  last  three  centuries  it  has  been  sometimes 
used  in  writing,  with  adapted  Ethiopian  characters.  It 
is  a  Semitic  language  with  an  intermixture  of  African 
words, 

Amherst  (am'6rst).  A  district  in  Tenasserim 
division,  British  Burma,  intersected  by  lat.  16° 
N.,  long.  98°  E.  Area,  15,203  square  miles. 
Population  (1891),  417,312. 

Amherst.  A  seaport  in  the  Amherst  district, 
founded  by  the  British  in  1826.  It  has  been 
superseded  in  importance  by  Maulmain. 

Amherst,  A  town  in  Hampshire  County,  Massa- 
chusetts, 20  miles  north  of  Springfield,  the  seat 
of  Amherst  College  and  of  the  Massachusetts 
Agricultural  College.    Population(1900),  5,028. 

Amherst,  Jeffrey  (Baron  Amherst).  Bom  at 
Riverhead,  England,  Jan.  29,  1717:  died  at 
Montreal,  in  Kent,  Aug.  4,  1797.  An  English 
field-marshal.  As  major-general  he  served  in  the 
attack  on  Louisburg  in  July,  1758,  at  Ticonderoga  in 
July,  1769,  and  at  Montreal  in  Sept.,  1760.  He  was  ap- 
pointed governor-general  of  British  North  America  in 
1761,  governor  of  Virginia  in  1763,  governor  of  Guernsey 
in  1770,  and  lieutenant-general  and  acting  commander-in- 
chief  of  the  army  in  1772  (commander-in-chief  in  1793). 
He  was  created  Baron  Amherst  in  1776  (recreated  in  1787), 
general  in  1778,  and  field-marshal  in  1796. 

Amherst,  William  Pitt  (Earl  Amherst).  Bom 
Jan.,  1773:  died  1857.  An  English  statesman 
and  diplomatist,  nephew  of  Jeffrey  Amherst. 
He  was  ambassador  to  China  1816-17,  governor-general 
of  India  1823-28,  and  carried  on  the  first  Burmese  war 
1824-26. 

Amherst  College.  An  institution  of  learning 
situated  at  Amherst,  Massachusetts.  It  was 
opened  in  1821  and  incorporated  in  1826,  and  is  controlled 
chiefiy  by  Congregationalists.    It  has  about  400  students. 

Amherstburg  (am'erst-b6rg).  A  town  in  Es- 
sex County,  Ontario,  Canada,  situated  at  the 
entrance  of  the  Detroit  River  into  Lake  Erie, 
20  miles  south  of  Detroit.  Population  (1901), 
2,222. 

Amhurst  (am'erst),  Nicholas.  Bom  at  Mar- 
den,  in  Kent,  Oct.  16,  1697 :  died  at  Twicken- 
ham, April  12,  1742.  An  English  poet  and 
pamphleteer,  editor  of  the  political  journal 


50 

"  The  Craftsman."  He  was  expelled  from  St.  John's 
College,  Oxford,  for  irregular  conduct,  or  according  to  his 
own  account  for  the  liberality  of  his  opinions,  and  re- 
venged himself  by  satirizing  the  university  in  "Terrse 
Illius,"  a  prose  work,  and  "  Oculus  Britannise,"  a  poem. 

Amias  (am'i-as),  or  Amyas,  In  Book  IV  of 
Spenser's  "Faerie  Queene,"  the  captive  lover 
of  jEmiUa,  a  squire  of  low  degree. 

Amici  (a-me'ehe),  Giovanni  Battista.  Bom 
at  Modeua,  Italy,  March  25,  1784  (1786  ?) :  died 
at  Florence,  April  10, 1863.  An  Italian  optician 
and  astronomer.  He  produced  a  dioptric  or 
achromatic  microscope  which  bears  his  name. 

Amicis,  De.    See  De  Amieis. 

Amida  (a-mi'da).  In  ancient  geography,  a 
Roman  city  on  the  site  of  the  modem  Diarbekr. 

Amidas  (am'i-das)  and  Bracidas  (bras'i-das). 
Twin  brothers  whom  Artegal  reconciles  in  the 
fifth  book  of  Spenser's  "Faerie  Queene." 

Amidas,  Philip.  Bom  at  Hull,  England,  1550 : 
died  about  1618.  An  English  navigator.  He 
explored,  with  Barlow,  the  North  Carolina  coast 
in  1584.     See  Barlow. 

Amie  (a'mi).  In  Ben  Jonson's  "  Sad  Shep- 
herd," a  gentle  shepherdess  in  whose  mouth 
are  put  the  words : 

I  grant  the  linnet,  lark,  and  bullfinch  sing. 
But  best  the  dear  good  angel  of  the  Spring, 
The  nightingale.  ii.  2. 

Amiel  (a'mi-el).  In  Dryden's  "Absalom  and 
Achitophel,"  a  character  intended  for  Edward 
Seymour,  speaker  of  the  House  of  Commons, 
who  was  an  adherent  of  the  Prince  of  Orange 
and  the  head  of  the  house  of  Seymour. 

Amiel  (a-me-el'),  Henri  Frederic.  Born  at 
Geneva,  1821:  died  1881.  A  Swiss  scholar  and 
•  poet,  appointed  professor  of  esthetics  and  of 
French  literature  at  the  Academy  of  Geneva  in 
1849,  and  of  moral  philosophy  in  1853.  Parts 
of  his  "  Journal  intime  "  were  published  after  his 
death  (2  vols.  1882-84).  He  studied  at  Berlin 
1844^48. 

Amiens  (a-me-ah').  The  capital  of  the  depart- 
ment of  Somme,  Prance,  situated  at  the  junc- 
tion of  the  Selle  with  the  Somme  in  lat.  49° 
55'  N.,  long.  2°  18'  E.:  the  ancient  Samarobri- 
va.  It  was  the  capital  of  ancient  Picardie  and  is  now 
one  of  the  leading  manufacturing  and  commercial  cen- 
ters of  France.  The  cathedral  of  Amiens,  begun  in  1220, 
is  in  purity  and  majesty  of  design  perhaps  the  finest  ex- 
isting medieval  structure.  It  is  469  feet  long,  213  across 
the  transepts,  and  about  150  in  height  of  nave- vaulting. 
The  incomparable  faijade  has  3  huge  porches  covered 
with  the  richest  sculpture,  2  galleries,  the  lower  arcaded, 
the  upper  filled  with  statues  of  kings,  and  a  great  rose 
and  gable  between  two  low  square  towers.  The  transepts 
have  superb  roses  40  feet  in  diameter  above  traceried  ar- 
cades filled  with  colored  glass.  The  great  portal  of  the 
south  transept  is  famous  for  its  sculpture.  The  interior 
is  simple  and  most  impressive.  The  110  late-Pointed 
choir-stalls  are  probably  unexcelled,  and  the  radiating 
'  apsidal  chapels  are  of  exceptional  beauty.  The  slender 
wooden  central  spire  is  361  feet  high.  Population  (1901), 
90,038. 

Amiens,  Battle  of.  A  victory  gained  Nov.  27, 
1870,  by  the  Germans  under  Manteuffel  over 
the  French.  It  was  followed  by  the  taking  of 
Amiens  Nov.  28,  and  the  surrender  of  its  cita- 
del Nov.  30. 

Amiens,  Council  at.     See  Amiens,  Mise  of. 

Amiens,  Mise  of.  The  award  pronounced  Jan. 
23,  1264,  by  Louis  IX.  of  Prance,  to  whom  the 
question  as  to  the  obligation  of  Henry  in.  to 
observe  the  Provisions  of  Oxford  had  been  re- 
ferred at  the  Council  of  Amiens,  Dec.  16, 1263. 

By  this  award  the  King  of  France  entirely  annulled  the 
Provisions  of  Oxford,  and  all  engagements  which  had 
been  made  respecting  them.  Not  content  with  doing  this 
in  general  terms,  he  forbade  the  making  of  new  statutes, 
as  proposed  and  carried  out  in  the  Provisions  of  West- 
minster, ordered  the  restoration  of  the  royal  castles  to  the 
king,  restored  to  him  the  power  of  nominating  the  officers 
of  state  and  the  sheriffs,  the  nomination  of  whom  had 
been  withdrawn  from  him  by  the  Provisions  of  Oxford ; 
he  annulled  the  order  that  natives  of  England  alone  should 
govern  the  realm  of  England,  and  added  that  the  king 
should  have  full  and  free  power  in  this  kingdom  as  he 
had  had  in  time  past.  All  this  was  in  the  king's  favor.  The 
arbitrator,  however,  added  that  all  charters  issued  before 
the  time  of  the  Provisions  should  hold  good,  and  that  all 
parties  should  condone  enmities  and  injuries  arising  from 
the  late  troubles.  Stubbs,  Early  Plantagenets,  p.  202. 

Amiens,  Treaty  of.  A  peace  concluded  at 
Amiens,  March  27, 1802,  between  Great  Britain 
on  one  side,  and  France,  Spain,  and  the  Ba- 
tavian  Republic  on  the  other.  England  restored 
all  conquests  except  Ceylon  and  Trinidad,  the  Ionian  Be- 
public  was  acknowledged,  the  French  were  to  abandon 
Rome  and  Naples,  and  Malta  was  to  be  restored  to  the 
Enights  of  St.  John. 

Amiens  (a'mi-enz).  In  Shakspere's  "As  you 
Like  it,"  a  gentleman  in  attendance  on  the 
duke. 

Atniti  (a-men').  The  eldest  son  of  Harun-al- 
Eashidin  "The  Three  Ladies  of  Bagdad"  in 


Amman,  Jost 

"The  Arabian  Nights'  Entertainments."  He 
marries  Amine. 

Amina  (a-me'na).  The  principal  character  in 
Bellini's  opera  "La  Sonnambula." 

Aminadab  (a-min'a-dab).  A  name  often  used 
by  the  older  dramatists  to  designate  a  Quaker. 

Aminadab  Sleek.    See  Sleek,  Aminadab. 

Amine  (a-men').  1.  In  the  story  of  "  Sidi  Nou- 
man"  in  "The  Arabian  Nights'  Entertain- 
ments," the  wife  of  Sidi  Nouman.  Her  habit  of 
eating  only  a  few  grains  of  rice,  at  table,  arouses  his  sus- 
picions, and  he  discovers  her  feasting  at  night  with  a 
ghoul. 

2.  In  the  story  of  "  The  Three  Ladies  of  Bag- 
dad" in  "The  Arabian  Nights'  Entertain- 
ments," Zobeide's  sister.  Without  knowing 
his  rank,  she  marries  Amin,  eldest  son  of  Ha- 
run-al-Rashid. 

Aminta  (a-min'ta).  A  pastoral  drama  by  Tasso, 
produced  in  1573. 

But  au  epoch  in  the  history  of  the  pastoral  drama  is 
marked  by  the  Aminta  of  Torquato  Tasso,  acted  at  Jer. 
rara  in  1573.  This  celebrated  poem  is  simple  in  plot ;  but 
its  design  is  allegorical,  and  the  Arcadia  presented  is  a 
refiexion  of  the  Ferrara  court,  the  poet  himself  appearing 
as  one  of  the  shepherds  (Tirsi).  Ward. 

Aminte  (a-manf).  1.  See  Cathos.—  2.  The 
neighbor  of  Sganarelle  in  Moli^re's  "L' Amour 
M6decin." 

Amintor  (a-min'tor).  One  of  the  principal 
male  characters  in  Beaumont  and  Fletcher's 
play  ' '  The  Maid's  Tragedy. "  His  weakness  and  ir- 
resolution in  love  are  explained,  but  not  compensated  for, 
by  his  fantastic  loyalty  to  his  king. 

Amiot,  or  Amyot  (a-me-6'),  Joseph,  Bom  at 
Toulon,  Prance,  1718:  died  at  Peking,  1794.  A 
French  Jesuit  missionary  (in  China)  and  Ori- 
entalist. He  wrote  "M^moires  concemant  I'histoire, 
les  sciences,  et  les  arts  des  Chinois"  (1776-91),  "Diction- 
naire  tatar-mantchou-fran?ais  "  (1789),  etc. 

Amirante  Islands  (am 'i- rant  i'landz).  A 
group  of  small  islands  in  the  Indian  Ocean,  be- 
longing to  the-  British,  situated  southwest  of 
the  Seychelles  about  lat.  5°-7°  S. 

Amirkot,  Amerkote  (am-er-kof).  A  town  in 
Sind,  British  India,  94  miles  east  of  Haidarabad. 

Amis  et  Amiles  (a-mes'  at  a-me'les).  A  chan- 
son de  geste,  in  3,500  lines,  dating  probably  from 
the  12th  century.  Its  theme  is  the  adventures  of  two 
noble  friends  Amis  and  Amiles.  They  escape  the  treachery 
of  the  felon  knight  Hardr^ ;  the  niece  of  Charles,  Lubiae^ 
is  bestowed  on  Amis,  and  his  daughter,  Bellicent,  falls  in 
love  with  Amiles;  the  latter  is  accused  of  treason  by 
Hardr^_,  and  is  saved  by  Amis  who  fights  in  his  stead  and 
slays  his  accuser ;  and  Amiles  and  Bellicent  are  married. 
Amis,  having  forsworn  himself  in  aiding  Amiles,  is  pun- 
ished by  an  attack  of  leprosy,  of  which  he  is  cured  by  the 
blood  of  the  children  of  Ainiles  who  are  slain  by  their 
father  for  this  purpose :  the  children,  however,  are  mirac- 
ulously restored  to  life.  Also  known  as  Arnys  aitd  Amy' 
loun. 

Amis  et  Amiles  is  the  earliest  vernacular  form  of  a  story 
which  attained  extraordinary  popularity  in  the  middle 
ages,  being  found  in  every  language  and  in  most  literary 
forms,  prose  and  verse,  narrative  and  dramatic.  This  pop- 
ularity may  partly  be  assigned  to  the  religious  and  mar- 
vellous elements  which  it  contains,  bat  is  due  also  to  the 
intrinsic  merits  of  the  story.  The  chanson  ...  is  writ- 
ten, like  Roland,  in  decasyllabic  verse,  but,  unlike  Roland, 
has  a  shorter  line  of  six  syllables  and  not  assonanced  at 
the  end  of  each  stanza.  Saintsbury,  Fr.  Lit.,  p.  16. 

Amis  (a'mis)  the  Parson.  A  comic  poem  in 
Middle  High  German,  composed  by  an  Austrian 
(Der  Strieker),  probably  about  1230. 

Amistad  (a-mes-ta^H')  Case.  The  case  of  the 
United  States  against  the  Spanish  vessel  Ami- 
stad. This  vessel,  while  coming  from  Africa  in  1839 
with  a  cargo  of  kidnapped  negroes,  was  seized  by  the  ne- 
groes near  Cuba  and  taken  to  the  coast  of  Connecticut, 
and  there  captured  by  a  United  States  vessel.  On  a  libel 
for  salvage  the  United  States  Supreme  Court  held  on  ap- 
peal that  the  negroes  were  free  and  not  pirates. 

Amisus  (a-mi'sus).  The  ancient  name  of  Sam- 
sun. 

Amlet  (am'let),  Dick  or  Richard,  In  Yan- 
brugh's  comedy  "  The  Confederacy,"  a  game- 
ster, the  son  of  a  garrulous  old  woman  who 
combines  the  trade  of  selling  paint,  powder, 
and  toilet  luxuries  to  ladies  with  a  less  re- 
spectable one.  He  attempts  with  her  assistance  to 
pass  himself  off  as  a  fine  gentleman,  but  only  produces  the- 
impression  of  a  footman  raised  from  the  ranks. 

Amlet,  Amleth,    Same  as  Hamlet. 

Amlet,  Mrs.    See  Amlet,  Dick. 

Amlwch  (am'lSk).  A  seaport  in  Anglesey, 
Wales,  56  miles  west  of  Liverpool,  noted  for 
its  (Parys)  copper-mines.  Population  (1891), 
5,567. 

Amman  (am'man),  Jost.  Bom  at  Ziirich, 
Switzerland,  about  1539:  died  at  Nuremberg, 
March,  1591.  A  Swiss  wood-engraver  and. 
painter.  He  came  to  Nuremberg  in  1560,  where  he  prob- 
ably worked  until  his  death.  He  is  chiefiy  known  for  his  en- 
gravings, especially  his  wood-engravings,  and  left  no  les& 
than  550  prints,  of  which  the  most  noted  are  a  set  of  US 
wood-prints  of  arts  and  trades,  printed  at  Frankfort  in  1686- 


Amman,  Johaim  Konrad 

Amman,  Johann  Eonrad.  Bom  at  Sehaff- 
hausen,  Switzerland,  1669:  died  at  Warmond, 
near  Leyden,  about  1725.    A  Swiss  physician 


51 

in  New  Hampshire,  about  100  mUes  long,  which 
rises  near  Mount  Washington  and  joins  the 
Connecticut  7  miles  north  of  Haverhill. 


and  writer  on  instruction  for  deaf-mutes.    His  Amol  (a-mol'),  or  Amul  (a-mol').    A  city  in 
„i.i„*   ™„j,„    —   «a„_j..-   , „    .,<,„„^     the  province  of  Mazanderan,  Persia,  situated 

on  the  Heraz  in  lat.  36°  20'  N.,  long.  52°  23' 

E.    It  was  very  important  in  the  middle  ages. 

Population,  10,000. 
Amometus  (am-o-me'tus).    A  Greek  writer  of 

uncertain  date,  author  of  a  poetical  descrip- 

tioTl    of  a,  nn.tiftTi  nf  "  Atta^artri"  fl-wfilli-no-  "ha- 


chief  works  are  "Surdus  loquens"  (1672), 
"Dissertatio  de  loquela"  (1700),-etc. 

Amman,  or  Ammann,  Paul.  Bom  at  Breslau, 
Prussia,  Aug.  30,  1634:  died  Feb.  4,  1691.  A 
German  physician  and  botanist.  He  was  ap- 
pointed professor  of  botany  at  Leipsic  in  J674,  and  of 
pliysiology  In  1682,  and  was  the  author  of  "Praxis  Vul- 
nerum  lethalium  "  (1690), ' '  Character  naturalis  Plantarum  " 
(1676),  etc. 

Amman  (am-man').    A  ruined  town  northeast 


of  the  Dead  Sea,  the  ancient  Babboth  Ammon  Amon  (a'mon).  In  Old  Testament  history:  (a) 
or  Philadelphia.  It  contains  a  Roman  theater  about  -^  governor  of  Samaria  in  the  time  of  Ahab 
360  feet  in  diameter,  in  part  excavated  from  a  hillside. 

Ammanati  (am-ma-na'te),  Bartolommeo. 
Born  at  Settignano,  near  Florence,  June  18, 
1511:  died  at  Settignano,  April  22,  1592.    An 
Italian  architect  and  sculptor.    His  most  noted  Amon.    See  Amun. 
work  is  the  "Ponte  deUa  Trinity  "  at  Florence.  Amon,  or  Aimon,  or  Haymon, 


See  ^^mo»! 

Amoneburg  (a-m'en'e-bore).  A  small  town  in 
the  province  of  Hesse-Nassau,  Prussia,  situated 
on  the  Ohm  7  miles  east  of  Marburg.  It  was 
formerly  a  strong  fortress. 

Amontons  (a-m6n-t6n'),  Guillaume.  Bom  at 
Paris,  Aug.  31,  1668 :  died  Oct.  11,  1705.  A 
French  physicist.  He  was  the  inventor  of  a  system 
of  telegraphy  by  means  of  signals  from  one  station  to  an- 
other through  a  series. 

See  Amu-Daria. 
See  Amw. 

signed  from  the-army  in  1837,  becarae_captein"'.orToiun.  AmoraTm7a-m6'r^-§m)?lA^amV^po^e''/s.'] 

The  rabbis  who  commented  upon  the  Mishna, 
and  thus  evolved  the  Gemara,  which  with  the 
Mishna  constitutes  the  Talmud.  The  period  of 
the  Amoraim  begins  after  the  death  of  the  patriarch  rabbi 
Judah  I.  and  extends  to  the  close  of  the  Talmud,  i.  e., 
about  200-600  A.  D. 

1.  In  Spenser's  "  Faerie 


Amphiaraus 

an  instant,  but  subsided  and  gave  place  to  the  next  sham 
emotion.  Thackeray,  Pendennis,  II.  xxxv. 

Amory,  Thomas.  Bom  1691  (?) :  died  Nov.  25, 
1788.  An  English  writer,  author  of  "Memoirs 
containing  the  Lives  of  several  Ladies  of  Great 
Britain,  etc."  (1755),  "Life  of  John  Buncle, 
Esq."  (1756-66),  etc.  He  has  been  eaUed  the 
"English  Rabelais." 

"John  Buncle  "  is  virtually  a  continuation  of  the  me- 
mou's.  The  book  is  a  literary  curiosity,  containing  an  ex- 
traordinary medley  of  religious  and  sentimental  rhapso- 
dies, descriptions  of  scenery,  and  occasional  fragments  of 
apparently  genuine  autobiography.  "  The  soul  of  Rabe- 
lais," says  HazUtt  [who  never  gets  names  right],  "  passed 
into  John  (Thomas)  Amory." 

Leelie  Stephen,  Diet.  Nat.  Biog. 
(Amos  vii.).  (6)  The  son  of  Manasseh  and  king  Amos  (a'mos).  [Heb.]  1.  AHebrew  prophet,  a 
r.f  .T„/i<.>,  RAQ_R4n  t,  r,       Tio^„=  „=„„=„i„„4.„.q     ooutemporary  of  Isalah  and  Hosca,  and  a uativo 

of  Tekoah,  near  Bethlehem. —  2.  One  of  the 
books  of  the  Old  Testament,  the  third  of  the 
minor  prophets. 


yond  the  Himalayan  range,  resembling  the 
ancient  account  of  the  Hyperboreans. 


of  Judah  642-640  B.  c.  He  was  assassinated 
through  a  court  conspiracy,  and  was  succeeded 
by  his  son  Josiah, 


Ammen  (am'en),  Daniel.  Bom  May  15, 1820: 
died  July  11, 1898.  An  American  admiral.  He  en- 
tered the  navy  as  midshipman  July  7, 1836,  was  made  exec- 
utive officer  of  the  North  Atlantic  blockading  squadron  at 
the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  War,  and  commanded  the  Seneca 
in  the  attack  on  Port  Royal  Nov.  7, 1861,  and  the  Patapsco 
in  that  on  Fort  McAllister  March  3, 1863.  He  was  pro- 
moted captain  July  26, 1866,  and  was  retu?ed  with  the  rank 
of  rear-admiral  June  4,  1878.  He  wrote  "The  Atlantic 
Coast "  ("  The  Navy  in  the  Civil  War  "  series,  1883). 

Ammen,  Jacob.    Bom  Feb.  7, 1808:  died  Feb.  Amoo 
6,  1894.    An  American  general  in  the  Civil  Amnnr 
War.    He  was  gradua,ted  from  West  Point  in  1831,  re-  Amor  (a'mor) 


teers  April  18, 1861,  took  part  in  the  West  Virginia  cam- 
paign under  McClellan,  was  promoted  brigadier-general  of 
volunteers  July  16, 1862,  and  was  in  command  of  the  dis- 
trict of  East  Tennessee  April  10, 1864,- Jan.  14,  1866,  when 
he  resigned. 

Ammer  (am'mer),  or  Amper  (iim'per).  A  river 
in  Upper  Bavaria,  which  rises  in  the  Alps, 
traverses  the  Ammersee,  and  joins  the  Isar  30  Amoret  (am'o-ret) 


It  receives  the 
Length,  about 


miles  northeast  of  Munich 
outlet  of  the  Starnbergersee 
125  miles. 

Ammergau.    See  Ober-Ammergau. 

Ammeriand  (am'mer-land).  A  small  district  in 
the  western  part  of  the  grand  duchy  of  Olden- 
burg, Germany. 

Ammersee  (am'er-za).  A  lake  in  Upper  Ba- 
varia, 10  miles  long,  traversed  by  the  Ammer. 
It  lies  west  of  the  Starnbergersee. 

Ammianus  (am-i-a'nus' 
Antiooh,  Syria,  about  330 
A  Greek  historian,  author  of  a  history 
(in  Latin),  covering  the  period  96  a.  D.-378. 
The  part  for  96-352  is  lost.  He  wrote  probably 
between  380-390. 

Ammon.    See  Amun. 

Ammon  (am'on).  The  eponymio  ancestor  of 
a  people,  the  children  of  Ammon,  or  Ammon- 
ites, frequently  mentioned  in  the  Old  Testa- 
ment: according  to  the  account  in  Genesis, 
the  son  of  Lot  by  his  younger  daughter  was 
Ben- Ami  (Gen.  xix.  38). 

Ammon,  or  Amon,  or  Amun,  Saint.  Bom 
about  285,  in  lower  Egypt:  died  348.  The 
founder  of  the  settlement  of  hermits  in  Nitria. 
See  Nitria. 

Ammon  (am'mon),  Christoph  Friedrich  von. 
Born  at  Bayreuth,  Bavaria,  Jan.  16, 1766 :  died 
at  Dresden,  May  21,  1850.  A  German  Protes- 
tant preacher  and  rationalistic  theologian.  He 
was  appointed  professor  (1789)  at  Erlangen,  later  (1794) 
at  GSttingen,  and  again  (1804)  at  Erlangen. 

Ammon,  Friedrich  August  von.  Born  at 
GSttingen,  Sept.  10,  1799:  died  May  18,  1861. 
A  German  ophthalmologist,  son  of  C.  P.  von 
Ammon.  He  became  professor  in  the  surgical  and  medi- 
cal academy  at  Dresden  in  1829,  and  royal  privy  medical 
counselor  in  1844. 

Ammonias  (a-mo'ni-as).  [Gr.  'Afi/^aviac.'\ 
architect  who,  according  to  an  epigram 
the  Anthology,  restore^  the  Pharos  of  Alex- 
andria in  the  time  of  the  emperor  Anastasius, 
about  the  end  of  the  5th  century  a.  d.  He  is 
also  credited  with  the  construction  of  an  aque- 
duct. 

Ammonius  (a-mo'ni-us).  Bom  about  170  A.  d.  : 
died  after  243.  An  Alexandrian  philosopher, 
the  founder  of  the  Neoplatonic  school,  sur- 
named  "  Saccas  "  or  "  Saccophorus  "  ( '  the  sack- 
bearer'),  from  his  occupation,  in  early  life,  as  a 
porter.  Plotinus,  longinus,  and  Origen  were  his  pupils. 
According  to  Porphyry  he  was  born  a  Christian,  but  this 
is  denied  by  Eusebius  and  Jerome, 

Ammonius,  An  Alexandrian  philosopher,  of 
the  second  half  of  the  5th  century  a.  d.,  a  com- 
mentator on  Aristotle. 

Ammonoosuc  (am-o-uo'suk).  Lower,    a  river 


Queene,"  the  twin  sister  of  Belphoebe,  the  im 

?oI?X^*'r  °i!^^  f  ^,?^  ^"".^  ?^™  °^  *^™^^^  Amo^°ea£(Im-oslkeg').     See  Pennaeook. 


The  humble  condition  of  a  shepherd  following  his  flock 
on  the  bare  mountains  of  Tekoa  has  tempted  many  com- 
mentators, from  Jerome  downwards,  to  think  of  Amos  as 
an  unlettered  clown,  and  to  trace  his  "rusticity "in  the 
language  of  Us  book.  To  the  unprejudiced  judgment, 
however,  the  prophecy  of  Amos  appears  one  of  the  best 
examples  of  pure  Hebrew  style.  The  language,  the  im- 
ages, the  grouping  are  alike  admirable ;  and  the  simplicity 
of  the  diction,  obscured  only  in  one  or  two  passages  by 
the  fault  of  transcribers  (iv.  3 ;  ix.  1),  is  a  token,  not  of 
rusticity,  but  of  perfect  mastery  over  a  language  whicli, 
though  unfit  for  the  expression  of  abstract  ideas,  is  unsur- 
passed as  a  vehicle  for  impassioned  speech. 

W.  S.  Smith,  Prophets  of  Israel,  p.  125. 

Amos,  Sheldon.  Bom  about  1835:  died  near 
Alexandria;  Egypt,  Jan.  2,  1886.  An  English 
jurist  and  publicist.  He  was  professor  of  jurispru- 
dence at  University  College,  London,  1867-79,  and  author 
of  "  Capital  Punishment  in  England  "  (1864),  "  Codifica- 
tion in  England  and  the  State  of  New  York  "  (1867),  "Dif- 
ference of  Sex  as  a  Topic  of  Jurisdiction  and  Legislation  " 
(1870),  "  Policy  of  the  Contagions  Diseases  Acts  Tested  " 
(1870),  "  A  Systematic  View  of  the  Science  of  Jurispru- 
dence "  (1872),  etc 

Amosis.    See  Aahmes. 


beauty.  Brought  up  by  Venus  In  the  Courts  of  Love, 
she  becomes  the  wife  of  Sir  Scudamore,  but  is  not  in- 
sensible to  the  passion  of  Corflambo  (sensual  love).  (See 
Busirane.)    Also  AmareUa. 

2.  In  Fletcher's  "Faithful  Shepherdess,"  a 
shepherdess  in  love  with  and  loved  by  Perigot, 
and  enduring  many  trials  with  sweetness  and 
constancy. 


Amour  Medecin  (a-mor'  mad-san'),  L'.  A 
comedy  by  Molifere,  produced  in  1665  at  Ver- 
sailles. In  this  play  he  ridicules  pedantry  and  charla- 
tanism in  the  medical  profession,  against  which  he  had 
a  spite. 

Amoy  (a-moi').  A  seaport  in  the  province  of 
Puhkien,  China,  situated  on  the  island  of  Amoy 
opposite  Formosa,  in  lat.  24°  27'  N.,  long.  118° 
4'  E,  Itisafreehaven,  and  has  one  of  the  best  harbors  in 
the  country.  It  exports  tea,  sugar,  opium,  etc.  It  was 
captured  by  the  British  in  1841,  and  became  open  to  Brit- 
ish commerce  in  1842.    Population  (1888),  96,000. 


An  isl- 

one  of 

the  Cyclades,  16  miles  southeast  of  Naxos.    It 

is  moxmtainous  and  fruitful.  Population,  about  Amoymon.    See  Amaimon. 
2,000.  Amper.    See  Ammer. 

Amorites  (am'o-rits).     [Probably  from  Heb.  Ampere  (on-par'),   Andr6  Marie. 


amir,  mountain-top,  the  mountaineers  (Num. 
xiii.  29).  ]  A  name  used  in  the  Old  Testament  in 
general  for  the  Canaanltes  as  well  as  for  a  sub- 
division of  the  Canaanites.  Biblical  critics  assert 
that  in  the  set  of  documents  known  as  J  (Jabvist)  all  the 
pre-Israelitish  inhabitants  of  Palestine  are  called  Canaan- 
ites, while  in  the  documents  known  as  B  (Elohist)  (by 
others  R=:Redactor)  they  are  called  Amorites.  This  gen- 
eral use  of  the  term  Amorite  finds  further  confirmation  in 
the  recently  suggested  reading  of  a  geographical  term  in 
the  cuneiform  inscriptions,  mat  Am/urH,  country  of  the 
Amorites, which  denominates  in  the  inscriptions  Fhcenicia 
and  Syria  in  genera],  particularly  Palestine :  it  was  previ- 
ously read  mat  Aharri.  Even  in  the  restricted  sense  it  is 
obvious  that  they  were  one  of  the  chief  races  of  Canaan. 
As  early  as  the  13th  century  B.  c.  they  seem  to  have  been 
antagonists  of  the  Hittites.  They  appear  on  the  Egyptian 
monuments  as  Amaru;  they  lived  east  of  the  Jordan 
where  Sihon  and  Og,  their  kings,  were  defeated  by  Moses. 

The  land  thus  conquered  became  the  property  of  the  tribes    ,  i    ,       , 

ofReuben,  Gad,  and  half  of  Manasseh.   Those  west  of  the  Ampersand    (am'per-sand) 
Jordan  were  conquered  by  Joshua,  and  their  territory  was 
given  to  the  tribe  of  Judah. 

Amorous  Bigot,  The.    A  comedy  by  T.  Shad- 
well,  produced  in  1690. 
A„  Amorous  Complaint  Made  at  Windsor,  An. 
^    A  poem  attributed  to  Chaucer. 

Amorous  La  Foole,  Sir,    See  La  Foole. 

Amorous  Prince,  The.  A  play  by  Mrs.  Aphra 
Behn,  adapted  from  Davenport's  "  City  Night- 
Cap,"  produced  and  printed  in  1671. 

Amorphus  (a-m6r'fus).  In  Ben  Jonson's  com- 
edy 'MCJynthia's  Revels,"  a  traveler  and  affected 
talker.  He  is  a  liar  and  braggart,  and  an  arbi- 
trator of  quarrels,  but  no  filter. 

Amory  (a'mo-ri),  Blanche.    In  Thackeray's 


Bom  at 


Lyons,  Jan.  22,  1775:  died  at  Marseilles,  June 
10,  1836.  A  French  physicist  and  mathemati- 
cian, famous  for  his  investigations  in  electro- 
dynamics. He  was  professor  at  the  Polytechnic  School 
in  Paris  and  later  in  the  College  de  France,  and  a  member 
of  the  Academy  of  Sciences.  His  chief  works  are ' '  Recueil 
d'observations  ^lectro-dynamiques  "  (1822),  and  "ThSorie 
des  ph^nom^nes  61ectro-dynamiques. 

Ampere,  Jean  Jacotues  Antoine.    Bom  at 

Lyons,  Aug.  12,  1800:  died  at  Pan,  France, 
March  27,  1864.  A  French  literary  historian, 
son  of  A.  M.  Ampere,  professor  in  the  Collige 
de  France,  and  a  member  of  the  French  Acad- 
emy. He  was  the  author  of  "Histoire  litt^raire  de  la 
France  avant  le  12"e  si^cle  "  (1839-40),  "  Histoire  romaine 
k  Rome  "  (1866-64),  "  Histoire  de  la  formation  de  la  langue 
frauQaise,"  "L'empire  remain  kRome,"  " La Grfece, Rome, 
et  Dante." 

A  peak  of  the 
Adirondaeks  situated  south  of  the  Saranac 
Lakes.    It  is  3,430  feet  in  height. 

Ampezzaner  (am-pet-sa'ner)  Alps,  A  group 
of  the  Dolomite  iUps  on  the  borders  of  south- 
em  Tyrol  and  Italy. 

Ampezzo  (am-pet's6).  The  upper  valley  of  the 
Boita,  situated  in  Tyrol  and  the  Italian  border 
26  miles  southeast  of  Brixen.  Its  chief  town  is 
Cortina  di  Ampezzo  (or  Ampezzo  di  Calore). 
Population  (commune),  about  3,000. 

Ampezzo.  A  town  in  the  province  of  Udine, 
Italy,  32  miles  northwest  of  Udine.  Population, 
about  2,000. 

Ampfing  (amp'fing).  A  village  in  Upper  Ba- 
5  miles  west  of  Miihldorf. 


vv.  ^y  ^^„  .„i„„„„v,.    ^^   -..- — . — J  „    varia,  .j  i^iioo  „cou  uj. 
novel  "Pendennis,"  a  worldly,  frivolous,  and  Ampfing,   Battle  of.     1.  See  Muhldorf.—Z. 
selfish  girl,  whose  real  name  is  Betsy,    she  en:    A  victory  gained  by  the  Austrians  under  Arch- 
courages  any  man,  even  the  French  cook,  and,  while  posing    duke  John  over  the  French,  Dee   1,  1800 
as  a  tender,  delicate  flower,  makes  every  one  about  her  as    AYmmTifolno  Co™  «'n  i,,n\      n?«««,  I,   n,.    „„■.«„ 
uncomfortable  as  possible.  Ami^hialUS  (am-fi  a-lus).     [From  a  Gr.  name 

„     „.  ,  ,     ™      .  ,    ,      ,      2i«*iffiAof.]     In  Sidney's  "Arcadia,"  the  vabant 

For  this  young  lady  [Blanche  Amory]  was  not  able  to     „„a  virtuous  son  of  t.hn  wickpfl  fifiPTonHn    aTid 
carry  out  any  emotion  to  the  fuU ;  but  had  a  sham  enthu-     ana  virtuous  son  or  xne  WiCJiea  l^eoropea,  ana 
siasm,  a  sham  hatred,  a  sham  love,  a  sham  taste,  a  sham     ^ne  lover  or  His  cousin  Philoclea. 
grief,  each  of  which  flared  and  shone  very  vehemently  for  AmpMaraUS  (am^fi-a-ra'us).      [Gr.  'Afi^ldpaoc.^ 


Amphiaraus 

In  Greek  mythology,  a  seer  and  hero  of  Argos, 
who  took  part  in  the  Argonautie  expedition, 
the  hunt  of  the  Calydonian  boar,  and  the  ex- 
pedition of  the  Seven  against  Thebes. 
Amphiareion  (am"fi-a-ri'on).  A  sanctuary 
and  oracle  of  Amphiaraus,  near  Oropus,  in 
Boeotia,  Greece.  Amphiaraus  was  one  of  the  Seven 
who  marched  against  Thebes,  and  was  here  swallowed  up 
by  the  earth  at  the  will  of  Zeus,  to  save  him  in  his  flight. 
The  sanctuary  occupies  a  narrow  area  on  the  bank  of  a 
torrent;  it  includes  a  temple  and  altar,  a  large  portico,  a 
long  range  of  bases  for  votive  statues,  and  a  theater  whose 
plan  and  stage-structure  are  interesting.  All  the  existing 
ruins  are  of  Hellenistic  date.  The  oracle  enjoyed  great 
renown,  and  the  deified  seer  had  a  high  reputation  for 
healing  sickness.  Excavations  have  been  made  here  since 
1884  by  the  Archseological  Society  of  Athens. 

Amphictyony  (am-fik'ti-ou-i),  or  Amphicty- 
onic  League  (am-fik-ti-oii'ik  leg).  [Prom  Gr. 
d/iijuKTvovec,  dwellers  around,  neighbors.]  In 
Greek  history,  a  league  of  peoples  inhabiting 
neighboring  territories  or  drawn  together  by 
community  of  origin  or  interests,  for  mutual 
protection  and  the  guardianship  in  common  of  a 
central  sanctuary  and  its  rites.  There  were  several 
such  confederations,  but  the  name  is  specially  appropri- 
ated to  the  most  famous  of  them,  that  of  Delphi.  This 
was  composed  of  twelve  tribes,  and  its  deputies  met  twice 
each  year,  alternately  at  Delphi  and  at  Thermopylse.  Its 
origin  dates  back  to  the  beginnings  of  Grecian  history, 
and  it  survived  the  independence  of  Greece.  It  exercised' 
paramount  authority  over  the  famous  oracular  sanctuary 
of  the  Pythian  Apollo  and  over  the  surrounding  region, 
and  conducted  the  Pythian  games;  and  it  constituted, 
though  in  an  imperfect  way,  a  national  congress  of  the 
many  comparatively  small  and  often  opposed  states  into 
which  Greece  was  divided. 

AmpMlochuS  (am-fil'o-kus).  [Gr.  >A/^i?ioxoSi'i 
In  Greek  legend,  a  seef,  son  of  Amphiaraus 
and  brother  of  AJcmsBOu:  one  of  the  Epigoni. 

AmpMon  (am-H'on).  [Gr.  'A/J^iuv.]  In  Greek 
mythology,  a  skilful  musician,  son  of  Zeus  and 
Antiope,  twin  brother  of  Zethus,  and  husband 
of  Niobe.  The  brothers  slew  Dirce,  who  had  ill-treated 
their  mother,  by  causing  her  to  be  dragged  to  death  by 
a  bull.  They  took  possession  of  Thebes,  and  when  the 
walls  were  building,  the  stones  moved  of  their  own  accord 
to  their  places  under  the  influence  of  Amphion's  lyre. 

AmpUpolis  (am-fip'o-Us).  [Gr.  'Aft<l>iiroXtg.']  In 
ancient  geography,  a  city  ia  Macedonia,  on 
the  Strymon,  3  miles  from  the  .^gean,  in  lat. 
40°  48'  N.4  long.  23°  51'  E.  Originally  a  Thracian 
town,  it  was  colonized  by  Athens  about  436  B.  c,  and  was 
captured  by  Sparta  in  424  B.  c.  Near  it  the  Spartans 
under  Brasldas  defeated  the  Athenians  under  Cleon  422 
B.  0.  It  later  became  a  Macedonian  and  then  a  Roman 
possession. 

AmpMssa  (am-fis'a).  [Gt.  "A/Kjiiaaa.']  In  an- 
cient geography,  a  town  of  the  Ozolian  Lo- 
crians,  Greece,  10  miles  northwest  of  Delphi. 

Ainphitrite(am-fi-tri'te).  IGi. 'A/KpiTplTj/.']  l.In 
Greek  mythology,  the  goddess  of  the  sea,  daugh- 
ter of  Nereus  and  Doris,  and  wife  of  Poseidon. 
—  2.  An  asteroid  (No.  29)  discovered  by  Marth, 
at  London,  March  1,  1854. 

A^pMtruo.    See  Amphitryon. 

Amphitryon  (am-fit'ri-on),  or  Amphitruo  (am- 
fit'ru-o).  [Gr.  'A/i(t>tTpvuv.^  In  Greek  legend,  a 
son  of  AlcsBus,  Ising  of  Troezen,  and  husband 

■  of  Alcmene.  To  secure  Alcmene  (who  would  not  wed 
him  until  the  death  of  her  brothers,  who  were  slain  by 
the  Taphians,  was  avenged)  he  undertook,  for  his  uncle 
Creon,  to  catch  the  Taumessian  fox,  which  by  a  decree  of 
fate  could  not  be  captured,  by  the  help  of  an  Athenian 
dog  which  fate  had  decreed  should  catch  every  animal 
it  might  pursue.  Fate  extricated  itself  from  its  perplex- 
ity by  turning  both  animals  into  stone.  He  attacked  the 
Taphians,  but  could  not  overcome  them  so  long  as  the 
chief  Pterelaus,  who  was  rendered  immortal  by  one  golden 
hair^  lived.  Comffitho,  daughter  of  Pterelaus,  _cut  off  this 
hair  for  love  of  Amphitryon,  and  he  perished.  The  appli- 
cation of  the  name  Amphitryon  to  a  host  is  from  that 
part  of  the  stoiy  where  Jupiter  assumes  the  former's  shape 
in  order  to  visit  Alcmene.  He  gives  a  feast  and  is  inter- 
rupted by  the  real  Amphitryon.  This  gives  rise  (in  Mo- 
liere's  comedy)  to  a  dispute  which  is  settled  by  the  phrase 
"Le  veritable  Amphitryon  est  1' Amphitryon  oil  Ton  dine" 
(he  who  gives  the  feast  is  the  host). 

Amphitryon,  or  Amphitruo.  1.  A  play  of 
Plautus  "  with  a  mythological  (comic-marvel- 
ous) plot,  treated  with  complete  mastery  over 
the  language  and  with  sparkling  humor.  Its 
original  and  the  time  of  its  composition  are 
unknown"  {Teujfel  and  Schwabe). 

It  is  more  of  a  burlesque  than  a  comedy,  and  is  full  of 
humour.  It  is  founded  on  the  well-worn  fable  of  Jupiter 
and  Alcmena,  and  has  been  imitated  by  Molifere  and  Dry- 
den.  Its  source  is  uncertain  ;  but  it  is  probably  from 
Archippas,  a  writer  of  the  old  comedy  (416  B.  o.).  Its 
form  suggests  rather  a  development  of  the  Satyric  drama. 
Cruttwell,  Hist,  of  Soman  Lit.,  p.  44. 

3.  A  comedy  by  Molifere,  produced  in  1668:  a 
version  of  Plautus's  play. — 3.  An  opera  by 
Sedaine,  produced  in  1781. — 4.  A  comedy  by 
Andrieux,  produced  in  1782. 
Amphitryon,  or  The  Two  Socias.  A  comedy 
by  Dryden,  performed  in  1690 :  an  altered  ver- 
sion of  Moliere's  play. 


52 

Amplepuis  (oh-ple-pwe').  A  town  in  the  de- 
partment of  Rhone,  France,  29  miles  northwest 
of  Lyons.  It  has  manufactures  of  cotton  and 
muslin.    Population  (1891),  commune,  7,113. 

Ampsivarii  (amp-si-va'ri-i),  or  Amsivarii. 
[L.  Ampsivarii  (Tacitus);  cf.  L.  Amisia,  the 
Ems.]  A  German  tribe  described  by  Tacitus 
as  originally  neighbors,  in  the  region  of  the 
Ems,  of  the  Chauci  who  had  driven  them  out. 
In  the  year  68  A.  D.  they  appeared  on  the  Ehine  whence 
they  were  dislodged  by  the  Eonians,  and  were  thought  to 
have  been  annihilated.  They  reappeared,  however,  in  the 
4th  century  in  incursions  into  Koman  territory.  They  were 
ultimately  merged  in  the  Pranks. 

Ampthill  (ampt'hil).  A  small  town  in  Bed- 
fordshire, England,  40  miles  northwest  of  Lon- 
don. 

Ampthill,  Baron.    See  Russell,  Odo  William. 

Ampudia  (am-po'de-a),  Pedro  de.  A  Mexican 
general,  in  command  of  the  Mexican  army  on 
the  Eio  Grande  at  the  beginning  of  the  Mexi- 
can war,  1846.  As  commander  at  Monterey  he 
surrendered  to  General  Taylor  Sept.  24,  1846. 

Ampurdan  (am-p6r-dan').  A  valley-plain  in 
the  province  of  Gerona,  Spain,  in  the  vicinity 
of  Figueras. 

Amraoti  (am-ra-6'te),  or  Amrawati  (am-ra- 
wa'te).  A  district  in  East  Berar,  Haidarabad 
Assigned  Districts,  India,  intersected  by  lat. 
21°  N.,  long.  78°  E.  Area,  2,759  square  miles. 
Population  (1891),  655,645. 

Amraoti.  A  town  in  Amraoti  district,  lat.  20° 
56'  N., long.  77° 44' E.  Population  (1891),  33,655. 

Amraphel  (am'ra-fel).  A  king  of  Shinar 
(southern  Babylonia)  who,  allied  with  Chedor- 
laomer,  king  of  Elam,  and  two  other  kings, 
marched,  in  the  time  of  Abraham,  against  the 
five  kings  of  the  Vale  of  Siddim  (Gen.  xiv.). 
He  is  identified  by  some  with  Hammurabi  who  reigned 
about  2200  B.  0.,  by  others  with  his  father  Sin-muballit 
whose  name  is  sometimes  read  Amarpal :  all  this  is,  how- 
ever, very  uncertain. 

Amri  (am'ri).  In  the  second  part  of  Dryden 
and  Tait's  "Absalom  and  Aehitophel,"  a  char- 
acter intended  to  represent  Heneage  Finch. 

Amrit  (am'ret)  A  ruined  town  on  the  coast  of 
Phoenicia,  30  miles  north  of  Tripolis:  the  an- 
cient Marathus.  It  contains  important  antiquities. 
The  Burdj  el-Bezz3,k  is  an  ancient  Phenician  tomb  built 
of  huge  blocks  of  stone.  It  is  square,  with  a  plain  mas- 
sive cornice,  and  terminated  in  a  pyramid,  now  ruined. 
The  original  height  was  62  feet.  It  contains  two  chambers, 
one  over  the  other,  with  niches  for  corpses.  Another 
tomb  at  Amrit  is  one  of  the  most  elaborate  of  surviving 
Phenician  works.  The  base  is  square  and  on  it  rest  three 
superposed  circular  drums,  each  smaller  than  that  below. 
The  top  drum  terminates  in  domical  form,  and  the  two 
upper  drums  have  a  cornice  of  combined  dentils  and 
serrations.  A  molding  of  concave  curve  connects  the 
lowest  and  middle  drums.  On  the  corners  of  the  base 
stand  four  rude  lions,  issuing  from  the  lowest  drum.  The 
height  is  about  32  feet.  The  so-called  "monolithic" 
house  is  a  structure  with  walls  for  the  most  part  hewn 
from  the  solid  rock.  It  is  isolated  by  the  cutting  away  of 
the  rock  behind.  The  chief  front  is  about  97  feet  long 
and  20  high.  The  interior  shows  holes  for  wooden  ceiling- 
beams.  The  Kaabed  is  an  old  Phenician  temple  consist- 
ing of  a  small  cella,  open  on  one  side  to  exhibit  the  sacred 
image,  and  raised  on  a  square  base  or  die.  The  roof  is  a 
great  slab  hewn  to  the  form  of  a  flat  arch  on  the  under 
side,  the  whole  forming  a  miniature  and  simplified  Egyp- 
tian temple.  The  total  height  is  23  feet.  The  cella  was 
originally  surrounded  by  a  colonnaded  court  There  are 
also  ruins  of  a  stadium  with  ten  tiers  of  seats,  on  one 
side  all  rock-hewn,  on  the  other  partly  built  up  of  ma- 
sonry. It  now  measures  99  by  411  feet,  but  has  probably 
lost  some  of  its  length. 

Amrita  (am-re'ta).  [Sometimes  ^mreeto;  Skt. 
amrita,  prop,  adj.,  immortal,  =  Gr.  a/ipporoc, 
whence  ult.  E.  amirosia.'i  In  Hindu  my- 
thology, a  god  (masc.) ;  the  water  of  life  (neu- 
ter) ;  ambrosia,  in  the  latter  sense  the  term  is  vari- 
ously applied  in  the  Vedas,  but  especially  to  the  soma 
juice.  In  later  legend  it  was  the  water  of  life  produced 
at  the  churning  of  the  ocean  by  the  gods  and  demons. 
The  Ramayana,  the  Mahabharata,  and  the  Puranas  give 
the  story  with  variations.  The  gods,  worsted  by  the  de- 
mons, repaired  to  Vishnu,  asking  new  strength  and  im- 
mortality. He  bade  them  churn  the  ocean  for  the  Amrita 
and  other  lost  treasures.  Collecting  all  plants  and  herbs, 
they  cast  them  into  the  sea  of  milk,  which  they  churned, 
using  Mount  Mandara  as  a  chuming-stick  and  the  serpent 
Vasuki  as  a  rope,  while  Vishnu  himself  was  the  pivot. 
From  the  sea  came  the  sacred  cow,  Surabhi,  Varuni,  god- 
dess of  wine,  Parijata,  the  tree  of  paradise,  the  Apsarases, 
the  moon,  poison,  Sri,  the  goddess  of  beauty,  and  Dhan- 
vantara,  physician  of  the  gods. 

Amritsar(am-rit'sar),orUmritsir(um-rit's6r). 
A  division'in  the  Panjab,  British  India.  Area, 
5,354  square  miles.  Population  (1881),  2,729,109. 

Amritsar.  A  district  in  the  division  of  Amrit- 
sar,  intersected  by  lat.  31°  30'  N.,  long.  75°  E. 
Area,  1,601  square  miles.  Population  (1891), 
992,697. 

Amritsar,  orUmritsir  (um-rit's6r).  The  cajji- 
tal  of  the  Amritsar  di^rict  and  division,  in 
lat.  31°  40'  N.,  long.  74°  45'  E.:  one  of  the 
most  important  commercial  and  manufacturing 


Amun 

cities  in  northern  India.  It  is  the  religious  center 
of  the  Sikhs,  and  contains  a  Sikh  temple  attended  by  600 
to  600  priests.  Population,  including  cantonment  (1891), 
136,766. 

Amru  ben-el-Ass  (am'ro  ben-el-Ss'),  or  Amer. 
Died  about  663  a.  d.  An  Arab  general  and 
statesman.  He  conquered  Syria  during  the  reign  of 
the  calif  Abn-Bekr,  and  Egypt  639-641,  in  that  of  Omar. 
By  his  statesmanlike  reorganization  of  the  conquered 
provinces,  and  by  the  excellence  of  his  administration,  he 
did  much  to  reconcile  the  inhabitants  to  Islam.  The 
story  that,  at  the  taking  of  Alexandria,  he  gave  the 
order  to  destroy  the  celebrated  AlcxanfU-ine  library,  is 
probably  unhistorical. 

Amru-el-Kais  (am'rS-el-lds').  Lived  at  the 
beginning  of  the  7th  century.  An  Arabian  poet, 
hostile  to  Mohammed.  His  "MoaIlak3,t"  was 
translated  by  Sir  W.  Jones,  1782. 

Amrum  (am'rom),  or  Amrom  (am'rom).  One 
of  the  North  Friesian  Islands  in  the  North  Sea, 
west  of  Schleswig.    Its  length  is  6  miles. 

Amsancti,  or  Ampsancti,  Vallis  (am-sank'te 
varies).  A  valley  in  the  province  of  Avellino, 
Italy,  near  Frigento,  in  lat.  41°  N.,  long.  15°  7' 
E.,  noted  for  its  sulphurous  lake  and  cave. 

Amsdorf  (ams'dorf ),  Nikolaus  von.  Born  at 
Torgau,  Germany,  Dec.  3,  1483:  died  May  14, 
1565.  A  German  Protestant  reformer.  He  was 
the  intimate  friend  of  Luther,  whom  he  accompanied  to 
Leipsic  in  1619  and  to  Worms  in  1621,  and  whom  he  aided 
in  the  translation  of  the  Bible.  He  was  instrumental  in 
introducing  the  Reformation  into  Magdeburg  in  1624,  into 
Goslar  in  1628,  and  elsewhere ;  was  consecrated  bishop  of 
Naumburg  by  Luther  in  1542,  but  was  driven  from  his  see 
In  1546  in  the  Smalkaldic  war,  and  was  a  prominent  op- 
ponent of  Melanchthon  in  the  adiaphoristic  controversy. 

Amsler  (ams'ler),  Samuel.  Bom  at  Schinz- 
naeh,  Aargau,  Switzerland,  Dec.  17,  1791 :  died 
at  Munich,  May  18, 1849.  A  German  engraver. 
Among  his  noted  works  are  the  "Triumphal  March  of 
Alexander  the  Great "  (after  Thorwaldsen),  the  "  Triumph 
of  Religion  in  the  Arts  "  (after  Overbeck),  etc. 

Amsteg,  or  Amstag  (am'stag).  A  village  in  the 
canton  of  Uri,  Switzerland,  situated  on  the  St. 
Gotthard  route  27  miles  southeast  of  Lucerne. 

Amstel  (am'stel).  A  small  river  in  the  Neth- 
erlands, which  flows  through  Amsterdam  and 
empties  into  the  Y. 

Amstelland  (am'stel-lant).  Formerly,  the 
name  given  to  the  region  which  lies  near  the 
Amstel. 

Amsterdam  (am'stfer-dam).  [Orig.  Amstelle- 
damme,  dam  of  the  Amstel.]  A  city  in  the 
province  of  North  Holland,  Netherlands,  built 
on  marshy  ground  (traversed  by  canals  con- 
nected by  numerous  bridges)  at  the  junction 
of  the  Amstel  and  Y,  in  lat.  52°  22'  N.,  long. 
4°  5'  E. :  the  chief  commercial  city  and  the  capi- 
tal of  the  Netherlands,  and  one  of  the  leading 
seaports  of  Europe.  It  has  communication  by  the 
Korth  Sea  Canal  and  North  Holland  Canal  with  the  North 
Sea,  It  is  a  market  for  colonial  products,  including  sugar, 
coffee,  spices,  rice,  tobacco,  etc.,  has  ship-building  indus- 
tries and  important  manufactures  of  sugar,  sails,  tobacco, 
beer,  etc.,  and  is  especially  famous  for  diamond-cutting 
and  -polishing.  It  was  founded  at  the  beginning  of  the 
13th  century,  became  of  great  importance  on  the  decline 
of  Antwerp  about  1586-95,  and  was  the  first  commercial 
city  of  Europe  in  the  17th  century.  It  was  entered  by  the 
French  in  1795,  and  belonged  to  the  French  Empire  1810-18. 
It  contains  various  important  Ljuildings,  museums,  etc. 
Population  (1900),  620,602. 

Amsterdam.  AcityinMontgomeryCounty,New 
York,  situated  on  the  Mohawk  30  miles  north- 
west of  Albany.  It  has  important  manufac- 
tures of  knit  goods.    Population  (1900),  20,929. 

Amsterdam.  A  small  uninhabited  island  in  the 
Indian  Ocean,  in  lat.  37°  51'  S.,  long.  77°  32'  E. 

Amsterdam,  New.  An  old  name  for  New  York 
(city). 

Amstetten  (Sm'stet-ten).  A  small  town  in 
Lower  Austria,  situated  on  the  Ips  28  miles 
east  by  south  of  Linz. 

Amucu  (a-mo-kO'),  Lake.  A  small  lake  in 
British  Guiana,  about  lat.  3°  40'  N.,  connected 
with  the  Essequibo  and,  through  the  Branco, 
with  the  Amazon.  According  to  Schomburgk  this 
was  the  so-called  Lake  Farima  connected  with  the  myth 
of  El  Dorado. 

Amu  Daria  (a-mo'  dar'ya),  Ar.  Jihun  (je'hon), 
or  Gihon.  The  principal  river  of  Central  Asia: 
the  ancient  Oxus.  It  rises  as  the  Ak-Su  in  the  east- 
ern Pamir  near  the  frontier  of  eastern  Turkestan ;  flows 
generally  west  to  near  long.  66°  E.  separating  in  psit  of 
its  course  Bokhara  from  Afghanistan ;  flows  then  north- 
west, and  empties  by  a  delta  into  the  southern  part  of 
the  Sea  of  AraL  It  is  generally  thought  to  have  emptied 
into  the  Caspian  Sea  in  ancient  and  even  in  medieval 
times.  Among  its  tributaries  are,  among  those  on  the 
right,  the  Wakash  (or  Surghab)  and  Kaflmagan ;  and  on 
the  left,  the  Pandja,  Koksha,  and  Kunduz,  St  Tchardjui 
it  is  crossed  by  the  Transcaspian  Railway.  Its  length  is 
about  1,400  miles,  and  it  is  navigable  by  vessels  about  300 
miles. 

Amun  (a'mon).  [Egjyt., '  the  hidden  or  veiled 
one.']  An  Egyptian  deity.  He  is  variously  repre- 
sented as  a  ram  with  large  curving  horns,  as  a  being 


Amun 


53 


with  a  ram's  head  and  a  huxhan  body,  and  as  a  man  en-     chief ;  and  was  restored  by  the  Thessalians,  with  whom 

tluoned  or  standing  erect.    In  art  his  figure  is  colored     he  had  taken  refuge, 

blue.    On  his  head  he  wears  the  royal  symbol  and  two  Amvntas  III.     Died  336  B.  C.    King  of  Mace- 

'oaf.hArO     anil    in    rtna  llonH    tio    nniminci    n    anart-^am   It  n  A    in  t  *'m  nnn       n^n  1  nit  ^      ^  . 

doma  360-359,  grandson  of  the  preceding.    He 


long  feathers,  and  in  one  band  he  carries  a  scepter  and  in 
the  other  the  sign  of  life.  His  chief  temple  and  oracle 
were  on  an  oasis  in  the  Libyan  desert  near  Memphis.  Also 
Amen,  Ammon,  Amon,  and  Eammon.    See  the  extract. 

But  after  the  rise  of  the  Theban  dynasty  the  supreme 
form  under  which  Ka  was  worshipped  was  Amun,  *'the 


was  an  infant  at  the  death  of  his  father  360  B.  c,  and  was 
excluded  359  B.  0.  from  the  throne  by  the  regent,  his 
uncle  Philip,  at  whose  court  he  waa  brought  up,  and  whose 
daughter  he  married.    He  was  executed  by  Alexander  the 

^^ ^     Great  for  a  conspiracy  against  the  king's  life. 

hidden  one."    In  course  of  time  he'absorbed  into  himself  Amyntas,  Of  The  Impossible  Dowry.    A  pas- 
almost  all  the  other  deities  of  Egypt,  more  especially  Ea     toral   drama   of  the  Italian  type  by  Thomas 
and  Khnum.    He  reigns  over  this  earth,  as  his  represen-     ■p„„j„i„i,    ««-+ T,»,'«fo,i  i«  iKaa      t+ v,„„  „„ 
tatives,  the  Pharaoh*  over  Egypt,  and  inspires  mankind     Randolph,  first  prmted  in  1638      It  has  no  eon- 
with  the  sense  of  right.    He  is  called  Khem  as  the  self-     nection  m  plot  With  lasso's  "  Aminta." 
begetting  deity,  "the  living  Osiris"  as  the  animating  prin-  Amyntor,   Gerhard   VOn,       A  pseudonym    of 
ciple  of  the  universe.    On  his  head  he  wears  a  lofty  crown    Dagobert  von  Gerhardt,  a  German  novelist, 
of  feathers,  sometimes  replaced  by  the  crowns  ot  Upper    a,_„„4.  /«„==/ >     t»  «_..«»       t!„,.„   „*  Ti/r«i 
andLower  Egypt  or  the  rSm's  head  of  Khnum,  and  Jiut  Amyot  (a-me-o  ),  JacqueS.      Born  atjlelun, 


Egyptc _ 

and  Khunsu  form  with  him  the  trinity  of  Thebes. 

Sayce,  Anc.  Empires,  p.  63. 

Amundtegui  (a-mo-na'ta-gwe),  Miguel  Luis. 
Born  Jan.  11, 1828 :  died  Jan.  22, 1888.  AChilean 
historian,  associated,  in  the  production  of  most 
of  his  works,  with  his  brother,  Gregorio  Victor 
Amun^tegui.    Amongtheseare  "Memoria  sobre  la  re- 


Prance,  Oct.  30, 1513:  died  at  Auxerre,  France, 
Feb.  6,  1593.  A  French  writer.  He  was  tutor  to 
Charles  IX.  and  Henri  of  Anjou,  grand  almoner,  bishop 
of  Auxerre,  and  commander  in  the  Order  of  the  Holy 
Ghost.  He  is  known  chiefly  by  his  translations  of  "The- 
agenes  and  Ghariclea "  (1547),  of  the  works  of  Diodorus 
Siculus  (1554),  of  "Dapnnis  and  Chloe"and  Plutarch's 
"Lives"  (1569),  and  of  Plutarch's  "  Morals"  (1572). 

oonquistaefpanola"(186b),  "Compendiodelahistoriapo-  4iny°*' ^°?.?P'^'     See  ^mioi. 

litica  y  eclesiistioa  de  ChUe"  (1866),  " Descubrimiento  y  Amyraut  (a-me-ro'),  or  Amyrault  (L.  Amy- 


conquista  de  Chile"  (1862),  "Los  precursores  de  la  inde- 
jpendencia  de  Cliile  "  (1872-73). 
Amur,  or  Amoor  (a-mor').  A  river  in  Siberia 
formed  by  the  junction  of  the  Shilka  and  Argun, 
about  lat.  53°  N.,  long.  121°  E.  it  flows  generally 
southeast,  then  northeast,  and  then  east,  and  it  enters  the 
Gulf  of  Saghalin. 


raldus),  Moise.  Bom  Sept.,  1596:  died  1664, 
A  French  Protestant  theologian,  professor  at 
Saumur  1633-64.  He  was  charged  with  Arminianism, 
and  although  he  was  acquitted  at  the  synods  of  Alengon 
(1637)  and  Charenton  (1644),  the  "Formula  Consensus 

Helvetica  "  (1657)  was  directed  chiefly  against  him. 

In  part  of  ite  course  it  forms  the  An  or  On.     See  MeUopolis. 

Gr.  ava- 


ble  for  about  2,400  miles. 

Amur.  A  province  in  eastern  Siberia,  situated 
north  of  the  river  Amur,  ceded  by  China  to 
Eussia  in  1858.  Its  capital  is  Khabarovka. 
Area.  172,848  square  miles.  Population  (1897), 
112,396. 

Amurath  (a-mo-raf)  I.,  or  Murad.  Born 
1319:  killed  June  15, 1389.  Sultan  of  Turkey 
1359-89,  son  of  Orkhan.  He  completed  the  organi- 
zation of  the  janizaries,  begun  by  his  father,  and  was  the 
first  of  the  Ottoman  sultans  who  made  conquests  in  Eu- 
rope. In  1361  he  occupied  Adrianople,  which  he  made 
the  capital  of  his  European  dominions,  took  Sofia  in 
1382,  and  defeated  the  princes  of  Servia  and  Bosnia  in  the 


Christians  who 
invalid,  and 
require  adults  who  have  received  it  to  be  bap- 
tized on  joining  their  communion.  The  name  is 
best  known  historically  as  applied  to  the  followers  of 
Thomas  Munzer,  a  leader  of  the  peasants'  war  in  Germany, 
who  was  killed  in  battle  in  1525,  and  to  those  of  John 
Matthias  and  John  Bockold,  or  John  of  Leyden,  who  com- 
mitted great  excesses  while  attempting  to  establish  a  so- 
cialistic kingdom  of  New  Zion  or  Mount  Zion  at  Munster 
in  Westphalia,  and  were  defeated  in  1636,  their  leaders 
being  killed  and  hung  up  in  iron  cages,  which  are  still 
preserved  in  that  city.  The  name  has  also  been  applied 
to  bodies  of  very  different  character  in  other  respects, 
probably  always  in  an  opprobrious  sense,  since  believers 
in  the  sole  validity  of  adult  baptism  refuse  to  regard  it  as 
rebaptism  in  the  case  of  persons  who  had  received  the 
rite  in  infancy.  It  is  now  most  frequently  used  of  the 
Mennonites.    See  Mennonites, 


battle  of  Kosovo  1389.    He  was  killed  after  the  engage- 
ment by  a  wounded  Servian  who,  it  is  said,  started  from   V'ti'^il'l'll^'/K  ^'x' t^k"-1k"\     a  «;...„.,■„  c!-i,„-!n ™i,)„i, 
among  the  dead,  and  plunged  a  dagger  into  his  breast  as  he  Anaba,ra  (a-na-ba-ra  ).  A  rivenn  Siberia  which 
surveyed  the  field  of  battle.  flows  into  the  Arctic  Ocean  west  of  the  Lena. 

Amurath  II.,  or  Murad.  Born  about  1403:  Anabasis  (a-nab'a-sis).  [Gr.  dv(i|3amf,  a  going 
died  1451.  Sultan  of  Turkey  1421-51,  son  of  up,  an  expedition  mland.]  A  celebrated  account 
Mohammed  I.    He  unsuccessfully  besieged  Constan-    by  Xenophon,  in  seven  books,  of  the  campaign 


tinople  in  1423,  carried  on  war  against  the  Hungarians 
under  Hunyady  and  the  Albanians  under  Scanderbeg,  de- 
feated the  Hungarians  at  Varna  in  1444  and  Koasova  in 
1448,  and  subdued  the  Morea  in  1446. 

Amurath  III.,  or  Murad.  Born  1546:  died 
1595.  Sultan  of  Turkey  1574-95,  son  of  Selim 
H.  He  continued  the  war  against  Austria  with  varying 
success,  and  took  Luristan.  Georgia,  Shirvan,  Tabriz,  and 
part  of  Azerbaijan  from  Persia  in  1590. 

Amurath  Iv.,  or  Murad.  Bom  about  I6il: 
died  1640.  Sultan  of  Turkey  1623-40.  He  cap- 
tured Bagdad  from  the  Persians  in  1638. 

Amurath  V.,  or  Murad.  Born  1840.  Sultan 
of  Turkey  May  to  Aug.,  1876,  nephew  of  Ab- 
dnl-Aziz.    He  was  dethroned  Aug.  31,  1876. 

Amussat  (a-mu-sa'),  Jean  Zul6ma.  Born  at 
St.  Maixent,  Deux-S&vres,  France,  Nov.  21, 
1796:  died  May  14,  1856.  A  French  surgeon 
and  surgical  writer,  author  of  "Torsion  des 
artferes"  (1829),  etc.  He  invented  a  probe 
used  in  lithotrity. 

Amyas  Leigh,  Sir.     See  Leigh. 

Amyclse  (a-mi'kle).  [Gr.  'A/im^c.']  In  ancient 
geography,  a  town  in  Laconia,  Greece,  3  miles 
souQi  of  Sparta,  the  legendary  seat  of  Tynda- 
rens.  It  long  retained  its  Acbeean  population.  Accord- 
ing to  a  tradition  the  inhabitants  of  Amyclte  had  been  so 
often  alarmed  by  false  reports  of  the  hostile  approach 
of  the  Spartans  that  all  mention  of  the  subject  was  for- 
bidden :  hence  when  they  did  come  no  one  dared  to  an- 
nounce the  fact,  and  the  town  was  captured.  "Amyolsean 
silence  "  thus  passed  into  a  proverb. 

Amymone  (am-i-mo'ne).  [Gr.  'Anv/i6ir)i.']  In 
Greek  legend,  a  daughter  of  Danaus. 

Amynta  (a-min'ta).  A  character  in  D'Urf^'s 
romance  "Astrea." 

Am3nitas  (a-min'tas)  I.  [Gr.  'A/ivvrag.']  Died 
about  498  b.  c.    King  of  Macedonia,  son  of  Al 


cetas,  and  fifth  in  descent  from  Perdiccas,  the 

founder  of  the  dynasty.  He  presented  earth  and  Anacaona  (a-na-ka'6-na) 
water  in  submission  to  Megabazus,  whom  Darius  on  the  meaning '  golden  flower. '  ] 
return  from  his  Scythian  expedition,  had  left  at  the  head       '   '  "        -      -  . 

of  80,000  men  in  Europe. 

Amyntas  II.  King  of  Macedonia  394r-370  B.C., 
nephew  of  Perdiccas  H.  He  succeeded  his  father 
in  tipper  Macedonia ;  obtained  the  crown  of  Macedonia 
proper  in  394  by  the  murder  of  Pausanias,  son  of  the 
usurper  Aeropus ;  was  driven  from  Macedonia  by  Argfeus, 
the  eon  of  Pausanias,  supported  by  Bardylis,  an  Illyrian 


of  Cyrus  the  Younger  against  Artaxerxes  II. 
of  Persia,  and  the  retreat  of  the  10,000  Greeks, 
401-399  B.  c,  after  the  death  of  Cyrus  at  Cuuaxa. 
See  Gyrus. 

The  title  means  "a  march  up  (from  the  coast)"  into  the 
interior,  tod  properly  applies  only  to  the  first  part,  as  far 
as  the  battle  at  Cunaxa.  .  .  .  Cyrus  was  kUIed  (Sept.,  401). 
The  remaining  and  larger  part  of  the  work  ought  rather 
to  be  called  catabasis,  the  march  down  to  the  sea.  Soon 
after  the  death  of  Cyrus,  the  Persian  satrap  Tisaphernes 
treacherously  seized  five  of  the  Greek  generals.  The 
Greeks  were  now  in  terrible  danger.  That  night  Xeno- 
phon— who  had  not  hitherto  been  either  an  officer  or  a 
private  soldier,  but  simply  an  "unattached  "  volunteer, 
.  .  .  awoke  the  surviving  leaders,  and  in  a  midnight  coun- 
cil of  war  gave  them  heart,  by  his  plain  earnest  eloquence, 
to  take  measures  for  the  common  safety.  Next  day, 
formed  in  a  hollow  square  with  the  baggage  in  the  center, 
they  began  the  retreat.  Moving  along  the  Tigris,  past 
the  site  of  the  ancient  Nineveh  and  the  modern  Mossul, 
they  came  into  the  country  of  the  Carduchi,  or  Kurds,  who, 
like  modem  Kurds,  rolled  down  stones  on  them  from  the 
top  of  their  mountain-passes ;  then  through  Armenia  and 
Georgia.  At  last  one  day— inthefifth  month— Feb.,  400 
B.  0. — Xenophon,  who  was  with  the  rear  guard,  heard  a 
great  shouting  among  the  men  who  had  reached  the  top 
of  a  hill  in  front.  He  thought  they  saw  an  enemy.  He 
mounted  his  horse,  and  gaUoped  forward  with  some  cav- 
alry. As  they  came  nearer,  they  could  make  out  the 
shout:  ltwas"rA«sea.'  thesea!"  There,  far  off,  was  the 
silver  gleam  of  the  Euxine.  After  the  long,  intense  strain 
of  toil  and  danger,  the  men  burst  into  tears :  like  true 
Greek  children  of  the  sea  they  knew  now  that  they  were 
in  sight  of  home.  Two  days'  march  brought  them  to  the 
coast  at  Trapezus,  a  Greek  city,  the  modem  Trebizond ; 
there  they  sacrificed  to  the  gods,  especially  to  Zeus  the  Pre- 
server and  Heracles  the  Guide.      Jebb,  Greek  Lit.,  p.  110. 

Anabasis  of  Alexander  the  Great.  An  im- 
portant historical  work  by  Arrian,  in  seven 
books,  all  of  which,  with  the  exception  of  a  few 
pages,  has  survived.  It  begins  with  the  acces- 
sion of  Alexander,  and  describes  his  campaigns 
and  victories 

[A  Haitian  name 
Ajj  Indian  princess, 
sister  ol  Behechio  and  wife  of  Caonabo,  ca- 
ciques of  Haiti  when  it  was  discovered  by  Co- 
lumbus (1492).  After  the  capture  and  death  of  Caonabo 
she  counseled  submission  to  the  Spaniards,  and  herself 
received  Bartholomew  Columbus  with  great  hospitality 
She  succeeded  her  brother  Behechio  as  ruler  of 


his  tribe,  and  friendly  relations  with  the  whites  continued 
until  1503 :  in  that  year  she  entertained  Ovando  and  his 


Anakim 

forces,  but  in  the  midst  of  a  festival  in  their  honor  they 
attacked  her  village,  massacred  a  great  number  of  Indians, 
and  carried  her  to  Santo  Domingo,  where  she  was  hanged, 

Anacapri  (a-na-ka'pre).  1.  The  western  part 
of  the  island  of  Capri,  Italy. —  2.  A  small  town 
on  the  island  of  Capri. 

Anacharsis  (an-a-kar'sis).  [Gr.  'Avdxapatc.']  A 
Scythian  prince,'  brother  of  Saulius,  king  of 
Thrace,  a  contemporary  of  Solon.  He  visited 
Athens  where  he  obtained  a  great  reputation  for  wisdom. 
On  returning  to  Thrace  he  was  slain  by  his  brother.  By 
some  he  was  reckoned  among  the  seven  sages. 

Anacharsis  Clootz.    See  Cloots:. 

Anacletus  (an-a-kle'tus),or  Oletus  (?),  I.,  Saint. 
Died  91  (?)  a.  d.  Bishop  of  Rome,  said  by 
some  to  have  been  elected  83  a.  d. 

Anacletus  II.  Antipope  in  opposition  to  In- 
nocent II.,  1130-38. 

Anaconda  (an-a-kon'da).  A  city,  the  capital 
of  Deerlodge  County,  Montana.  Population 
(1900),  9,453.  ^ 

.Anacreon  (a-nak're-on).  [Gr.  'AvaKpiav.'i  Born 
in  Teos  about  563  b.  c:  died  about  478  b.  c.  A 
famous  Greek  lyric  poet  who  sang  chiefly  the 
praises  of  love  and  wine.  He  was  driven  with  his 
townspeople,  by  Harpagus,  from  Teos  to  Abdera ;  thence 
he  went  to  the  court  of  Polycrates  in  Samos,  and  later  to 
Athens.  "  He  was  the  courtier  and  laureate  of  tyrants. 
He  won  his  first  fame  with  Polycrates,  at  whose  death 
Hipparchus  fetched  him  to  Athens  in  a  trireme  of  fifty 
oars.  Between  Bacchus  and  Venus  he  spent  his  days  in 
palaces ;  and  died  at  the  ripe  age  of  eighty-five  at  Teos, 
choked,  it  is  reported,  by  a  grape-stone  —  a  hoary-headed 
rou6."  Symonds,  Studies  of  the  Greek  Poets,  I.  318. 

The  great  body  of  his  fragments,  and  the  numerous  cop- 
ies of  his  poems,  speak  of  love  as  an  engi'ossing  amuse- 
ment, of  feasting  as  spoilt  by  earnest  conversation,  nay 
evenof  old  age  with  a  sort  of  jovial  regret.  .  .  .  Hispoetry 
is  no  longer  the  outburst  of  pent-up  passion,  but  the  ex- 
ercise of  a  graceful  talent,  the  ornament  of  a  luxurious 
leisure.         Mahaffy,  Hist,  of  Classical  Greek  Lit.,  I.  197. 

-Anacreon.  An  opera  in  two  acts  by  Cheru- 
bini,  words  by  Mendouze,  produced  in  Paris 
Oct.  4,  1803. 

Anacreon  of  the  Guillotine.  A  nickname  of 
Bar^re  de  Vieuzac. 

Anacreon  Moore.  A  nickname  of  Thomas 
Moore. 

Anacreon  of  Persia.  A  surname  given  to  Hafiz. 

Anadarco,  Anadarko.    See  Nadaaku. 

Anadoli.    See  Anatolia. 

-Anadyomene  (an"a-di-om'e-ne).  [Gr.  'AvaSvo- 
jikvq,  rising  (from  the  sea).]  A  surname  of 
Aphrodite,  in  allusion  to  her  origin  from  the  sea. 

Anadyr,  or  Anadir  (an-a-der').  A  river  in 
eastern  Siberia,  which  flows  into  the  Gulf  of 
Anadyr  about  lat.  65°  N.  Its  length  is  about 
•450  miles. 

Anadyr,  Gulf  of.  An  arm  of  Bering  Sea,  east 
of  Siberia. 

-Aaagni  (a-nan'ye).  A  town  in  the  province  of 
Rome,  Italy,  36  miles  southeast  of  Kome:  the 
ancient  Anagnia,  capital  of  the  Hemici.  it 
has  a  cathedral  and  lias  often  been  the  residence  of  the 
popes.    Population,  about  8,000. 

Anahuac  (a-na'wak).  [Nahuatl,  signifying 
'within  the  water.']  A  name  originally  used  to 
designate  the  low  water-bordered  coastal  lands 
(tierras  calientes)  of  Mexico,  and  now  gener- 
ally applied  to  the  greater  part  of  the  central 
table-land,  or  to  that  portion  of  it,  in  the  region 
of  the  City  of  Mexico,  which  holds  the  valley 
lakes  (Texeoco,  Chalco,  etc.),  and  extends  east- 
ward to  the  mountain  wall  of  Popocatepetl  and 
Ixtaceihuatl.  Anahuac  has  been  stated  to  be  the  name 
for  the  supposed  Indian  "empire "  of  the  Mexicans  at  the 
time  of  the  Spanish  conquest.  This  is,  however,  an  error, 
as  there  was  no  empire,  but  only  a  confederacy  of  warlike 
tribes.  The  name  has,  therefore,  no  political,  hardly  even 
a  definite  geographical,  significance. 

Anaides  (a-na'dez).  [Gr.  a.vai6fiQ,  shameless.] 
In  Ben  Jonson's  "(Cynthia's  Revels,"  a  fashion- 
able ruffler  and  impudent  ruffian.  Thomas  Dekker 
imagined  that  in  this  character  he  was  caricatured.  Others, 
however,  think  Marston  was  intended. 

Anaitis  (a-ni'tis),  Anait  (a-nif).  A  Syrian 
goddess  whose  worship  was  introduced  into 
Greek  mythology.  She  was  variously  identified  with 
Artemis,  Aphrodite,  Cybele,  etc.  In  Egyptian  mythology 
she  appeared  under  the  name  Anta,  Antha. 

-AJaak  (a'nak).  [Heb.,  'long-necked,'  i.  e. 
'giant.']  In  the  Old  Testament,  the  progenitor 
of  a  tribe  or  race  of  giants,  the  Anakim  (which 
see),  or  a  collective  name  for  this  tribe  itself. 

Anakim  (an'a-kim).  In  the  Old  Testament, 
the  sons  of  Anak,  a  race  of  giants  dwelling  in 
southern  Palestine. 

People  saw  survivors  of  the  ancient  indigenous  popula- 
tions, anterior  to  the  Canaanites  (Emim,  Zomzommin, 
Anakim),  in  individuals  of  lofty  stature  whom  they  be- 
lieved were  to  be  found  in  certain  particular  places.  But 
popular  imagination  revels  in  giants ;  it  willingly  creates 
them.  These  Anakim  were  surrounded  by  legends ;  they 
sometimes  called  them  refaim  (the  dead,  the  giants,  the 
phantoms,  the  heroes) ;  a  plain  to  the  southwest  of  Jeru- 


Anakim 

salem  bore  their  name,  and  they  were  confounded  with 
the  Titanic  races  buried  under  the  sea. 

Bettan,  Hist,  of  the  People  of  Israel  (trans.),  L  ML 

Anam.    See  Annam. 

Anambas  Islands  (a-nam'bas  i'landz).  A 
group  of  small  islands  east  of  the  Malay  Penin- 
sula and  west  of  Borneo. 

Anammelecll  ( a-uam'e-lek).  [Babylonian  Anu- 
vialik,  Anu  the  counselor.]  A  divinity  of  the 
Babylonian  Sepharvites,  whose  worship  they 
continued  to  practise  in  Samaria  (2  Ki.  xvii.  31). 
Anu  was  the  god  of  heaven,  and  stood  at  the  head  of  the 
Babylonian  pantheon. 

Anandagiri  ( a-nan-da-ge 're ) .  A  f olio wer  of  San- 
kara.  He  lived  about  the  loth  century  and  wrote  a 
SankaravijayaC  triumph  of  Sanlfara'),  in  which  are  related 
at  length  the  polemics  of  the  master  against  forty-eight 
different  sects.  It  is  an  apocryphal  romance  of  no  historic 
worth. 

Anandalahari  (a-nan-da-la'ha-re).  [Skt., 'the 
wave  of  joy.']  A  poem  ascribed  to  Sankara.  It 
is  a  hymn  of  praise  to  Parvati,  wife  of  Siva,  mia- 
gled  with  mystical  doctrine. 

Ananias  (au-a-ni'as).  [Gr.  'Avaviag,  Heb.  Hana- 
nidh.']  A  Jewish'  Christian  of  Jerusalem  who 
with  his  wife  Sapphira  was  struck  dead  for  fraud 
and  lying.    Acts  v. 

Ananias.  A  Jewish  Christian  of  Damascus,  a 
friend  of  Paul. 

Ananias.  A  Jewish  high  priest  48-59  A.  D., 
before  whom  St.  Paul  was  tried. 

Ananias.  In  Ben  Jonson's  comedy  "  The  Al- 
chemist," a  hypocritical  puritan  deacon  of 
Amsterdam. 

Ananieff  (a-nan'yef).  A  town  in  the  govern- 
ment of  Kherson,  Russia,  in  lat.  47°  47'  N., 
long.  29°  57'  E.    Population,  13,312. 

Ananus  (an'a-nus).  High  priest  of  the  Jews, 
the  son  of  Seth.  He  was  appointed  by  Cyrenius  and 
removed  by  Valerian,  and  is  apparently  the  Annas  men- 
tioned in  the  gospels. 

Ananus,  High  priest  of  the  Jews,  son  of  the 
preceding.  He  held  office  for  three  months  in  62 
A.  D. ,  and  was  removed  by  King  Agrippa  at  the  demand  of 
the  Pharisees  because  of  his  attempt  to  revive  Sadducee- 
ism,  and  was  put  to  death  67  A.  n.  by  the' Zealots. 

Anapa  (a-na'pa).  A  seaport  and  naval  station 
in  the  Black  bea  district,  Caucasus,  Russia,  on 
the  Black  Sea  in  lat.  44°  55'  N.,  long.  37°  20' 
E.     Population  (1889),  10,614. 

Anaphi  (a-na'fe).  An  island  of  the  Cyclades, 
Greece,  lat.  36°  21'  N.,  long.  25°  48'  E.,  east 
of  Santorin :  the  ancient  Anaphe.  Length,  7 
miles. 

Anaciuito  (a-na-ke'to).  A  plain  about  a  mile 
from  Quito,  Ecuador,  where  the  army  of  Gon- 
zalo  Pizarro  defeated  that  of  the  viceroy  Vas- 
co  Nunez  Vela  aided  by  Benaleazar,  Jan.  18, 
1546.  Vela  was  killed,  and  Benaleazar  severely 
wounded. 

Anargha  BaghaTa  (a-nar'gha  ra'gha-va).  A 
drama  of  the  13th  or  14th  century  by  Murari 
Misra,  of  which  Raghava  or  Rama  is  the  hero. 

Anarkali  (an-ar'ka-li).  An  important  suburb 
of  Lahore,  British  India. 

Anasco  (an-yas'ko),  Pedro  de.  Bom  at  Lima, 
1550:  died  at  Tucuman,  April  12, 1605.  A  Pe- 
ruvian Jesuit.  He  left  several  works  on  the 
language  of  the  Indians  among  whom  he  had 
labored. 

Anasitch  (a-na-sieh').  A  tribe  of  the  Kusan 
stock  of  North  American  Indians.  It  formerly 
had  a  village  on  the  south  side  of  Coos  Bay,  Oregon.  The 
survivors  are  on  the  Siletz  reservation,  Oregon.  See 
Eusan. 

Anastasia  (an-as-ta'shi-a).  Saint.  1.  A  Chris- 
tian martyr  slain  during  the  reign  of  Nero  (54- 
68  A.  D.).  Sheissaidtohavebeenapupilof  St.  Peter  and 
St.  Paul.  Her  martyrdom  is  commemorated  on  April  15. 
2.  A  Christian  martyr  who  perished  in  the 
persecution  by  Diocletian  303  (f)  A.  D.  The  date 
of  her  commemoration  in  the  Latin  Church  is 
Dee.  25,  in  the  Greek  Dec.  22.-3.  Died  597. 
A  Greek  saint  who  lived  in  Alexandria  disguised 
as  a  monk  for  28  years. 

Anastasian  Law.  A  law  of  the  emperor  Anas- 
tasius  I.  (506),  directed  against  usurers. 

Anastasius  (an-as-ta'shi-us)  I,,  Saint.  [Gr. 
'AvaaT&aiog.']  Bishop  of  Rome  398-402.  He  con- 
demned the  writings  of  Origen,  and  excommunicated  Ru- 
flnus,  the  antagonist  of  Jerome  and  advocate  of  Origen, 
although  he  is  said  to  have  acknowledged  that  he  did  not 
understand  the  controversy. 

Anastasius  II.  Pope  496-498.  He  endeavored  to 
put  an  end  to  the  schism  between  the  sees  of  Constanti- 
nople and  Rome  arising  from  the  dispute  concerning 
precedence,  and  wrote  a  letter  of  congratulation  to  Clovis, 
king  of  the  ITranks,  on  his  conversion  to  Christianity. 

Anastasius  III.    Pope  911-913. 

Anastasius  IV.  (Conrad).  Pope  1153-54.  His 


54 

administration  was  disturbed  by  the  movements 
of  Arnold  of  Brescia  and  his  followers. 
Anastasius  I.,  sumamed  Dicorus.  Bom  at 
Dyrrachium  about  430:  died  518.  Byzantine 
emperor  491-518.  He  was  raised  to  the  throne  by  an  in- 
trigue with  the  empress  Ariadne  whom  he  married  after 
the  death  of  the  emperor  Zeno,  her  husband,  without 
male  issue.  As  a  Eutychian  he  opposed  the  orthodox 
who  rose  in  arms  under  Vitalianus  but  were  bought  off  by 
the  faithless  promise  of  a  general  council. 

Anastasius  II.  (Artemius).  Byzantine  em- 
peror 713-716.  He  was  deposed  by  the  fleet  which  he 
had  sent  to  the  coast  of  Syria  to  destroy  the  naval  stores 
of  the  Arabs,  but  which  was  repulsed,  mutinied  under  its 
commander  John,  and  proclaimed  Theodosius  III.  em- 
peror. He  was  put  to  death  in  721  (719  7)  by  leo  in.  for 
conspiring  against  the  throne. 

Anastasius.  Died  753.  Patriarch  of  Constan- 
tinople 703(728  ?)-753.  He  was  elected  by  the  in- 
fluence of  the  emperor  Leo  Isaurus,  and  favored  the 
Iconoclasts,  for  which  he  was  excommunicated  by  Pope 
Gregory  III. 

Anastasius,  surnamed  Bibliothecarius  ('The 
Librarian').  Died  886.  Librarian  of  the  Vati- 
can and  abbot  of  Sta.  Maria  Trans-Tiberim  at 
Rome.  He  was  sent  to  Constantinople  to  arrange  a 
m.-trriage  between  the  daughter  of  Louis  II.  and  a  son  of 
Basil  of  Macedonia  in  869,  and  while  there  assisted  the 
papal  ambassador  in  attendance  at  the  eighth  ecumenical 
council  by  his  knowledge  of  Greek.  His  fame  rests  upon 
his  numerous  translations  from  the  Greek  and  his  sup- 
posed connection  with  the  "Liber  Pontiflcalis"  (which  see). 

Anastasius  Griin.    See  Auersperg. 

Anasuya  (a-na-s6'ya).  [Skt.,  'charity.']  In 
Hindu  mythology  and  drama :  (a)  The  wife  of  the 
Rishi  Atri,  very  pious  and  austere,  and  pos- 
sessed of  miraculous  powers.  When  Sita  visited 
Atri  and  herself  at  their  hermitage  in  the  forest  south  of 
Chitrakuta,  she  gave  Sita  an  ointment  with  which  to  keep 
herself  beautifulforever.  (6)  A  friend  of  Shakuntala. 

Anathoth  (an'a-thoth).  In  biblical  geography, 
a  city  of  Benjainiii  in  Palestine,  the  birthplace 
of  Jeremiah.  The  traditional  site  is  Kenyet  el-'Enat, 
about  10  miles  northwest  of  Jerusalem  ;  but  the  true  site 
is  probably  'Anata,  about  3  miles  northeast  of  that  city. 

Anatolia  (an-a-to'li-a).  [Turk.  AnadoU,  NGr. 
'AvaToX?/,  eastern  land.]  A  large  region  of  Asi- 
atic Turkey,  nearly  identical  with  Asia  Minor. 
There  was  a  theme  (province)  of  Anatolia  in  the  Byzan- 
tine empire  situated  in  the  interior  of  Asia  Minor. 

Anatomy  of  Abuses,  The.  A  work  by  Philip- 
Stubbes,  published  in  1583  in  two  parts.  It  is 
a  curious  account  of  the  social  customs  of  the 
time. 

Anatomy  of  Melancholy,  The.  A  famous 
work  by  Robert  Burton  (1577-1640),  published 
in  1621,  under  the  pseudonym  "Demooritus 
Junior,"  and  frequently  republished  and 
abridged.  The  sixth  edition  is  the  last  which  contains 
changes  by  the  author:  it  was  published  shortly  after  his 
death  from  an  annotated  copy.  The  work  is  the  result 
of  many  years  of  humorous  study  of  men  and  of  books, 
and  abounds  in  quotations  from  authors  of  all  ages  and 
countries.  It  is  divided  into  three  parts  which  treat  (1) 
of  the  causes  and  symptoms  of  melancholy,  (2)  of  its  cure, 
and  (3)  of  erotic  and  religious  melancholy. 

Its  literary  history  is  rather  curious.  Eight  editions  of 
it  appeared  in  half  a  century  from  the  date  of  the  first, 
and  then,  with  other  books  of  its  time,  it  dropped  out  of 
notice  except  by  the  learned.  Early  in  the  present  cen- 
tury it  was  revived  and  reprinted  with  certain  modern- 
isations, and  four  or  five  editions  succeeded  each  oilier 
at  no  long  interval.  The  copies  thus  circulated  seem  to 
have  satisfied  the  demand  for  many  years,  and  have  been 
followed  without  alteration  in  a  finely-printed  issue  of  re- 
cent date.      Saintshury,  Hist,  of  Elizabethan  Lit.,  p.  429. 

AnazagOras  (an-aks-ag'o-ras).  [Gr.  'Ava^ay6- 
paf.]  Bom  at  (JLazomense,"  Ionia,  about  500 
B.  c. :  died  at  Lampsacus,  Mysia,  about  428 
B.C.  A  Greek  philosopher,  for  a  long  time  resi- 
dent in  Athens  where  he  became  the  friend  and 
teacher  of  Pericles,  Thucydides,  and  Euripides, 
and  whence  he  was  banished  on  a  charge  of 
impiety.  He  is  reckoned  as  a  disciple  of  Anaximander 
and  is  famous  as  the  flrstof  the  old  Greek  natural  philoso- 
phers to  introduce  intelligence  or  reason  (i/oOs)  as  a  met- 
aphysical principle  in  the  explanation  of  the  world.  He 
regarded  it  not  as  creative  but  as  regulative,  as  that  which 
brought  order  out  of  the  original  chaos.  Fragments  of 
his  writings  have  been  preserved. 

Anaxarchus  (an-aks-ar'kus).  [Gr.  'Ava^apxog.J 
A  Greek  philosopher  of  Abdera,  a  disciple  of 
Demoeritus,  who  flourished  about  350  B.  c.  He 
attended  Alexander  in  his  Asiatic  campaigns,  and  is  said 
to  have  consoled  the  king  after  the  murder  of  Cleitus  by 
maintaining  that  a  king  can  do  no  wrong. 

Anaxarete  (an-aks-ar'e-te).  [Gr.  'Ava^aperr/.'] 
In  Greek  legend,  a  maiden  of  Cyprus  whose 
lover  Iphis  in  despair  hung  himself  at  her  door. 
For  her  indifference  Venus  changed  her  into  a  stone 
statue.    The  story  is  also  told  with  changed  names. 

Anaxilaus  (an-aks-i-la'us).  [Gr.  'Ava^lXaog.'] 
A  Pythagorean  philosopher  and  physician  of 
the  1st  century  b.  c,  banished  as  a  magician 
from  Italy  by  Augustus  28  b.  c. 

Anaxilaus,  or  Anaxilas  (an-aks'i-las).  Died 
476  B.  c.    Tyrant  of  Rhegium  about  494  b.  c. 


Ancillon,  David 

Anaximander  (an-aks-i-man'd6r).  [Gr.  'Ava^U 
fiavdpog.']  Bom  at  Miletus  about  611  b.  c: 
died  about  547  B.C.  A  Greek  physical  philoso- 
pher (the  second  of  the  loman  school)  and 
mathematician,  a  friend  and  pupU  of  Thales. 
He  taught  that  the  principle  (ipx^,  a  word  which  he  first 
used  in  this  sense)  of  things  is  a  substance  of  indetermi- 
nate quality  and  limitless  quantity  (oireipov),  "  immortal 
and  imperishable,"  out  of  which  all  things  aiise  and  to 
which  tul  return.  This  substance,  according  to  some  ac- 
counts, he  regarded  as  having  a  nature  intermediate  be- 
tween that  of  water  and  air.  He  was  probably  the  author 
of  the  first  philosophical  treatise  in  Greek  prose. 

Anaximenes  (an-aks-im'e-nez).  [Gr.  'Ava^t/ii- 
v»?f.]  Born  at  Miletus :  lived  in  the  6th  centmy 
B.  c.  A  Greek  philosopher,  the  third  of  the 
Ionian  school,  a  contemporary  and  friend  of 
Thales  and  Anaximander,  and  usually  reckoned 
as  a  disciple  of  the  latter.  He  regarded  air  as 
the  principle  (apx^)  of  things. 

Anaximenes.  Bom  at  Lampsacus :  lived  in  the 
4th  century  B.  c.  A  Greek  rhetorician,  histo- 
rian, and  companion  of  Alexander  the  Great: 
the  probable  author  of  an  extant  treatise  on 
rhetoric  {'Fip-optK^irpog  'AM$av6pov),  the  only  ex- 
isting work  on  the  subject  prior  to  Aristotle. 

Anaya  (a-na'ya),  Pedro  Maria.  Bom  at  Hui- 
ehai)an,  1795 :  died  at  Mexico,  March  21, 1854.  A 
Mexican  general.  He  joined  the  Spanish  army  as  a 
cadet  in  1811,  foUowed  the  defection  of  Iturbide  in  1821,  and 
was  a  captain  under  Filisola  in  Nicaragua,  1823.  In  183S  he 
became  brigadier-general.  Adhering  to  the  federalist  party, 
he  was  forced  to  leave  the  country.  He  invaded  Tabasco  in 
Nov.,  1840,  with  federalist  forces  from  Texas  and  Yucatan, 
but  was  defeated  at  Cometaji,  May  15, 1841,  and  fled  to 
Yucatan.  Under Herrera(lS45)hewa3ministerof war.  He 
adhered  to  Santa  Anna,  and  while  the  latter  was  resisting 
the  advance  of  Scott,  was  acting  president  April  2  to  May 
20, 1847.  He  commanded  the  Mexican  force  of  800  men 
which  defended  the  convent  of  Churubusco,  and  only  sur- 
rendered after  his  ammunition  was  exhausted  (Aug.  20, 
1847).  In  1852  he  was  secretary  of  war  under  Arista,  served 
three  days  in  the  administration  of  Ceballos,  and  on  Santa 
Anna's  restoration  (1853)  was  made  postmaster-general,  a 
position  which  he  held  until  his  death. 

Ancachs  (an-kaehs').  A  maritime  department 
of  Peru,  north  of  Lima,  corresponding  to  the 
colonial  intendencia  of  Huaylas. 

Ancaeus  (an-se'us).  [Gr.  'AyKoioc']  In  Greek 
classical  legend:  (a)  A  son  of  Poseidon.  He  was 
told  by  a  seer  that  he  would  not  live  to  enjoy  the  wine 
from  a  vineyard  which  he  had  planted.  He,  however, 
lived  to  have  wine  of  his  own  growth  and,  in  scorn  of  the 
prophet,  raised  a  cup  of  it  to  his  mouth.  The  seer  re- 
plied, "There  is  many  a  slip  between  the  cup  and  the  lip," 
and  at  the  same  instant  a  tumult  arose  over  a  wild  boar 
in  the  vineyard.  AncEeus  put  down  the  cup,  and  was 
killed  in  an  attempt  to  destroy  the  animaL  (&)  _A.  son 
of  the  Arcadian  Lyeurgus,  and  one  of  the  Argo- 
nauts.   He  was  killed  in  the  Calydonian  hunt. 

Ancelot  (ons-l6'),  JacoLues  Arsene  Frangois 
Folycarpe.  Bom  at  Havre,  Prance,  Feb.  9, 
1794:  died  at  Paris,  Sept.  7,  1854.  A  French 
dramatist,  elected  a  member  of  the  Academy 
in  1841.  He  was  the  author  of  "Louis  IX."  (1819)i  "Le 
mau;e  dtt  palais  "  (1823),  "  Fiesque  "  (1824),  "  Olga  "  (1828), 
"Elizabeth  d'Angleterre "  (1829),  "Marie  de  Brabant" 
(1825),  "Epltres  familiferes,"  etc. 

Ancelot,  Mme.  (Marguerite  Louise  Virginie 
Chardon).  Bom  at  Dijon,  France,  March  15, 
1792 :  died  at  Paris,  March  21, 1875.  A  French 
dramatist  and  novelist,  wife  of  J.  A.  Ancelot. 
Her  "Theatre  complet"  (1848)  contains  twenty  plays,  of 
which  ."Marie  ou  trois  6poques"  is  her  chief  work. 
Among  her  novels  the  most  popular  were  "  Ren^e  de  Var- 
ville"  (1863)  and  "La  ni^ce  du  banquier"  (1853). 

Ancsnis  (ou-se-ne').  A  town  in  the  depart- 
ment of  Loire-Inf6rieure,  France,  situated  on 
the  Loire  17  miles  northeast  of  Nantes.  Popu- 
lation (1891),  commune,  5,141. 

Anchieta  (an-shya'ta),  or  Anchietta,  3os6  de. 
Born  in  Teneriffe,  Canary  Islands,  1533:  died 
atBeritigbd,  Espirito  Santo,  June  9, 1597.  A  Jes- 
uit missionary,  called  the  "Apostle  of  Brazil." 
He  became  a  Jesuit  in  1551,  and  in  1568  was  sent  as  a  mis- 
sionary to  Brazil,  where  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his  life 
in  arduous  labors  and  travels,  often  among  savage  tribes 
of  Indians.  From  1678  to  1585  he  was  provincial  of  his 
order  in  Brazil.  Anchieta  wrote  an  Indian  grammar,  and 
various  letters  on  Brazil  which  have  been  published  in 
modem  times. 

Anchises(an-ki'sez).  IGT.'Ayxianc']  In  Greek 
legend,  a  prince  of  the  royal  house  of  Troy,  son 
of  Capys  and  father  (by  Aphrodite)  of  JEneas. 

Ancienne-Oomddie,  Eue  de  1'.  See  Mw  de 
VAncienne-Comidie. 

Ancient  Mariner,  The.  A  poem  by  Coleridge, 
published  in  the  "Lyrical  Ballads"  in  1798  as 
his  principal  contribution  to  the  book,  Words- 
worth writing  most  of  the  other  poems. 

Ancillon  (ou-sel-y6n'),  Charles.  Bom  at 
Metz,  July  28,  1659:  died  at  Berlin,  July  5, 
1715.  A  French  historian  and  litterateur,  a 
Protestant  refugee  in  Berlin :  son  of  David  An- 
cillon. 

Ancillon,  David.  Bom  at  Metz,  March  17, 1617: 


Ancillon,  David 

died  at  Berlin,  Sept.  3,  1692.  A  French  Prot- 
estant divine,  a  refugee  in  Germany  after  the 
revocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes. 

Ancillon,  Jean  Pierre  FrddSric.  Bom  at 
Berlin,  April  30,  1767:  died  April  19,  1837.  A 
Prussian  statesman  and  historian,  a  descen- 
dant of  Charles  AneUlon,  minister  of  foreign 
affairs  1832. 

Anckarstrom  (ang'kar-strfem),  Johan  Jakob. 
Bom  May  11, 1762 :  executed  at  Stockholm,  April 
27, 1792.  A  Swede  who  assassinated  Gustavus 
m., March  16,1792.  He  was  first  a  court  page,  and  then 
a  soldier,  leaving  the  army  in  1783  with  the  rank  of  captain. 
In  1790  he  was  arrested  and  imprisoned  for  seditious 
speech,  but  was  finally  set  free.  He  moved  to  Stockholm 
in  that  year,  and  formed  a  conspiracy  for  the  murder  of 
the  king,  which  was  effected  two  years  later.  See  Gus- 
tavus. 

AnckarswS,rd  (ang'kar-svard),  Karl  Hen- 
rik.  Count.  Bom  at  Swealjorg,  April  22, 1782 : 
died  at  Stockholm,  Jan.  25,  1865.  A  Swedish 
soldier  and  statesman.  He  joined  the  revolutionary 
party  in  1809,  but,  being  opposed  to  the  policy  of  Bema- 
dotte,  was  retired  from  the  army  (1813),  in  which  he  held 
the  post  of  colonel.  He  became  a  member  of  the  Kiksdag 
1817,  where  as  leader  of  the  opposition  he  distinguished 
himself  by  the  bitterness  of  his  attacks  on  the  government. 

Anclam.    See  AnMam. 

Ancona  (an-ko'na).  A  province  Ji  the  oom- 
partimento  of  the  Marches,  eastern  Italy.  Area, 
762  square  miles.    Population  (1891),  272,417. 

Ancona.  [L.  Ancona,  Gr.  'AyK&v,  from  ayK^v,  a 
hend,  angle :  in  allusion  to  its  situation  in  a  bend 
of  the  coast.]  A  seaport,  capital  of  the  province 
of  Ancona,  Italy,  situated  on  the  Adriatic  Sea  in 
lat.  43°  37'  N.,  long.  18°  31'  E.  it  is  the  chief  sea- 
port between  Venice  and  Brindisi,  a  railway  center,  a  na- 
val station,  and  the  terminus  or  port  of  call  of  several 
steamship  lines,  and  exports  grain,  hemp,  lamb-  and  goat- 
skins, silk,  etc.  It  contains  a  cathedr^  and  Eoman  an- 
tiquities (mole  and  arch  of  Trajan).  It  was  colonized  by 
Syracusans  about  390  B.  c,  became  a  Roman  naval  station, 
was  destroyed  by  the  Gothe  and  restored  by  Narses,  and 
was  again  destroyed  by  the  Saracens.  In  the  middle  ages 
it  was  a  republic.  It  was  annexed  to  the  Papal  States  in 
1632 ;  taken  from  the  French  by  the  Allies  in  1799 ;  taken  by 
the  French  in  1805,  but  restored  to  the  Papal  States  on  the 
fall  of  I^apoleon;  held  by  the  French  1832-38,  and  taken  by 
the  Austrians  from  the  revolutionists  in  1849.  The  Pap^ 
array  under  Lamoricifere  surrendered  at  Ancona  to  the 
Sardinians  in  1860.  The  cathedral  is  of  the  10th  century  ex- 
cept the  facade,  which  is  of  the  13th,  and  has  a  magnificent 
Pointed  recessed  doorway  covered  by  a  porch  whose  col- 
umns rest  on  couched  lions.  The  interior  has  10  -columns 
from  the  ancient  temple  of  Venus,  and  several  fine  tombs. 
The  ancient  dome  at  the  crossing  is  dodecagonal.  Popu- 
lation (1891),  estimated,  commune,  SS,000. 

Ancona.  A  medieval  march  (mark)  of  Italy, 
extending  from  Tronto  on  the  Adriatic  northr 
west  to  San  Marino,  and  west  to  the  Apennines. 
It  was  afterward  part  of  the  Papal  States,  and 
passed  with  them  to  the  kingdom  of  Italy. 

Ancre  (on'kr]),  Marqiuis  d',  Baron  de  Lus- 
signy  (Concino  Concini).  Assassinated  at 
Paris,  April  14, 1617.  A  Florentine  adventurer, 
marshal  and  chief  minister  of  France  at  the 
beginning  of  the  reign  of  Louis  XIII. 

Ancren  Biwle  (angk'ren  rol ;  MB.  pron.  angk'- 
renrii'le).  The  "  Kule  of  Anchoresses,"  a  work 
on  the  rules  and  duties  of  monastic  Ufe.  it  was 
written,  first  in  English  and  afterward  in  Latin,  for  a  soci- 
ety of  anchoresses  (three  in  number)  at  Tarente,  or  Tar- 
rant-Kaines(Kaineston  or  Kingston),  near  Crayford  Bridge 
in  Dorsetshire ;  and  is  ascribed  to  Simon  of  Ghent  (died 
1315),  bishop  of  Salisbury  in  1297.  Five  manuscripts  are 
extant.  It  was  edited  for  the  Camden  Society  by  the  Rev. 
James  Morton  in  1853. 

Ancrum  Moor  (an'kmm  mor),  Battle  of.  A 
victory  gained  1544,  about  5  miles  northwest 
of  Jedburgh,  Scotland,  by  the  Scots  under  the 
Earl  of  Angus  and  Scott  of  Bucoleugh  over  the 
English  under  Evers. 

Ancud  (an-koTH'),  or  San  Carlos  (san  kar'los). 
A  seaport,  capital  of  the  province  of  Chilol, 
Chile,  situated  on  the  island  of  Chilo^  in  lat. 
41°  52'  S.,  long.  73°  49'  W.  It  is  the  seat  of  a 
bishopric.    Population  (1885),  3,665. 

Ancus  Marcius  (ang'kus  mar'shius).  The 
fourth  king  of  Rome  (640-616  b.  c),  a  grand- 
son of  Numa  and  the  reputed  founder  of  Ostia, 
fortifier  of  the  Janiculum,  and  builder  of  a 
bridge  over  the  Tiber. 

Ancy-le-Franc  (on-se'le-fron') .  A  town  in  the 
department  of  Yonne,  France,  29  miles  east  of 
Auxerre.    It  has  a  noted  ch&teau. 

Ancyra  (an-si'ra).  [Gr.  "AyKvpa,  associated  by 
legend  with  aynvpa,  anchor.]  An  ancient  town 
of  (Jalatia  (originally  of  Phrygia)  in  Asia  Minor, 
founded,  aocordingto  the  legends,  by  Midas,  son 
of  Gordius :  the  modern  Angora,  or  Bngaren,  or 
Engiiri.  it  became  the  chief  town  of  the  Tectosages,  a 
Gallic  tribe  which  settled  in  Galatia  about  277  B.  C,  and 
passed  into  the  possession  of  Rome  26  B.  0.,  when  it  re- 
ceived the  name  of  Sebaste  Tectosagum.  It  had  an  im- 
portant trade.  (See  Angora.)  The  temple  of  Augustus 
in  Ancyra  contained  a  famous  inscription  in  Latin  and 


55 

Greek  (Monumentum,  or  Marmor,  Ancyranum :  discovered 
in  1554),  a  transcript  of  the  record  of  his  deeds  which  Au- 

gustus  ordered  in  his  will  to  be  cut  on  bronze  tablets  for 
is  mausoleum.  An  ecclesiastical  council  was  held  here 
about  314,  which  passed  twenty-five  canons  relating  chiefly 
to  the  treatment  of  those  who  had  betrayed  their  faith  or 
delivered  up  the  sacred  books  during  the  Diocletian  per- 
secution. 

Ancyrean  (an-si-re'an)  inscription.    See  An- 
cyra. 
Andagoya  (an-da-go'ya),  Pascual  de.  Bom  in 

the  province  of  Alava  about  1495:  died  at 
Manta.  Peru,  June  18, 1548.  A  Spanish  soldier. 
He  went  with  Pedrarias  to  Darien  (1614),  and  was  engaged 
in  many  explorations.  In  1522  he  was  appointed  inspec- 
tor-general of  the  Indians,  and  about  the  same  time  made 
an  expedition  southward  into  a  province  called  Birii,  be- 
tween the  river  Atrato  and  the  Pacific.  Here  he  had  the 
first  tidings  of  the  Inca  empire.  In  1540  he  went  as  gov- 
ernor to  a  province  called  New  Castile,  on  the  Pacific  side 
of  New  Grenada,  but  became  involved  in  a  boundary  quar- 
rel with  Sebastian  de  Benalcazar,  was  imprisoned,  and  lost 
his  government.  Andagoya  wrote  an  account  of  his  trav- 
els, which  is  one  of  the  most  important  historical  authori- 
ties for  that  period. 

Andalucia,  Nueva,    See  Nueva  Anddluda. 

Andalusia  (an-da-lo'zi-a),  Sp.  Andalucia  (an- 
da-16-the'a).  [The  name  is  derived  from  that 
of  the  Vandals  (=  Yamdalusia).']  A  captaincy- 
general  in  southern  Spain,  comprising  the 
modem  provinces  Almeria,  Jaen,  Granada, 
Cordova,  Malaga,  Seville,  Cadiz,  and  Huelva. 
It  is  traversed  by  the  Sierra  Nevada  and  other  mountain- 
ranges,  and  belongs  in  large  part  to  the  basin  of  the  Gua- 
dalquivir. From  the  fertUity  of  its  soil  it  has  been  called 
the  "garden"  and  "granary"  of  Spain;  it  is  also  rich  in 
minerals.  It  was  a  part  of  the  Roman  Bsetica,  was  over- 
run by  the  Vandals  in  the  5th  century,  and  became  the  nu- 
cleus of  the  Moorish  power  and  their  last  stronghold 
against  the  Christians. 

Andaman  Islands  (an'da-man  i'landz),  or  An- 
damans  (an'da-manz)."  A' group  of  islands 
belonging  to  Great  Britain,  and  a  penal  colony 
since  1858,  situated  in  the  eastern  part  of  the 
Bay  of  Bengal  in  lat.  10°  80'-14°  N.,  long.  93° 
E.  It  comprises  the  Great  Andaman  group  and  the  Lit- 
tle Andaman  group.  The  chief  islands  are  North,  Middle, 
and  South  Andaman,  and  Rutland.  The  natives  number 
3,000  to  5,000.  Area,  1,760  square  miles.  Population  (1881), 
of  convicts,  11,738. 

Andaste.    See  Conestoga. 

Andechs  (an'deks).  A  village  ifi.  Upper  Ba- 
varia, situated  on  the  Ammersee  southwest  of 
Munich,  noted  for  its  castle,  later  a  monastery 
and  place  of  pilgrimage. 

Andeer  (an'dar).  A  village  near  the  southern 
end  of  the  Via  Mala,  canton  of  Grisons,  Switzer- 
land. 

Andelys  (on-dle'),  Les.  A  town  in  the  de- 
partment of  Eure,  France,  situated  on  the 
Seine  19  miles  southeast  of  Eouen,  consisting 
of  Grand-Andelys  and  Petit-Andelys.  It  has 
manufactures  of  cloth,  etc.,  and  contains  the  Chd,teau 
Gaillard  (which  see),  built  by  Richard  the  Lion-Hearted. 
Population  (1891),  commune,  6,040. 

Andenne  (on-den').  A  manufacturing  town  in 
the  province  of  Namur,  Belgium,  situated  on 
the  Meuse  10  miles  east  of  Namur.  Popula- 
tion (1890),  7,075. 

Anderab  (an-der-ab'),  or  Inderab  (in-der-ab'). 
A  town  in  Afghan  Turkestan,  situated  on  the 
river  Anderab  on  the  northern  slope  of  the 
Hindu-Kusb,  85  miles  northeast  of  Kabul. 
Population,  about  6,000. 

Anderida  (an-der'i-da).  A Eoman  encampment 
in  England,  generally  identified  with  Pevensey. 
In  491  it  was  destroyed  by  the  South  Saxons. 

Andermatt  (an'der-mat),  or  Ursern  (or'sem). 
[It.  Orsera.l  A  village  in  the  canton  of  Uri, 
Switzerland,  32  miles  southeast  of  Lucerne, 
situated  near  the  junction  of  the  St.  Gotthard 
route  with  the  Furka  Pass  route  (by  the  Ur- 
sem.valley)  and  the  Oberalp  route.  It  is  an  im- 
portant tourist  center.    Population,  about  700. 

Andernach  (an'der-nach).  A  town  in  the 
Rhine  P